Gut Pathogens
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Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Harry Pickering ◽  
John D. Hart ◽  
Sarah Burr ◽  
Richard Stabler ◽  
Ken Maleta ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is the primary strategy for global trachoma control efforts. Numerous studies have reported secondary effects of MDA with azithromycin, including reductions in childhood mortality, diarrhoeal disease and malaria. Most recently, the MORDOR clinical trial demonstrated that MDA led to an overall reduction in all-cause childhood mortality in targeted communities. There is however concern about the potential of increased antimicrobial resistance in treated communities. This study evaluated the impact of azithromycin MDA on the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of macrolide-resistant bacteria in communities within the MORDOR Malawi study, additionally profiling changes in the gut microbiome after treatment. For faecal metagenomics, 60 children were sampled prior to treatment and 122 children after four rounds of MDA, half receiving azithromycin and half placebo. Results The proportion of bacteria carrying macrolide resistance increased after azithromycin treatment. Diversity and global community structure of the gut was minimally impacted by treatment, however abundance of several species was altered by treatment. Notably, the putative human enteropathogen Escherichia albertii was more abundant after treatment. Conclusions MDA with azithromycin increased carriage of macrolide-resistant bacteria, but had limited impact on clinically relevant bacteria. However, increased abundance of enteropathogenic Escherichia species after treatment requires further, higher resolution investigation. Future studies should focus on the number of treatments and administration schedule to ensure clinical benefits continue to outweigh costs in antimicrobial resistance carriage. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT02047981. Registered January 29th 2014, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02047981


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Madita Brauer ◽  
Jennifer Herrmann ◽  
Daniela Zühlke ◽  
Rolf Müller ◽  
Katharina Riedel ◽  
...  

AbstractThe anaerobic, gastrointestinal pathogen Clostridioides difficile can cause severe forms of enterocolitis which is mainly mediated by the toxins it produces. The RNA polymerase inhibitor Fidaxomicin is the current gold standard for the therapy of C. difficile infections due to several beneficial features including its ability to suppress toxin synthesis in C. difficile. In contrast to the Rifamycins, Fidaxomicin binds to the RNA polymerase switch region, which is also the binding site for Myxopyronin B. Here, serial broth dilution assays were performed to test the susceptibility of C. difficile and other anaerobes to Myxopyronin B, proving that the natural product is considerably active against C. difficile and that there is no cross-resistance between Fidaxomicin and Myxopyronin B in a Fidaxomicin-resistant C. difficile strain. Moreover, mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Myxopyronin B is able to suppress early phase toxin synthesis in C. difficile to the same degree as Fidaxomicin. Conclusively, Myxopyronin B is proposed as a new lead structure for the design of novel antibiotics for the therapy of C. difficile infections.


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohamed Abbas ◽  
Nadia Gaïa ◽  
Nicolas C. Buchs ◽  
Vaihere Delaune ◽  
Myriam Girard ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Colon surgery has been shown to modulate the intestinal microbiota. Our objective was to characterize these changes using state-of-the-art next generation sequencing techniques. Methods We performed a single-centre prospective observational cohort study to evaluate the changes in the gut microbiota, i.e., taxon distribution, before and after elective oncologic colon surgery in adult patients with different antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens (standard prophylaxis with cefuroxime/metronidazole versus carbapenems for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales [ESBL-E] carriers). We obtained rectal samples on the day of surgery, intraoperative luminal samples, and rectal or stoma samples 3 days after surgery. We performed metataxonomic analysis based on sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene marker. Similarities and differences between bacterial communities were assessed using Bray–Curtis similarity, visualised using principal coordinates analysis and statistically tested by PERMANOVA. Comparison of taxa relative abundance was performed using ANCOM. Results We included 27 patients between March 27, 2019 and September 17, 2019. The median age was 63.6 years (IQR 56.4–76.3) and 44% were females. Most (81%) patients received standard perioperative prophylaxis as they were not ESBL carriers. There was no significant association between ESBL carriage and differences in gut microbiome. We observed large and significant increases in the genus Enterococcus between the preoperative/intraoperative samples and the postoperative sample, mainly driven by Enterococcus faecalis. There were significant differences in the postoperative microbiome between patients who received standard prophylaxis and carbapenems, specifically in the family Erysipelotrichaceae. Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study showed rapid changes in the rectal microbiota following colon cancer surgery.


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jana Schreier ◽  
Daniela Karasova ◽  
Magdalena Crhanova ◽  
Ivan Rychlik ◽  
Silke Rautenschlein ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Enterococcus cecorum (EC) is one of the main reasons for skeletal disease in meat type chickens. Intervention strategies are still rare and focus mainly on early antibiotic treatment of the disease, although there are no data available concerning the effectivity of this procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the effectivity of early lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment during the first week of life after EC-infection. Furthermore, the impact of lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment and EC infection on the development of cecal microbiota was investigated. Methods A total of 383 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four groups (non-infected and non-treated, non-infected and treated, EC-infected and non-treated, and EC-infected and treated). The EC-infected groups were inoculated orally with an EC suspension at the day of arrival and at study day 3. The treatment groups were treated with lincomycin-spectinomycin via the drinking water for six consecutive days, starting two hours after the first inoculation. Necropsy of 20 chickens per group was performed at study days 7, 14, 21, and 42. Bacteriological examination via culture and real-time PCR was performed to detect EC in different extraintestinal organs. Cecal samples of nine chickens per group and necropsy day were analyzed to characterize the composition of the cecal microbiota. Results No clinical signs or pathologic lesions were found at necropsy, and EC was not detected in extraintestinal organs of the EC-infected and treated birds. Lincomycin-spectinomycin promoted the growth of the bacterial genus Escherichia/Shigella and reduced the amount of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus spp. in the ceca regardless of EC-infection. Unexpectedly, the highest abundances of the genus Enterococcus were found directly after ending antibiotic treatment in both treatment groups, suggesting the growth of resistant enterococcal species. EC was not detected among the most abundant members of the genus Enterococcus. Oral EC-infection at the first day of life did not influence the development of cecal microbiota in the present study. Conclusions Lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment during the first week of life can prevent the EC-associated disease in broiler type chickens and has a direct impact on the development of the cecal microbiota. The low abundance of EC in the ceca of infected chickens underlines the pathogenic nature of the disease-causing EC strains. Further research on alternative prevention and intervention strategies is needed with regard to current efforts on reducing the use of antibiotics in livestock animals.


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Seung-Min Yang ◽  
Eiseul Kim ◽  
Woojung Lee ◽  
Hae-Yeong Kim

Abstract Background Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund (S. Schwarzengrund) is most frequently isolated from commensals humans or poultry. Here we report S. Schwarzengrund strain S16, the first sequenced genome in the Republic of Korea. Additionally, genome sequencing for strain S16 was performed and compared with other S. Schwarzengrund genomes obtained from public database. Results Strain S16 was isolated from chicken feces. The complete genome consists of one chromosome and one plasmid. The genome size is 4,822,755 bp with 4852 coding sequences. Strain S16 was determined as serovar Schwarzengrund by in silico serotyping and typed as sequence type (ST) 96. Forty-six S. Schwarzengrund genomes yielded a pangenome of 7112 genes, core-genome of 3374 genes, accessory-genome of 2906 genes, and unique-genome of 835 genes. Eighty-one genes were unique to strain S16, including hypothetical proteins and transcriptional regulators. Genotypic analysis of antibiotic resistance of strain S16 confirmed resistance to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Unlike other S. Schwarzengrund genomes, strain S16 had a mutation of gyrB. Moreover, similar to other S. Schwarzengrund genomes reported in other countries, strain S16 was harbored for 153 virulence genes including Saf operon and cdtB gene. All the antibiotic resistance genes and virulence genes were present in the core- or accessory-genomes. Conclusions Complete genome of strain S16 was sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis revealed several genes responsible for antibiotic resistance and specific genomic features of strain S16 and identified virulence factors that might contribute to the human and animal pathogenicity of other S. Schwarzengrund genomes.


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chuyu Pan ◽  
Yujie Ning ◽  
Yumeng Jia ◽  
Shiqiang Cheng ◽  
Yan Wen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Gut microbiota is closely associated with host health and disease occurrence. Host genetic factor plays an important role in shaping gut microbial communities. The specific mechanism of host-regulated gene expression affecting gut microbiota has not been elucidated yet. Here we conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for gut microbiota by leveraging expression imputation from large-scale GWAS data sets. Results TWAS detected multiple tissue-specific candidate genes for gut microbiota, such as FUT2 for genus Bifidobacterium in transverse colon (PPERM.ANL = 1.68 × 10–3) and SFTPD for an unclassified genus of Proteobacteria in transverse colon (PPERM.ANL = 5.69 × 10–3). Fine mapping replicated 3 candidate genes in TWAS, such as HELLS for Streptococcus (PIP = 0.685) in sigmoid colon, ANO7 for Erysipelotrichaceae (PIP = 0.449) in sigmoid colon. Functional analyses detected 94 significant GO terms and 11 pathways for various taxa in total, such as GO_NUCLEOSIDE_DIPHOSPHATASE_ACTIVITY for Butyrivibrio (FDR P = 1.30 × 10–4), KEGG_RENIN_ANGIOTENSIN_SYSTEM for Anaerostipes (FDR P = 3.16 × 10–2). Literature search results showed 12 genes prioritized by TWAS were associated with 12 diseases. For instance, SFTPD for an unclassified genus of Proteobacteria was related to atherosclerosis, and FUT2 for Bifidobacterium was associated with Crohn’s disease. Conclusions Our study results provided novel insights for understanding the genetic mechanism of gut microbiota, and attempted to provide clues for revealing the influence of genetic factors on gut microbiota for the occurrence and development of diseases.


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elizabeth A. Holzhausen ◽  
Maria Nikodemova ◽  
Courtney L. Deblois ◽  
Jodi H. Barnet ◽  
Paul E. Peppard ◽  
...  

Abstract Background New technologies like next-generation sequencing have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the role of the gut microbiome in human health, particularly population-based studies that rely upon participant self-collection of samples. However, the impact of methodological differences in sample shipping, storage, and processing are not well-characterized for these types of studies, especially when transit times may exceed 24 h. The aim of this study was to experimentally assess microbiota stability in stool samples stored at 4 °C for durations of 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h with no additives to better understand effects of variable shipping times in population-based studies. These data were compared to a baseline sample that was immediately stored at − 80 °C after stool production. Results Compared to the baseline sample, we found that the alpha-diversity metrics Shannon’s and Inverse Simpson’s had excellent intra-class correlations (ICC) for all storage durations. Chao1 richness had good to excellent ICC. We found that the relative abundances of bacteria in the phyla Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria had excellent ICC with baseline for all storage durations, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ranged from moderate to good. We interpreted the ICCs as follows: poor: ICC < 0.50, moderate: 0.50 < ICC < 0.75, good: 0.75 < ICC < 0.90, and excellent: ICC > 0.90. Using the Bray–Curtis dissimilarity index, we found that the greatest change in community composition occurred between 0 and 24 h of storage, while community composition remained relatively stable for subsequent storage durations. Samples showed strong clustering by individual, indicating that inter-individual variability was greater than the variability associated with storage time. Conclusions The results of this analysis suggest that several measures of alpha diversity, relative abundance, and overall community composition are robust to storage at 4 °C for up to 96 h. We found that the overall community richness was influenced by storage duration in addition to the relative abundances of sequences within the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Finally, we demonstrate that inter-individual variability in microbiota composition was greater than the variability due to changing storage durations.


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Weihong Li ◽  
Hanqiu Yan ◽  
Baiwei Liu ◽  
Yi Tian ◽  
Yanwei Chen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Human noroviruses are the leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of viral acute gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. Methods Epidemiological data and fecal specimens were collected between January 2011 and December 2018 from 4911 children < 5 years of age with diarrhea in three districts of Beijing. From 2011 to 2013, One-Step Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect noroviruses, and from January 2014 to December 2018, norovirus GI and GII were screened using duplex quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). One-Step RT-PCR and RT-seminested PCR were performed to amplify the RNA-dependent polymerase and capsid genes of noroviruses in positive sample. Amplified products were sequenced directly; norovirus was typed using the online Norovirus Genotyping Tool v2.0 and phylogenetic analyses were conducted using MEGA-X. Results From 2011 to 2018, noroviruses were detected in 16.5% of specimens from children with diarrhea. The highest prevalence was observed in children aged 12 to 23 months (22.4%, 319/1421), followed by children aged 6 to 11 months (17.6%, 253/1441). The highest prevalence of norovirus infections occurred in autumn followed by winter, spring, and summer. From 2011 to 2018, the most prevalent dual types (genotype and polymerase type) were GII.4 Sydney[P31] (51.6%, 239/463), followed by GII.3[P12] (24.0%, 111/463), GII.4 2006b[P4 2006b] (7.3%, 34/463), GII.2[P16] (5.0%, 23/463), GII.17[P17] (2.6%, 12/463) and GII.6[P7] (2.6%, 12/463). GII.4 2006b[P4 2006b] predominated in 2011 and 2012. GII.4 Sydney[P31] predominated from 2013 to 2018. In total, 15 genotypes, 15 P-types and 19 dual types were detected in this study, reflecting the genetic diversity. Conclusions There were significant epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity among outpatient children with norovirus infections < 5 years of age in Beijing from 2011 to 2018. These characteristics differ from those of norovirus outbreaks in Beijing. The complete genome sequences of each genotype are needed to better understand norovirus evolutionary mechanisms.


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jolanta Gruszecka ◽  
Rafał Filip

Abstract Background There are several studies which evaluated the number of infections caused by enteric pathogens, including Clostridioides difficile in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to assess the prevalence of intestinal infections among patients suffering from IBD, when admitted to the hospital due to exacerbation of the disease. Results The performed, retrospective analysis covered test results for C. difficile toxins A and B along with rectal swab cultures sampled from patients, treated in a tertiary IBD center in Poland, between 2017 and 2019. Main objective was to estimate the presence of any infection, which could imitate or co-exist along with the exacerbation of the IBD. All in all 1471 patients had microbiological tests performed, including 1112 tested for C. difficile toxins A and B; and 359 patients who had rectal swab culture. Positive test results for C. difficile toxins A and B were reported in 358 cases, positive results from rectal swab culture were confirmed altogether in case of 25 samples. As far as patients with IBD are concerned, positive results for C. difficile toxins A and B were detected in 82 cases, positive results in rectal swab culture from patients with IBD were reported in 20 cases. Conclusion Intestinal infections were reported in 14.9% of patients (102/685) with IBD symptoms. Positive test results for C. difficile toxins A and B and rectal swab cultures among patients without IBD symptoms were reported in 35.7% of cases (281/786). Intestinal superinfections may complicate the clinical picture of IBD patients, increasing the diagnostic and therapeutic burden. Appropriate early procedures are thus needed in these patients.


Gut Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hailan Zhao ◽  
Yao Peng ◽  
Xunchao Cai ◽  
Yongjian Zhou ◽  
Youlian Zhou ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Enterococcus raffinosus is one of the Enterococcus species that often cause nosocomial infections. To date, only one E. raffinosus genome has been completely assembled, and the genomic features have not been characterized. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the strain CX012922, isolated from the feces of a Crohn’s disease patient, and perform a comparative genome analysis to the relevant Enterococcus spp. strains in silico. Results De novo assembly of the sequencing reads of the strain CX012922 generated a circular genome of 2.83 Mb and a circular megaplasmid of 0.98 Mb. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that the strain CX012922 belonged to the E. raffinosus species. By comparative genome analysis, we found that some strains previously identified as E. raffinosus or E. gilvus should be reclassified as novel species. Genome islands (GIs), virulence factors, and antibiotic genes were found in both the genome and the megaplasmid, although pathogenic genes were mainly encoded in the genome. A large proportion of the genes encoded in the megaplasmid were involved in substrate utilization, such as raffinose metabolism. Giant megaplasmids (~1 Mb) equipped with toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems generally formed symbiosis relationships with the genome of E. raffinosus strains. Conclusions Enterococcus spp. have a higher species-level diversity than is currently appreciated. The pathogenicity of E. raffinosus is mainly determined by the genome-encoded virulence factors, while the megaplasmid broadens the gene function pool. The symbiosis between the genome and the megaplasmids endows E. raffinosus with large genomic sizes as well as versatile gene functions, especially for their colonization, adaptation, virulence, and pathogenesis in the human gut.


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