broiler chicks
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 911-918
Edna Teles dos Santos ◽  
Flávio Ferreira da Silva ◽  
Fabrício Coelho Barbosa ◽  
Genilson Bezerra de Carvalho ◽  

The objective was to evaluate three sources of acid insoluble ash (AIA) (celite, kaolin, and sand), as indicators, to determine the apparent metabolizable energy of corn on a natural matter (AME) basis, dry matter digestibility coefficient (DMDC), and crude protein digestibility coefficient (CPDC) using total and partial excreta collection methods. Two hundred and ten Ross broiler chicks of 18 to 27 days of age were used. Broilers were adapted to experimental the diet for four days, and excreta were collected for 5 days. A reference diet (RD) based on corn and soybean meal was prepared to meet the nutritional requirements of the birds. A test diet was prepared with 40% replacement of RD with corn. The formulated diets were: D1, 99% Reference diet + 1% celite; D2, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% celite; D3, 99% Reference diet + 1% kaolin; D4, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% kaolin; D5, 99% Reference diet + 1% sand; D6, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% sand. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six diets and five replicates of seven birds each in a 2x3 factorial arrangement. There were significant interactions for all variables investigated. It was observed that the AME and DMDC values of corn were similar in the two methods of collection, and PDC values using kaolin and celite makers were similar. However, the AME and CPDC of corn using sand with partial collection method were underestimated by 17.70 and 15.53%, respectively compared to those with the total collection method. The AME values of corn with the collection methods using celite and, the DMDC using celite and sand were significantly different. It was observed that the DMDC using celite and sand provided significantly lower values (4.67 and 5.15%), respectively, and the AME using celite was 2.86% lower than that obtained by total collection. To determine the EMA, DMDC, and CPDC in broilers, it is more efficient to use celiteTM and kaolin as markers with partial collection of excreta. Sand should not be used with partial excreta collection method, because it provides lower values of AME and CPDC compared to with total excreta collection method.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Amarachi Chijioke Ogbonna ◽  
Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry ◽  
Lucy Asher

Stressors are commonly encountered by all farmed species, including chickens, but the impact of these stressors on the animal and their productivity can be influenced by the environmental conditions in which they are kept. This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin D3 (vitD3) and ultraviolet light (UVB) on growth performance, organ weight, serum corticosterone levels (CORT), serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D3) status, gut histology, and welfare indicators of broiler chickens challenged with social isolation stress. One day (d) old Ross 308 broiler chicks (n = 192) were individually weighed, wing-tagged, and allocated to non-isolated (control) and isolated groups; control birds were never isolated, while isolated birds were subjected to regular sessions of social isolation for about 15-min periods over the course of 3 d a week for 2 weeks starting from d 10 (1.30 h total exposure) with inter treatment interval of 48 h. Birds were treated with either dietary vitD3 at 4,000 IU/kg (HD) or UVB light (UVB). The UVB lamp (24 Watt 12% UVB D3, 55 cm) with wavelength: 280–315 nm, intensity; 28.12 μW/cm2 hung 50 cm above the substrate was used for the broilers in all the treatment groups but were filtered to remove UVB in the HD group. Growth performance measure; body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were estimated at the end of starter (day 10), grower (day 24), and finisher periods (day 38). Broilers were feather and gait scored to measure welfare at 22/35 and 24/37 days of age, respectively. The selected birds were weighed and euthanized to obtain serum to determine 25-OH-D3 and CORT levels, GIT weights, and gut histology. Subjecting the birds to 2-week social isolation (for 15 min, three times per week) increased CORT levels but did not alter GP and 25-OH-D3 levels of broilers. However, UVB-treated broilers demonstrated better welfare, duodenal absorptive capacity, and reduced FCR compared to HD chickens. Results suggest some beneficial effects of UVB lighting on welfare indicators and the potential to support early life growth of commercial broilers reared indoors, which are often challenged with stressors.

2022 ◽  
Valery Semenovich Lukashenko ◽  
Irina Pavlovna Saleeva ◽  
Victor Grigorievich Volik ◽  
Dilaram Yuldashevna Ismailova ◽  
Evgenia Vladimirovna Zhuravchuk

The aim of this research was to study the biochemical properties of a new protein-rich feed additive produced by the short-term intense thermal treatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the wastes of poultry slaughter and primary processing (feathers and fluff). It was found that this feather-based fermented feed additive contained high amounts of crude protein (86.52%); and the content of easily digestible low-molecular peptides in the additive was 9% higher compared to fishmeal. The amino acid profiles of the additive and fishmeal were compared. The effectiveness of substituting the additive for fishmeal in the diet of broiler chicks was demonstrated by the in vivoexperiments. The results showed that the digestibility of the dietary nutrients was higher in broilers that were fed the new additive compared to those fed fishmeal, which resulted in higher meat productivity: the average daily weight gains in additive-fed broilers was 3.82% higher (p <0.01) compared to fishmeal-fed control broilers, the dressing was 1.4%higher, the muscle in the carcass was 2.1% higher, and the feed conversion ratio was 3.57%lower. The sensory evaluation scores of the meat and broth were also higher in the additive-fed broilers. Keywords: feedadditive, feather wastes of poultry slaughter, enzymatic hydrolysis, distribution of molecular peptide weights, digestibility, productive performance in broilers

Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Jana Schreier ◽  
Daniela Karasova ◽  
Magdalena Crhanova ◽  
Ivan Rychlik ◽  
Silke Rautenschlein ◽  

Abstract Background Enterococcus cecorum (EC) is one of the main reasons for skeletal disease in meat type chickens. Intervention strategies are still rare and focus mainly on early antibiotic treatment of the disease, although there are no data available concerning the effectivity of this procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the effectivity of early lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment during the first week of life after EC-infection. Furthermore, the impact of lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment and EC infection on the development of cecal microbiota was investigated. Methods A total of 383 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four groups (non-infected and non-treated, non-infected and treated, EC-infected and non-treated, and EC-infected and treated). The EC-infected groups were inoculated orally with an EC suspension at the day of arrival and at study day 3. The treatment groups were treated with lincomycin-spectinomycin via the drinking water for six consecutive days, starting two hours after the first inoculation. Necropsy of 20 chickens per group was performed at study days 7, 14, 21, and 42. Bacteriological examination via culture and real-time PCR was performed to detect EC in different extraintestinal organs. Cecal samples of nine chickens per group and necropsy day were analyzed to characterize the composition of the cecal microbiota. Results No clinical signs or pathologic lesions were found at necropsy, and EC was not detected in extraintestinal organs of the EC-infected and treated birds. Lincomycin-spectinomycin promoted the growth of the bacterial genus Escherichia/Shigella and reduced the amount of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus spp. in the ceca regardless of EC-infection. Unexpectedly, the highest abundances of the genus Enterococcus were found directly after ending antibiotic treatment in both treatment groups, suggesting the growth of resistant enterococcal species. EC was not detected among the most abundant members of the genus Enterococcus. Oral EC-infection at the first day of life did not influence the development of cecal microbiota in the present study. Conclusions Lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment during the first week of life can prevent the EC-associated disease in broiler type chickens and has a direct impact on the development of the cecal microbiota. The low abundance of EC in the ceca of infected chickens underlines the pathogenic nature of the disease-causing EC strains. Further research on alternative prevention and intervention strategies is needed with regard to current efforts on reducing the use of antibiotics in livestock animals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 311-319
Md Ruknuzzaman ◽  
Maftuhatul Jannat ◽  
Kazi Md Al Noman ◽  
Md Abdur Rahman ◽  
Himangsu Sarker

To investigate the effect of graded level of acetic acid on the production performance and carcass characteristics of broiler, present study was conducted for a period of 35 days in a controlled shed. A total of 240 Cobb 500 day old broiler chicks were divided into four dietary treatment groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3), each group with three replications and each replication having 20 birds. Control group (T0) birds were fed with the basal diet without any acetic acid. Birds of T1, T2 and T3 group were treated with 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% acetic acid in drinking water, respectively along with basal diets. Recorded data were analysed in SPSS software by using ANOVA and significance level was considered as 5%. Results showed that, acetic acid has significantly (P<0.05) improved live weight, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and some meat characteristics (carcass weight, thigh weight and breast weight) of experimental broilers. However, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences were observed between control group and acetic acid treated groups of birds in terms of feed intake, dressing percentage, liver weight, heart weight and abdominal fat. Net profit was higher in birds treated with acetic acid than the control group and the best performances were observed in the birds treated with 0.3% acetic acid. Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(3): 311-319, December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
pp. 195-201
A. Maidala ◽  
G. Musa ◽  
L. Adamu ◽  
B. I. Amaza ◽  

An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to assess four differently protein sources on performance of broiler chickens. Two hundred and fifty (250) day old unsex Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four differently processed plant protein sources i.e. cooked soybean, salt treated African locust bean and sprouted Bambara nut with groundnut cake (GNC) based diet as control, the treatments were replicated five times (12 birds per replicate) in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD). Results showed that daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were affected by different protein sources (p<0.05) at starter, finisher and overall phase. The carcass characteristics showed that live weight (1988-2160 g), slaughter weight (1610-1965 g) and plucked weight (1600-1814 g) were affected by different protein sources(p<0.05). The dressing percentage (83.31-86.25%) are not affected by different protein sources (p>0.05). The abdominal fat (0.61-0.64%), gizzard (1.61-1.77%), small intestine (40.80-43.20 cm) and large intestine (141.80-201.60 cm) were affected by the different protein sources (p<0.05). All the prime cuts were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the dietary protein sources. Total feed cost is highest in soya-bean based diet (N 379.30). The highest body weight (4.53 kg) is in soya bean-based diet. The feed cost per kg gain is highest in GNC based diet (N 158.34) and lowest in soya bean based diet (N 126.43). All the protein sources enhanced the growth performance of broiler chickens; however, soybean was more effective in enhancing the performance of broiler chickens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 621-633
Abdallah Ali Ghazalah ◽  
Mohamed Ahmed Fouad El-Manylawi ◽  
Hady Fathy Abbas Motawe ◽  
Marwa Salah Khattab ◽  
Yara Ibrahem Youssef

, , , , and Antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry diets are currently restricted, so other feed additives, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been suggested as an antibiotics alternative to improve the performance and gut health of poultry. The current experiment was conducted to study the effects of adding Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) as a potential replacement for an antibiotic on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, some blood parameters, and caecal microbiota of broiler chickens. For conducting the current research experiment, a total of 180 one–day old Ross broiler chicks were randomly divided into one control group fed a basal diet and four dietary treatments with six replicates for each treatment. The treatment groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with different levels of MOS 0.5, 1, and 2 g/Kg diet and Lincomycin 4.4 mg/Kg diet during 35 days of the feeding trial. With exception of the growing period, the group fed a basal diet supplemented with 2 g MOS/Kg feed had considerably higher body weight and weight gain, while having the lowest feed consumption and best feed conversion ratio compared to the other treatment groups, during all experimental periods. Moreover, dietary supplementation of MOS resulted in a significant decrease in the counts of caecal E. coli and Enterococcus, while Lactobacillus and Yeast bacteria counts were significantly higher, compared to non-supplemented groups. Broiler chicks having a 2 g MOS/kg diet recorded lower values of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, and liver enzymes, including Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), while they recorded significantly higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL), compared to the other experimental groups. Group treated with MOS 2 g/Kg feed improved digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and organic matter, compared to the control group, Additionally, MOS supplementation also increased the intestinal villi length, width, and crypt depth and decreased intestinal inflammation, compared to the control group. In conclusion, supplementation of MOS at 2 g/kg diet improved growth performance, digestibility, and blood parameters without having adverse effects on the intestine of broiler chickens, comparable to the Lincomycin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
pp. 1461-1474
N. A. Ameen ◽  
N. R. Abdul Rahman ◽  
A H Hassan

A trial was conducted to study the effects of probiotic (Miaclost) supplement on experimentally induced hypocalcemic rickets in broiler chicks, a total of 180 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly divided into three equal groups 60 chicks per group with 3 replicates (20 birds /replicate) the dietary treatments consisted of a normal ration for G1, calcium-deficient ration 5% for G2 and calcium-deficient ration with addition of probiotics in drinking water for G3.Initial signs of rickets have been observed at 35-day of age in G2.while, in G1 and G3 no clinical signs observed, the gross lesions appeared enlargement of parathyroid gland, costochondral junction and increase in the width of growth plate of tibial bone of G2 whereas no gross lesions recorded in G1 and G3, the histopathological examination of parathyroid gland in G2 there were a focal parathyroid hyperplasia and increasing in numbers of syncytial cells and normal in G1 and G3, no intestinal histopathological changes in G1 and G2 and increase in height and width of the intestinal villi  in probiotic group G3. Marked increase in the thickness of proliferation zone within growth plate of tibia bone in G2 and normal thickness in G1 and G3. the serum biochemical analysis of calcium of G2 recorded significantly low level in G2 and high level in G3  comparatively with G1, finally the serum alkaline phosphatase values were high significantly in G2 and normal in G3, it is concluded that probiotic (MiaClost) can be used as prophylaxis to prevent hypocalcemic rickets in broiler chicks

2021 ◽  
Lawrence Tokunbo Egbeyale ◽  
Adeola adegoke ◽  
Olapeju Ayo-Ajasa ◽  
Fatai Adewole ◽  
Abdulbasit Yusuf ◽  

Abstract The study was carried out on one hundred and ninety-five day-old broiler chicks of cobb500 to study the effect of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts on growth performance, blood profile, microbial population in the faecal and gut samples. The chicks were randomly selected into five groups with thirty-nine chicks per group and each group replicated thrice. The groups were: control (synthetic antibiotics), extracts from 200 g fresh leaf, 400 g fresh leaf, 40 g air-dried leaf and 80 g aid-dried leaf per litre of water respectively. Data collected were subjected to one-way Analysis of Variance. The growth performance except mortality was similar (P>0.05) across the groups. Albumin, urea, cholesterol, alkaline phosphate and sodium were influenced (P<0.05) at the starter phase while only alkaline phosphate was significantly (P<0.05) highest in birds on 400 g of fresh leaf extract at the finisher phase. Neutrophil was highest (P<0.05) in birds on 400 g of fresh leaf extract while those on 200 g had higher values of lymphocytes and eosinophil at starter phase. At finisher phase, birds on antibiotics and 80 g of air-dried leaf extract had higher (P<0.05) white blood cell. Faecal total microbial population was least (<0.05) in birds on antibiotics and 200 g fresh Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract at starter phase. The study concluded that the adoption of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract as prophylactic treatment against bacteria should be encouraged among poultry farmers.

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