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Published By Anap - Associacao Amigos De Natureza De Alta Paulista

2318-8472
Updated Thursday, 02 December 2021

Author(s):  
Ricardo Machado Becker ◽  
André de Souza Silva

Attractiveness to walkability is seen as one of the fundamental factors that contributes to walking on foot in cities. In assessing the quality of the anthropic environment, some methodologies for diagnosing walkability indices take this factor into account. The objective of the research is to analyze the interaction between people, sidewalks and facades in a stretch of urban beachfront, related to factors that attract the daily practice of walking. Taking as a case study the applicability of the walkability index in a beachfront sector in the city of Ilhéus, in the state of Bahia, specifically with regard to its “Attraction” category, and analyze the results obtained compared to other similar studies. In the methodology used in this study, of qualitative and quantitative evaluation, “Attraction” is a category evaluated through four indicators related to facades and uses of urban land. In addition to the walkability analysis, we sought to ascertain the influence that “active facades” and “complete streets” are capable of exercising on the visual interconnection between the activities inside the buildings and the sidewalk segments that confront them, which are fundamental in promoting urban life. Regarding the results obtained, the final calculation showed that the aforementioned category, with regard to pedestrians, proved to be deficient, possibly due to the fact that the interaction between facades and streets is still being planned, prioritizing the circulation of cars, to the detriment of the human scale of pedestrians and active urban mobility.


Author(s):  
Marconi Vieira da Silva ◽  
Elfany Reis do Nascimento Lopes

In the present study we analyze and discuss socioenvironmental impacts arising from inadequate management of urban solid waste in the Brazilian Discovery Coast, southern Bahia. We also discuss the challenges to be overcome to promote proper management, highlighting the need for social inclusion of waste pickers. Methodological procedures consisted of an applied and exploratory research, through a review of specialized scientific literature. We also used secondary data available at the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and at the National Sanitation Information System, and applied a structured online questionnaire to municipal managers of public sanitation services. The cities under study only transfer the waste generated in urban centers to distant areas, in dumps, negatively affecting the environment and public health. There are neither management units nor incentive practices or support programs aimed at recyclable material collectors. Due to the weaknesses and the socioenvironmental, cultural, and historical importance of the area under study, the creation of public policies with broad popular participation is urgently needed to promote a fairer, healthier, and more sustainable development.


Author(s):  
Camila Marques Paes da Cunha ◽  
Luciana Márcia Gonçalves

The contemporary urbanization process in Brazil is directly related to the dynamics of the capitalist production mode. In this production mode the urban land, as well as habitation, become commodities – individual or collective consumer goods. With the increase in municipal autonomy back in the 1990s, along with the approval of the Statue of Cities in 2001, new tools for organization of urban territory and production of habitations were created. This work makes a brief analysis of the right to city’s trajectory, since the creation of such concept by Henri Lefebvre in the 1960s, until the concept’s appropriation by Brazilian legislation. Through bibliographical review, it relates the social role of property as means to grant the right to the city.


Author(s):  
Geanesson Alberto de Oliveira Santos ◽  
Eriberto Oliveira do Nascimento ◽  
Paulo Henrique Trombeta Zannin

Noise pollution is generally imperceptible, but it can cause various disorders, including psychological disorders, hearing loss and cardiovascular disease. Curitiba Municipal Law 10.625:2002 establishes upper limits of daytime noise exposure according to zoning areas and land use in the City of Curitiba. The purpose of this study was to evaluate noise immissions of urban traffic in the proximities of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) shelters in Curitiba, Brazil. Daytime traffic noise levels were measured between 8am and 5pm near the entrance of these bus shelters in July and August 2014. Fifty-four measurement points at parks, residences, stores, schools, universities and hospitals in different zoning groups of the municipality were selected as a function of the type of population. The noise levels were recorded using a class I sound level meter. Brazil has no specific standard or law for traffic noise immissions, so the guidelines of the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 10151:2000 were used. It was concluded that 74% of the measured noise levels varied from 70 to 76 dB(A). Only point 48, close to the Antônio Meireles Sobrinho BRT Shelter, was considered free of noise pollution. Traffic noise accounts for an overall average of 73 dB(A). A few bus shelters installed on the same street had an absolute average difference of 3 dB(A), while bus shelters located farther away from roads were the least noisy. The lowest average traffic noise levels, i.e., 71 dB(A), were recorded on roads for exclusive use by BRT buses.


Author(s):  
Amanda Rosin de Oliveira ◽  
Ana Helena Dreissig ◽  
Gabriela Oliveira Wedekin

The transformations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic affected people's routines and lifestyles on a global scale, especially regarding the role of technology. This becomes clear when we examine the state of education currently. The sudden suspension of traditional teaching and the critical aspect in the academy may be the perfect opportunity for a new examination of the potentials and challenges higher education currently faces. This article aims to circumscribe the pandemic's impacts on higher education and its constituents: students, professors, and educational institutions, after this great increase in technology's role in people's daily lives. This is materialized from a bibliographic review by the presented studies of Educação Vigiada "education monitored" (2020), GAFAM's monopoly over digital education platforms, and how data colonialism comes unnoticed as a consequence of the new technology-focused lifestyles. It was sought to draw a panorama from the opinions of students and teachers, through the SEMESP (2020) survey, pointing to the challenges and potentialities that will help in the adaptation of education in the future context.


Author(s):  
Marco Antonio Casadei Teixeira ◽  
Heidy Rodriguez Ramos ◽  
Alexandre de Oliveira e Aguiar

Much has been studied about solar energy as a renewable energy, as it can be transformed in electricity by means of solar panels. Innovation is very important when it comes to photovoltaic technologies, because the advantages of these technologies are low installation and maintenance costs and no environmental impact during operation. The market of photovoltaic products is dominated by the silicon technology, but new second- and third-generation cell technologies have been developed. This research shows that the Perovskite solar and the Multijunction solar cells have the potential to achieve maximum power conversion efficiency and minimum production costs in the near future. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), Organic photovoltaics (OPV), Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC), Single-junction solar cells, and the Heterojunction solar cells will achieve such potential in a more distant future, because limitations imposed by efficiency and costs must be overcome. Having these parameters in mind, the overall objective of this research is to analyze the materials of strategic potential to compete with silicon in the composition of the photovoltaic solar cells. A Systematic Literature Review helped retrieve 112 papers that report the most researched materials from 2014 to 2018. It is concluded that despite good results have been obtained from many of such studies, some alternative materials to silicon are still not technologically acceptable in terms of efficiency. It is expected that the use of a better distributed and cheaper solar energy technology will be possible in the near future.


Author(s):  
Luciana Monzillo de Oliveira ◽  
Maria Pronin ◽  
Denise Antonucci

A series of new districts appeared in São Paulo between 1915 and 1940, all inspired in the garden-city concept created by Ebenezer Howard. The City of São Paulo Improvements and Freehold Land Company Limited established some of them in the southwest sector of the city, near downtown: Jardim América (1915), Butantã (1921), Alto da Lapa (1921), Pacaembu (1925), and Alto de Pinheiros (1931). Other developers carried out land subdivisions inspired in the same garden-districts concepts, but in more distant areas. The following garden-districts were built in the southern area of the city: Chácara Flora (1928), Interlagos (1938), and Granja Julieta (1956). Unlike central garden-districts, the history of the outlying garden-districts was seldom or only partly studied. Given this scenario, this study aims to fill a historiographical gap on Interlagos garden-district, which was born as “Interlagos Satellite Spa Town”. Its form is such an important example of landscaping and cultural heritage that the district was listed as protected by the city heritage agency in Resolution nº 18, November 23, 2004, in view of the morphological and historical features of the original land subdivision. This study relies on an urban morphology cognitive study which, according to Rego and Meneguetti (2011), aims to expand the knowledge on the origins and explanations of that urban form. The study presents unpublished data on the district formation, taken mainly from a survey carried out in newspapers from the 1930s and 1940s.


Author(s):  
Margret Sibylle Engel ◽  
Júlio Otávio Herrmann ◽  
Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin

  The acoustic quality of classrooms has a strong influence on the teaching and learning process. This interference assessed using the impulsive technique to measure the rate of speech transmission (STI), reverberation time (RT) and sound definition (D50). These are the most relevant acoustic descriptors in the assessment of classrooms, where verbal exposure is the means of communication between teachers and students. The evaluation took place in two buildings of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), built in the 1960s and another in 2016. The measured values ​​of STI, provided in the classrooms' actual acoustic conditions, were used as an adjustment parameter for simulations made with the software ODEON. After carrying out the measurements and simulations, the dimensioning of improvements was possible. The acoustic simulations presented suggestions to qualify the quality of the classrooms' acoustic comfort, ensuring that teaching and learning to do not suffer losses due to the physical structure of the classrooms. The measured values ​​of STI, RT and D50 show that, in the old building, except for a single classroom that preserves the original ceiling that had a high sound absorption coefficient, it has reasonable values, below the ideal for classrooms, according to the IEC 60268-16 (2011) standard. The investigation showed that the rooms with a roof replaced by a PVC covering had a sharp drop in acoustic quality. The newest building has classrooms with proper acoustic comfort conditions.


Author(s):  
Greicikelly Gaburro Paneto ◽  
Cristina Engel de Alvarez ◽  
Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin

In contemporary cities, and usually without realizing it, the population has been exposed to high sound pressure levels, which besides causing discomfort, can lead to health problems. Considering that a large part of this noise comes from emission from motor vehicles, this research aims to evaluate the sound behavior in sound environments configured by voids in the urban fabric, in order to identify whether open spaces can act as attenuators of sound levels. To obtain the expected results, the methodology used was structured from a review of the state-of-the-art and computer simulations relating the variables that influence the formation of urban space and sound emission and propagation, taking as a case study an urban portion of the municipality of Vitória/ES. In parallel, questionnaires were applied to evaluate the user's perception of their exposure. The measurement results indicated that the sound pressure levels caused by traffic noise are above the limit tolerated limit by the NBR norm 10151:2000 for the daytime period. In turn, the results obtained from the population indicated that there is little perception of noise by the users of the spaces surveyed.


Author(s):  
Felipe do Valle ◽  
Eva Veres ◽  
Matthias Brodbeck ◽  
Zhou Xiaoru ◽  
Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin

Residents of large urban centers are daily exposed to urban noise pollution, especially to noise generated by traffic of vehicles. Environmental noise may harm the environment and the population's quality of life. Therefore, studies that aim to reduce the effects of noise pollution are extremely relevant. In urban divisions, there must be spaces between or in buildings to ensure access for people and vehicles. However, regarding sound transmission, these spaces are considered "weak points" as they ease the passage of urban noise to other spaces that have housing. Thus, this study, carried out in the city of Stuttgart/Germany, evaluates the influence of urban spaces called tunnel and canyon on the transmission of traffic noise to residential facades posterior to these spaces. Two locations were selected: the first with the presence of a tunnel-like space and the second with a canyon-like space. Through measurements and acoustic simulations, the current sound environment of the places was measured. In acoustic simulations, variations of geometric aspects and sound absorption coefficients of the internal surfaces of open spaces were also considered. The results show that the dimensions of open spaces are significant in sound transmission, especially the parameters width and height. The data also show that the installation of coatings with sound absorption on the internal surfaces of spaces is a viable measure from a technical point of view, as it resulted in an attenuation of up to 22 dB(A) on posterior facades.


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