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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-42
Maitraye Das ◽  
Anne Marie Piper ◽  
Darren Gergle

Collaborative writing tools have been used widely in professional and academic organizations for many years. Yet, there has not been much work to improve screen reader access in mainstream collaborative writing tools. This severely affects the way people with vision impairments collaborate in ability-diverse teams. As a step toward addressing this issue, the present article aims at improving screen reader representation of collaborative features such as comments and track changes (i.e., suggested edits). Building on our formative interviews with 20 academics and professionals with vision impairments, we developed auditory representations that indicate comments and edits using non-speech audio (e.g., earcons, tone overlay), multiple text-to-speech voices, and contextual presentation techniques. We then performed a systematic evaluation study with 48 screen reader users that indicated that non-speech audio, changing voices, and contextual presentation can potentially improve writers’ collaboration awareness. We discuss implications of these results for the design of accessible collaborative systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 116 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-64
Petr Holý ◽  
Eva Benešová

The treatment of waste PET bottles has become a pressing global issue over the last few decades, and many scientific teams are currently working on solutions to it. There are many different approaches of how to solve this problem. The present article outlines the possibility to process terephthalic acid, which is the hydrolysis product of polyethylene terephthalate, into vanillin, a compound widely used in the food industry. The work of British scientists who have succeeded in using genetic modification to produce a strain of E. coli RARE_pVanX capable of processing polyethylene terephthalate hydrolysates to the desired vanillin is presented in a broader context.

2022 ◽  
Vol 116 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-34
Jakub Karas ◽  
David Vetchý ◽  
Jan Gajdziok

The deposition of a drug to its required destination is crucial for effective lung treatment. It is important to design a suitable formulation that delivers the active ingredient to the desired site and resists the natural cleansing mechanisms of the airways. Large porous particles used as active substance carriers appear to be the most effective option for lung drug delivery. The present article provides a basic overview of the mechanisms of deposition of dry inhalable powders and methods of their preparation and evaluation. Spray drying together with micronization and crystallization techniques are among the most used methods of preparation of the discussed particles. Besides, these techniques can be combined with other production processes (encapsulation, emulsification, etc.). The evaluation of the properties of particles suitable for pulmonary application is based on specific requirements for their density, porosity, shape, aerodynamic parameters, and deposition in the lungs, which can now be simulated on an accurate model of artificial lungs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-68
Divmehar Kaur ◽  
Inderpreet Kaur ◽  
Ravinder Khaira ◽  
Sanjay Goel ◽  
Maninder Kaur

Intubation of a patient with temporomandibular joint ankylosis is a challenge for every anaesthesiologist. Dependable anaesthetic technique is most desired by all anaesthesiologists. The purpose of the present article is to have a brief overview of temporomandibular joint ankylosis, its clinical features, management and to review literature demonstrating various intubation techniques available to an anaesthesiologist while managing patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 883-902
D V. Mukhetdinov

The present article deals with the work of an Indonesian scholar and a public intellectual Muhammad Quraish Shihab. The paper reveals the main principles of Quraish Shihab's Quranic Hermeneutics, which include pragmatism (orienting towards the joint interest), thematic approach and methodological holism. Among the objects of the research there are his innovative approach to Quran exegesis, his links with Egyptian modernist schools of M. Abduh and M.R. Ridah, his ideas, where Islam comes as a “middle way”. Moreover, the article demonstrates the connection between his hermeneutical theory and his social activism, especially in the fi eld of media. The author concludes the paper with a brief explanation of the main points of Quraish Shihab's hermeneutical theory.

Sayan Bag ◽  
Arijit Bag

The detection of Dark Matter is the greatest outstanding problem in modern cosmology. Several attempts have been taken for this without any remarkable success. To find out a suitable way of detection we need to understand its nature comprehensively. In the present article, a hypothesis is described considering Dark Matter as a normal matter. Its peculiar behavior is explained considering its existence in BEC state in the coolest part of the universe that makes it an electromagnetic insulator. Depending upon this hypothesis an experimental verification method is proposed.

2022 ◽  

In the life of Margaret Clitherow (b. 1552/3–d. 1586), international Counter-Reformation piety met English national and provincial politics and led to the creation of a Catholic martyr. She was born Margaret Middleton in predominantly Protestant York and in 1571 married a widowed butcher and father of two, John Clitherow. By the end of 1574 she had given him at least two more children but had also embraced Catholicism, refusing to attend prescribed Protestant services. This recusancy resulted in three prison terms, each of six months or more, in 1577–1578, 1580–1581, and 1583–1584. She was particularly inspired by the heroism of missionary priests from the English seminaries in Continental Europe and made a point of sheltering them at the family home in York’s Shambles. One such was John Mush, who returned from Rome to England in 1583 and became her spiritual director from c. 1584. The 1585 Act against Jesuits and seminary priests made it a capital felony to harbor such clerics: the sentence could be death. On 10 March 1586 the Clitherows’ house was searched, evidence of Catholic worship was found and Margaret arrested. Her trial followed four days later, though it was for her refusal to enter a plea that she was sentenced to death peine forte et dure, being crushed to death. Her stepfather was then serving as York’s lord mayor, so it was a high-profile case in a close-knit community. Every effort was made to prevent the law taking its course, but Margaret would not be dissuaded from the path of martyrdom. The sentence was executed on 25 March, crushed to death under a door loaded with weights. Mush was among those who buried her body; he then wrote a life of the martyr. That Life is integral to all subsequent developments: popular Catholic devotion to the “Pearl of York,” her inclusion among the lives of the martyred priests, the opening of a formal process in 1874, beatification by Pius XI in 1929, and canonization—as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales—by Paul VI in 1970. Apart from the pious and the scholarly, there are few obvious divisions within the literature on Margaret Clitherow: Reference Works and an Overview derive from John Mush’s Life. Other Lives either parallel Mush or follow in his wake, though there are many other sources for wider studies of Recusancy in Yorkshire. For the martyr’s Trial and Death one must rely on Mush and his sources. His failure to locate the place of her burial has had diverse consequences, as conveyed in the final section of the present article, Burial and Legacy.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-29
Jonathan Klawans

Abstract This essay engages Idan Dershowitz’s recent attempt to rehabilitate the Deuteronomy fragments Moses Wilhelm Shapira offered for sale in 1883. After summarizing the contents of Dershowitz’s volume, this paper evaluates Shapira’s fragments in relation to the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Moabitica and other forgeries connected to Shapira. It considers the implications of Shapira’s transcription of the text, which Dershowitz uses to demonstrate Shapira’s innocence. To counter Dershowitz’s hypothesis regarding the “proto-biblical” origin of the fragments, it is proposed that the composition is better understood as a post-biblical pastiche. Dershowitz has endeavored to sever the text from the possibilities allowed by 19th century European scholarship; the present article contextualizes the find within the religious world of 19th century Jerusalem. While the allure of significance can encourage scholars to overcome doubts and accept the authenticity of suspicious objects, Shapira’s fragments remain very dubious indeed.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Anja Jørgensen ◽  
Mia Arp Fallov

PurposeThere is a growing importance for public facilitation of corporate social responsibility and involvement of civil organizations in securing territorial cohesion and development. In the present article, the authors focus on how we are to understand a locally sensitive organization of territorial cohesion in the Danish context. Traditional sociological concepts and standardized area-types used for administrative purposes have turned out not being very helpful in understanding the interrelation between inequality, urbanization and territorial cohesion. The authors argue for a processual and relational approach to urbanization.Design/methodology/approachThe present article is based on interview material and policy documents from three Danish case studies representing urban, suburban and rural forms of settlement. The case studies are part of a cross-European research project.FindingsThe authors show how territorial governance play a key role in the strategies of densification/de-densification facilitating shielding capacities of collective efficacy, and reversely that bottom-up innovations are crucial for the ability of territorial governance to mobilize territorial capital and mediate in effects of territorial inequality. Spatial imaginaries legitimize these efforts to organize cohesion. The spatial imaginaries work as common frame of references for the interplay between strategies of (de)densification and collective efficacy, and they activate particular balances between growth agendas and everyday life.Originality/valueThese findings represent an original perspective on how and why urbanization impact on places in a more specific and variated way than often portrayed as it highlight how social capacities tied to place might work with or against existing social, economic and cultural structures shaping territorial cohesion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 6
Arnaud Cazenave de la Roche ◽  
Fabrizio Ciacchella ◽  
Fabien Langenegger ◽  
Max Guérout ◽  
Marco Milanese ◽  

The Mortella wrecks are the remains of two navi, Genoese seagoing merchant ships, sunk in 1527 in the Bay of Saint-Florent (Upper-Corsica, France) during the Seventh Italian War. A programme of archaeological excavations and historical research has been held on one of them,  Mortella III, between 2010 and 2020. It has involved a multidisciplinary team around a European research project called ModernShip (Horizon 2020), whose objective is to shed light on Mediterranean shipbuilding during the Renaissance, a field still little known to this day. At the end of these 10 years, the aim of the present article is to conclude this research programme with the presentation of a scientific review that complements a recently published monograph on the Mortella III wreck. This study presents the latest results on the ship's architecture obtained during the excavation of the wreck in 2019, including a study of the wood of the framework. Finally, this article broadens our understanding of the nave presenting the results of a collaborative line of research on material culture with three studies in close connection with the ship architecture: artillery, anchors and ceramics.

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