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2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 232-252
Author(s):  
R. G. Tiedemann†

As messengers of a peaceful gospel, the ‘Christian soldiers’ put in charge of expanding the remit of the London Missionary Society to South-east Asia and, eventually, to South China frequently found themselves at war with each other. Based on the personal correspondence of missionaries stationed at Melaka, Batavia and Guangzhou, the present article analyses both the challenges faced by the missionary circle as well as the disagreements which developed. The Protestant missionaries sailed in the wake of the Dutch and British navies after the Napoleonic wars. They thus found themselves both protected and held at ransom by the colonial politics which ensued, resulting in personal decisions which could pit individual missionaries against each other. Not a few missionaries were of continental European origin – for example, Thomsen, Brückner and Gützlaff – accentuating rivalries between the colonial enterprises and between competing missionary societies. Differences in personality, such as Robert Morrison’s proverbial severity or the schoolmastery of William Milne, did little to alleviate such tensions. But arguably the most important reason for the ‘murmurings and disputings’ observed by Robert Morrison was radically different outlooks concerning the objectives of the mission. These related to conversion methods, to the educational paradigm of the Christian missions, and methods of outreach, pitting a highly mobile ‘entrepreneurial’ approach against the stability of the mission stations. Importantly in the polyethnic composition of south-eastern Asia, opinions differed on the utility of the Malayan languages, South Chinese vernaculars or the language used by Chinese officials. Dissension within the Ultra-Ganges Missions arose from the essential bifurcation between life in the ‘here & now’ and a future destiny in China.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-31
Author(s):  
Sumit Munjal ◽  
Seema Munjal

The posterior maxilla is indubitably the site reported with highest failures in implant literature so far as the bone availability beneath the sinus poses a major challenge for surgeons. Sinus lift both by direct and various indirect accesses were hitherto utilized to counter the compromising situation. But the risk of implant failure if the implant was simultaneously placed besides the parasthesia, perforation and morbidity were experienced more with more the cases documented. The osseodensification(OD), a relatively new technique provides a minimally invasive approach along with feasibility where the above-mentioned other modalities are contraindicated. The present article presents the novel case of indirect sinus lift with OD concept and simultaneous implant placement using an adjunct PRF (Platelet-rich fibrin).


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 05-27
Author(s):  
Willian Franco Felicio

O presente artigo visa apresentar uma discussão de âmbito teórico no que se refere à paisagem na ciência geográfica, a fim de compreendê-la como importante categoria analítica no campo das pesquisas sobre o ensino de geografia. A partir de referenciais teóricos como Santos (1997), Maximiliano (2004), Bertrand (2004), Brito e Ferreira (2011), Moreira (2015) e Gomes (2017)sobre a paisagem, buscamos apresentar uma contextualização sobre as definições desta categoria no construto didático da geografia escolar. Compreendemos a importância dessa categoria no processo da prática docente para o ensino de geografia, pois entendemos que ela aproxima o aluno do objeto estudado, buscando desenvolver nos estudantes a capacidade de compreensão das diferentes paisagens, seus elementos, sua história, suas práticas sociais, culturais e suas dinâmicas naturais. Palavras-chave Paisagem, Práticas docentes, Geografia escolar.   CONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE CONCEPT OF LANDSCAPE AND ITS INSERT IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY: elements for an investigation Abstract The present article aims to present a theoretical discussion regarding the landscape in geographic science in order to understand it as an important analytical category in the field of research on the teaching of geography. Based on theoretical references Santos (1997), Maximiliano (2004), Bertrand (2004), Brito e Ferreira (2011), Moreira (2015) e Gomes (2017) about the landscape, we seek to present a contextualization about the definitions of this category in the didactic construct of school geography. We understand the importance of this category in the process of teaching practice for the teaching of geography, as we understand that it brings students closer to the object studied, seeking to develop in students the ability to understand different landscapes, their elements, their history, their social, cultural and cultural practices its natural dynamics. Keywords Landscape, Teaching practices, School geography.


2021 ◽  
pp. 139-149
Author(s):  
T. A. Alаbinа

The two-part series of articles reveals the purpose of the research as determining the place of the concept of strategizing of a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences – Academician, Doctor of Economics, Professor V. L. Kvint in the system of economic research of strategies abroad, in the USSR and modern Russia on the basis of the description of the content and systematization of the basic concepts of strategizing and a review of foreign and domestic regional economic research, as well as the author’s identification of the key characteristics of this scientific school of strategy.The object of the research is the theory of strategies abroad, in the USSR and modern Russia. The subject of the research is the concept of V. L. Kvint’s strategizing in the system of economic research on strategy.The methodological tools include techniques and methods of system analysis, comparative analysis, logical analysis, principles of the dialectical-materialistic method of cognition and an integrated approach to the characterization of economic research, methods of generalization and concretization. The description of the study uses a historical approach and a temporary generalization based on the key milestones in the development of economic research on the theory of strategy and the methodology and practice of strategizing.As the results of present article, the main characteristics, systematization and content aspects of foreign and domestic economic research strategies are presented. The place of V. L. Kvint’s concept of strategizing in the system of economic research are determined. The article shows the practice of strategizing the research school.


Linguistics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jan Wiślicki

Abstract The present article addresses the problem of syntax-semantics mapping of syntactically complex structures that are interpreted as semantically simple terms. While these morphosyntactic mechanisms have been successfully applied to roots in Marantz’s framework, more complex structures turn out to be formally and conceptually challenging. To solve these problems, I make use of Cooper’s type-theoretic framework to propose a formal account of Transfer. I apply this to verbal idioms and direct quotation, whose parts do not obtain the idiomatic/quotational reading. The main result is a formal account of light heads providing the operation of predicate formation within cyclic derivations.


Languages ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 167
Author(s):  
Antonio Fábregas ◽  
Jason Rothman

The present article reassesses some available data regarding word-internal language mixing (Spanish–German) involving verbs and nouns. The empirical generalization is that Spanish roots can be combined with German verbalizers, but not vice versa. Data of this type highlight the sophisticated knowledge of the underlying representations that code-switching bilinguals must have of both contributing grammars and, in turn, how these contribute to the formation of the grammar that underlies their rule-governed systems for amalgamating them. Despite agreeing with the general conclusions of González-Vilbazo and López’s 2011 study regarding what the data tell us about code-switching more generally, we refine their analysis to better capture the patterns. Our proposal is that these mixtures are the only instances where the structural and lexical properties of verbal exponents used in both languages overlap, parting ways with previous analyses based on the possible zero nature of Spanish verbalizers or the absence of conjugation classes in German.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 05-27
Author(s):  
Laressa Bentes da Silva ◽  
Lais Rodrigues Campos

O presente artigo visa apresentar uma discussão de âmbito teórico no que se refere à paisagem na ciência geográfica, a fim de compreendê-la como importante categoria analítica no campo das pesquisas sobre o ensino de geografia. A partir de referenciais teóricos como Santos (1997), Maximiliano (2004), Bertrand (2004), Brito e Ferreira (2011), Moreira (2015) e Gomes (2017)sobre a paisagem, buscamos apresentar uma contextualização sobre as definições desta categoria no construto didático da geografia escolar. Compreendemos a importância dessa categoria no processo da prática docente para o ensino de geografia, pois entendemos que ela aproxima o aluno do objeto estudado, buscando desenvolver nos estudantes a capacidade de compreensão das diferentes paisagens, seus elementos, sua história, suas práticas sociais, culturais e suas dinâmicas naturais. Palavras-chave Paisagem, Práticas docentes, Geografia escolar.   CONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE CONCEPT OF LANDSCAPE AND ITS INSERT IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY: elements for an investigation Abstract The present article aims to present a theoretical discussion regarding the landscape in geographic science in order to understand it as an important analytical category in the field of research on the teaching of geography. Based on theoretical references Santos (1997), Maximiliano (2004), Bertrand (2004), Brito e Ferreira (2011), Moreira (2015) e Gomes (2017) about the landscape, we seek to present a contextualization about the definitions of this category in the didactic construct of school geography. We understand the importance of this category in the process of teaching practice for the teaching of geography, as we understand that it brings students closer to the object studied, seeking to develop in students the ability to understand different landscapes, their elements, their history, their social, cultural and cultural practices its natural dynamics. Keywords Landscape, Teaching practices, School geography.


2021 ◽  
Vol 69 (8) ◽  
pp. 115-128
Author(s):  
Anna Krzyżanowska
Keyword(s):  

Le présent article propose d’étudier les propriétés syntaxico-sémantiques des combinaisons spécialisées de type NOM + ADJECTIF, provenant du vocabulaire médical. Deux sous-ensembles ont été dégagés en fonction de leur degré de figement syntaxique et sémantique : des structures récurrentes à sens compositionnel, et aussi des structures semi-figées partiellement compositionnelles. Les enjeux de notre recherche s’articulent autour de l’interrelation entre le mot clé (le nom) et le constituant adjectival. On décrit également le fonctionnement des combinaisons spécialisées dans les textes de presse, où elles apparaissent sous la forme canonique ou altérée. Dans ce contexte, on s’intéresse en particulier à leur emploi dans la fonction métalinguistique. Il importe de souligner que lors de notre analyse, on applique au langage spécialisé les mêmes outils méthodologiques que ceux utilisés pour la langue générale.


2021 ◽  
Vol 142 ◽  
pp. 49-65
Author(s):  
Delphine Trébosc

Le présent article entend faire le point sur la dimension publique des collections d’antiques présentes dans les villes méridionales du royaume de France, à la fin du XVIe et au début du XVIIe siècle. Il s’agit de repérer les manifestations de leur caractère public, entendu dans les deux acceptions du terme : au sens strict – qui dépend de l’État – et au sens large – qui concerne la communauté. L’étude des collections municipales insistera sur la volonté du corps de ville de les rendre accessibles au plus grand nombre. Nous examinerons également le rapport des collections privées à la sphère publique, aussi bien en termes d’accès, de diffusion que de marché.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258131
Author(s):  
Luis Felipe Beltrán-Morales ◽  
Marco Antonio Almendarez-Hernández ◽  
Gerzaín Avilés-Polanco ◽  
David J. Jefferson

The present article examines the impact of intellectual property (IP) utilization and concentration on economic growth in Mexico. The findings presented center on the use of different forms of IP by researchers in the National System of Researchers (SNI in Spanish) of Mexico. We focus especially on the externalities associated with the use of IP by researchers, as well as on understanding how knowledge about, and utilization of IP relates to economic growth, as measured by gross domestic product (GDP). The results of our analyses indicate that in the context of the Mexican SNI, the utilization of certain forms of IP, specifically patents and industrial designs, had a positive impact on economic growth, while the use of utility models was negatively linked to drivers of growth. Policies based on these results could seek to foster awareness and utilization of particular forms of IP by SNI researchers, which in turn could result in greater economic growth in Mexico.


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