British Journal of Sports Medicine
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Published By Bmj

1473-0480, 0306-3674

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104858
Carel Viljoen ◽  
Dina C (Christa) Janse van Rensburg ◽  
Willem van Mechelen ◽  
Evert Verhagen ◽  
Bruno Silva ◽  

ObjectiveTo review and frequently update the available evidence on injury risk factors and epidemiology of injury in trail running.DesignLiving systematic review. Updated searches will be done every 6 months for a minimum period of 5 years.Data sourcesEight electronic databases were searched from inception to 18 March 2021.Eligibility criteriaStudies that investigated injury risk factors and/or reported the epidemiology of injury in trail running.ResultsNineteen eligible studies were included, of which 10 studies investigated injury risk factors among 2 785 participants. Significant intrinsic factors associated with injury are: more running experience, level A runner and higher total propensity to sports accident questionnaire (PAD-22) score. Previous history of cramping and postrace biomarkers of muscle damage is associated with cramping. Younger age and low skin phototypes are associated with sunburn. Significant extrinsic factors associated with injury are neglecting warm-up, no specialised running plan, training on asphalt, double training sessions per day and physical labour occupations. A slower race finishing time is associated with cramping, while more than 3 hours of training per day, shade as the primary mode of sun protection and being single are associated with sunburn. An injury incidence range 0.7–61.2 injuries/1000 hours of running and prevalence range 1.3% to 90% were reported. The lower limb was the most reported region of injury, specifically involving blisters of the foot/toe.ConclusionLimited studies investigated injury risk factors in trail running. Our review found eight intrinsic and nine extrinsic injury risk factors. This review highlighted areas for future research that may aid in designing injury risk management strategies for safer trail running participation.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42021240832.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104876
Minghui Han ◽  
Ranran Qie ◽  
Xuezhong Shi ◽  
Yongli Yang ◽  
Jie Lu ◽  

ObjectiveCurrent evidence of the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality is limited. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the dose–response association of CRF with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in healthy population.MethodsPubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched up to 26 December 2019 for reports of cohort studies giving risk estimates for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality by level of CRF. Cohort studies were included if CRF was assessed by an exercise stress test and reported as at least three levels or per incremental increase, and the association of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality was evaluated. Generalised least-squares regression models were used to assess the quantitative relation of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality.Results34 cohort studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risks (RRs) for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality per one-metabolic equivalent increase in CRF were 0.88 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.93), 0.87 (95% CI0.83 to 0.91) and 0.93 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.96), respectively. As compared with lowest CRF, with intermediate CRF, the summary RRs for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality were 0.67 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.74), 0.60 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.69) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.84), respectively, and with highest CRF were 0.47 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.56), 0.49 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.56) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.70), respectively.ConclusionOur analysis showed inverse dose–response associations of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality, which provides evidence for public health recommendations for preventing all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42020208883.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104081
Mark Buller ◽  
Rebecca Fellin ◽  
Max Bursey ◽  
Meghan Galer ◽  
Emma Atkinson ◽  

ObjectiveExertional heat stroke (EHS), characterised by a high core body temperature (Tcr) and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, is a concern for athletes, workers and military personnel who must train and perform in hot environments. The objective of this study was to determine whether algorithms that estimate Tcr from heart rate and gait instability from a trunk-worn sensor system can forward predict EHS onset.MethodsHeart rate and three-axis accelerometry data were collected from chest-worn sensors from 1806 US military personnel participating in timed 4/5-mile runs, and loaded marches of 7 and 12 miles; in total, 3422 high EHS-risk training datasets were available for analysis. Six soldiers were diagnosed with heat stroke and all had rectal temperatures of >41°C when first measured and were exhibiting CNS dysfunction. Estimated core temperature (ECTemp) was computed from sequential measures of heart rate. Gait instability was computed from three-axis accelerometry using features of pattern dispersion and autocorrelation.ResultsThe six soldiers who experienced heat stroke were among the hottest compared with the other soldiers in the respective training events with ECTemps ranging from 39.2°C to 40.8°C. Combining ECTemp and gait instability measures successfully identified all six EHS casualties at least 3.5 min in advance of collapse while falsely identifying 6.1% (209 total false positives) examples where exertional heat illness symptoms were neither observed nor reported. No false-negative cases were noted.ConclusionThe combination of two algorithms that estimate Tcr and ataxic gate appears promising for real-time alerting of impending EHS.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104545
Emily Anne Rutland ◽  
Sakinah C Suttiratana ◽  
Sheila da Silva Vieira ◽  
Rekha Janarthanan ◽  
Michael Amick ◽  

ObjectivesInterpersonal violence is an increasingly recognised risk of sport participation and causally linked to negative physical and mental health outcomes. Para athletes from low- and middle-income countries may be at highest risk of physical, psychological, sexual and neglect-related violence due to various factors; however, their perceptions of these abusive behaviours are unknown. This study examined the perceptions and experiences of abuse in para athletes from three lower resourced countries: Ghana, India and Brazil.MethodsQualitative data from semistructured focus group interviews conducted with 26 individuals were collected to explore characteristics of abuse observed, navigated and experienced by para athletes. The framework method for multidisciplinary qualitative research guided data analysis.ResultsAthletes identified a wide range of abusive behaviours they experienced within and outside of sport, including psychological, emotional, physical, sexual and neglect-related violence, which operated on both interpersonal and systemic levels. Most athletes described three less easily recognised forms of abuse in greater detail and more frequently than others: financial abuse, neglect and disability stigma.ConclusionIt is important to hear directly from athletes with diverse experiences and backgrounds and to integrate their insights and priorities into sport safeguarding policies, programmes and interventions. Understanding the requirements and challenges of para athletes and para sport is needed to achieve safe, equitable and inclusive sport. As new insights from diverse sport settings are added to the evidence base, globally balanced, athlete-generated and locally relevant preventative strategies can better protect all athletes.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104819
Irfan Asif ◽  
Jane S Thornton ◽  
Stephen Carek ◽  
Christopher Miles ◽  
Melissa Nayak ◽  

Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits and is proven to treat and prevent several non-communicable diseases. Specifically, physical activity enhances muscular and osseous strength, improves cardiorespiratory fitness, and reduces the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, mental health disorders, cognitive decline and several cancers. Despite these well-known benefits, physical activity promotion in clinical practice is underused due to insufficient training during medical education. Medical trainees in the USA receive relatively few hours of instruction in sports and exercise medicine (SEM). One reason for this shortage of instruction is a lack of curricular resources at each level of medical education. To address this need, the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) assembled a group of SEM experts to develop curricular guidance for exercise medicine and physical activity promotion at the medical school, residency and sports medicine fellowship levels of training. After an evidence review of existing curricular examples, we performed a modified Delphi process to create curricula for medical students, residents and sports medicine fellows. Three training level-specific curricula emerged, each containing Domains, General Learning Areas, and Specific Learning Areas; options for additional training and suggestions for assessment and evaluation were also provided. Review and comment on the initial curricula were conducted by three groups: a second set of experts in exercise medicine and physical activity promotion, sports medicine fellowship directors representing a variety of fellowship settings and the AMSSM Board of Directors. The final curricula for each training level were prepared based on input from the review groups. We believe enhanced medical education will enable clinicians to better integrate exercise medicine and physical activity promotion in their clinical practice and result in healthier, more physically active patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-105094
Marcia Faustin ◽  
Monique Burton ◽  
Shelley Callender ◽  
Rhonda Watkins ◽  
Cindy Chang

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104588
Anne D van der Made ◽  
Rolf W Peters ◽  
Claire Verheul ◽  
Frank F Smithuis ◽  
Gustaaf Reurink ◽  

ObjectiveTo prospectively evaluate 1-year clinical and radiological outcomes after operative and non-operative treatment of proximal hamstring tendon avulsions.MethodsPatients with an MRI-confirmed proximal hamstring tendon avulsion were included. Operative or non-operative treatment was selected by a shared decision-making process. The primary outcome was the Perth Hamstring Assessment Tool (PHAT) score. Secondary outcome scores were Proximal Hamstring Injury Questionnaire, EQ-5D-3L, Tegner Activity Scale, return to sports, hamstring flexibility, isometric hamstring strength and MRI findings including proximal continuity.ResultsTwenty-six operative and 33 non-operative patients with a median age of 51 (IQR: 37–57) and 49 (IQR: 45–56) years were included. Median time between injury and initial visit was 12 (IQR 6–19) days for operative and 21 (IQR 12–48) days for non-operative patients (p=0.004). Baseline PHAT scores were significantly lower in the operative group (32±16 vs 45±17, p=0.003). There was no difference in mean PHAT score between groups at 1 year follow-up (80±19 vs 80±17, p=0.97). Mean PHAT score improved by 47 (95% CI 39 to 55, p<0.001) after operative and 34 (95% CI 27 to 41, p<0.001) after non-operative treatment. There were no relevant differences in secondary clinical outcome measures. Proximal continuity on MRI was present in 20 (95%, 1 recurrence) operative and 14 (52%, no recurrences) non-operative patients (p=0.008).ConclusionIn a shared decision-making model of care, both operative and non-operative treatment of proximal hamstring tendon avulsions resulted in comparable clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up. Operative patients had lower pretreatment PHAT scores but improved substantially to reach comparable PHAT scores as non-operative patients. We recommend using this shared decision model of care until evidence-based indications in favour of either treatment option are available from high-level clinical trials.

2021 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104861
Britt Elin Øiestad ◽  
Carsten B Juhl ◽  
Adam G Culvenor ◽  
Bjørnar Berg ◽  
Jonas Bloch Thorlund

ObjectiveTo update a systematic review on the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and the risk of incident knee osteoarthritis in women and men.DesignSystematic review and meta-analysis.Data sourcesSystematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, AMED and CENTRAL in May 2021.Eligible criteria for selecting studiesLongitudinal studies with at least 2 years follow-up including baseline measure of knee extensor muscle strength, and follow-up measure of symptomatic or radiographic knee osteoarthritis. Studies including participants with known knee osteoarthritis at baseline were excluded. Risk of bias assessment was conducted using six criteria for study validity and bias. Grading of Recommendations Assessments, Development and Evaluation assessed overall quality of evidence. Meta-analysis estimated the OR for the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and incident knee osteoarthritis.ResultsWe included 11 studies with 46 819 participants. Low quality evidence indicated that knee extensor muscle weakness increased the odds of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.64) and in adult men (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.78), and for radiographic knee osteoarthritis in women: OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.71) and in men: OR 1.39 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.82). No associations were identified for knee injured populations except for radiographic osteoarthritis in men.DiscussionThere is low quality evidence that knee extensor muscle weakness is associated with incident symptomatic and radiographic knee osteoarthritis in women and men. Optimising knee extensor muscle strength may help to prevent knee osteoarthritis.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42020214976.

2021 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104642
Jamie Edwards ◽  
Anthony De Caux ◽  
James Donaldson ◽  
Jonathan Wiles ◽  
Jamie O'Driscoll

ObjectiveWe aimed to compare the efficacy of isometric exercise training (IET) versus high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in the management of resting blood pressure (BP).DesignSystematic review and meta-analysis.Data sourcesPubMed (MEDLINE), the Cochrane library and SPORTDiscus were systematically searched.Eligibility criteriaRandomised controlled trials published between 1 January 2000 and 1 September 2020. Research trials reporting the effects of IET or HIIT on resting BP following a short-term intervention (2–12 weeks).Results38 studies were analysed (18 IET and 20 HIIT), including 1583 (672 IET and 911 HIIT) participants, of which 612 (268 IET and 344 HIIT) were controls.IET produced significantly greater reductions in resting BP compared with HIIT with systolic, diastolic and mean BP effect sizes of 8.50 mm Hg vs 2.86 mm Hg (Q=17.10, p<0.001), 4.07 mm Hg vs 2.48 mm Hg (Q=4.71, p=0.03) and 6.46 mm Hg vs 3.15 mm Hg (Q=4.21, p=0.04) respectively. However, HIIT reduced resting heart rate significantly more than IET (3.17bpm vs 1.34bpm, Q=7.63, p=0.006).ConclusionWhile both modes are efficacious, IET appears to be the superior mode of exercise in the management of resting BP. However, HIIT may achieve wider physiological benefits, with greater reductions in resting heart rate.

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