dry density
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Myeonghwan Kim ◽  
Seongjun Eom

The building materials used by mankind in the past, such as stone, soil, and wood, have been environment-friendly. However, the various building materials invented over time with the development of the industrial age pose problems such as environmental hormone generation and waste generation/disposal. To overcome these problems, building materials based on soil, a traditional building material, are being developed by researchers. However, the improvement in soil’s structural characteristics is insufficient as it excessively emphasizes efficacy and function only. In this study, lime and Dobak-glue were mixed with soil to solve the structural problems and improve the strength of soil, and water content and change in strength in accordance with curing time were tested. In order to understand the change in strength, a compaction test was performed by preparing a standard specimen based on the optimum water content and maximum dry density. The lime mix required optimum water content and quantity of lime equal to 3% of soil weight, while the Dobak-glue mix was prepared by soil mixing in the same weight ratio as optimum water content. Changes in water content and compressive strength were measured over curing time of 3, 7, and 28 days. Three specimens, lime mixed specimen, Dobak-glue mixed specimen, and standard specimen, were prepared, and their water content and compressive strength values were averaged. Although the change in water content according to the curing period differed depending on the material mixed with soil, there was no significant difference between 7.12% and 2.82% after 7 days. As for the change in compressive strength, the initial compressive strength in lime mixed specimen was excellent, but the Dobak-glue mixed specimen displayed the greatest strength after 7 days. To conclude, Dobak-glue is an eco-friendly material, and it can be very useful in compensating for the structural shortcomings of soil.

Herinjaka Haga Ratsimbazafy ◽  
Aurélie Laborel-Préneron ◽  
Camille Magniont ◽  
Philippe Evon

The valorization of available agricultural by-products is important for the development of bio-aggregate based concretes as eco-friendly solutions for building materials. However, their diversity requires to assess their potential of use in vegetal concretes. This study aims to propose simple and relevant multi-physical characterization methods for plant aggregates. Basic and complementary characterizations were carried out on hemp shiv as a reference plant aggregate, and nine by-products available in the South-West part of France, i.e., oleaginous flax shiv, sunflower pith and bark, coriander straw, wheat straw, wheat chaff, corn shuck, miscanthus stem and vine shoot. The basic characterizations performed were those recommended by the TC-RILEM 236 BBM, i.e., particle size distribution, bulk density, water absorption and thermal conductivity. Complementary characterizations have also been proposed, taking into account the possible environment of the binder and the vegetal concrete manufacturing method. The additional tests developed or adapted from previous research assess the following properties: the content of water-soluble compounds at pH 7 and 12, the dry density of plant aggregates compacted in wet state, the real water absorption after compaction and the compression behavior of these compacted aggregates. This complete characterization highlights the distinct behavior of the different agroresources and allows to correlate these characteristics to the use properties of hardened composites.

Yask Kulshreshtha ◽  
Philip J. Vardon ◽  
Gabrie Meesters ◽  
Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht ◽  
Nelson J.A. Mota ◽  

The water-resistance of cow-dung has made it a widely used stabiliser in traditional earthen structures in several Asian and African countries. Multiple studies have shown an improvement in water-resistance with the addition of cow-dung, but none provides insight into this behaviour. The present study investigates the water-resistance behaviour of cow-dung stabilised earthen blocks through an extensive experimental programme to identify and characterise the components of cow-dung responsible for its water-resistance. Fresh cow-dung was collected and separated into fibres (>63 μm), medium-sized microbial aggregates (1-63 μm) and small-sized microbial aggregates (0.5-7 μm). Each component was mixed with soil and samples were prepared at different water contents (optimum water content corresponding to the highest dry density and water content higher than optimum) and compacted with 2.5 MPa force to prepare compressed blocks. The water-resistance of these blocks was evaluated through the immersion and modified drip/rain test. It was found that the small-sized microbial aggregates are almost entirely responsible for water-resistance behaviour of cow-dung stabilised earthen blocks. Small-sized microbial aggregates were further characterised by gas chromatography, mercury intrusion porosimetry, N2- BET surface area, zeta potential measurement and electron microscopy. The results indicate that the small-sized microbial aggregates are composed of clay-sized negatively charged particles that are rich in fatty acids. The hydrophobicity of these particles is hypothesised to be responsible for water-resistance behaviour. These insights are further used to produce stabilised blocks that performed at least 30 times better than the unstabilised blocks in both water-resistance tests. The study concludes with practical recommendations for the use of wet cow-dung over dry cow-dung and a reduction of fibre content to increase the water-resistance of earthen blocks.

Aurélie Laborel-Préneron ◽  
Clara Ampe ◽  
Laurent Labonne ◽  
Camille Magniont ◽  
Philippe Evon

Co-product of sunflower cultivation, pith of stem has a little exploited insulating potential. Blocks in which pith particles are glued together using a starch-based binder have already been obtained. However, they are highly water-sensitive. Replacing this binder with others has been considered here. Polysaccharide-based binders were tested, chosen for their more hydrophobic character: sodium alginate, chitosan, Citrus pectin, and a modified starch. Like starch, these binders are physically binding. They are first solubilised in water (except chitosan, dissolved in 2% acetic acid). The solution is then mixed with pith particles before cold compression molding for 90 s. A 10% binder content was initially considered. The blocks were all cohesive with a dry density from 36 to 42 kg/m3). Their performances were assessed through water absorption capacity and resistance via capillary absorption tests on wet sponges, mechanical test and thermal conductivity. Chitosan and pectin-based blocks show the best properties, particularly concerning water resistance and mechanical properties. The pectin-based block has improved its elastic modulus by 40% compared to a starch-based block. The pectin-based block in its case absorbs 2.7 times less water than starch. Finally, thermal conductivities of pectin and chitosan-based pith blocks are in the same order of magnitude as for starch (39.8-40.1 mW/m.K), and close to values from commercial materials (e.g., polystyrene). Pectin and chitosan were also tested at three rates (5%, 10% and 15%). A significant improvement in the blocks' compressive strength was observed with the increase in binder rate, while thermal conductivities varied little.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
B. Wang ◽  
J. H. Gao ◽  
Y. Q. Wang ◽  
X. J. Quan ◽  
Y. W. Gong ◽  

The direct shear tests of different dry density and moisture content samples at different temperatures of the frozen soil in the Qinghai-Tibet Railway embankment between Tanggula South and Anduo section were carried out to analyze the influence rules of each experimental factor on the mechanical properties of frozen soil during the freeze-thaw process. The results show the following. (1) When the frozen soil temperature is below 0°C and continues to drop during the freezing and thawing process, each sample shows the law of a significant increase in cohesion and a slight decrease in the internal friction angle. In the meantime, the cohesion obtained during the thawing process of the sample at the same temperature point is higher than that obtained during the freezing process. In contrast, the internal friction angles exhibit an opposite law, where the internal friction angle during the melting process is lower than the internal friction angle during the freezing process. After freezing-thawing action, it deserves to be mentioned that the cohesion increases slightly while the internal friction angles present a slight decrease trend compared to the initial state. (2) With the decrease in temperature and the gradual increase in cohesion, the temperature curve can be divided into a fast-growing section from 0 to −2°C, a slow-growing section from −2 to −8°C, and a second fast-growing section from −8 to −10°C owing to the combined effect of the pressure-thawing action and ice-water phase change. In addition, the rate of decrease in the internal friction angle also shows a similar pattern. (3) The cohesion and the internal friction angle of samples both tend to increase first and then decrease with the rise of the initial moisture content, and the critical initial moisture content is near the optimal moisture content of 15%. (4) Both the cohesion and the internal friction angle of the samples increase with dry density growth. The growth rate of cohesion will gradually increase as the temperature decreases. Moreover, the growth rate of cohesion of low dry density samples is more susceptible to temperature, while the internal friction angle growth rate is not affected by temperature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 90-99
Lusmeilia Afriani ◽  
Nursyirwan Nursyirwan ◽  
Ryzal Perdana ◽  
Rina Febrina ◽  
Yan Juansyah

It is widely accepted that soil is a mixture of mineral constituents that have accumulated over time. The physical characteristics of soil vary according to the mineral and organic matter content and the process of formation. The soil`s unique characteristics have been the subject of research in the field of civil engineering, which has continued to evolve to the present day due to the land`s requirement for civil engineering construction, such as road paving. As a result, the current study sought to determine the similarity of soil samples based on their physical properties and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values, as well as the relationship between the soil`s physical properties and CBR values. To our knowledge, there is hardly little research in the literature investigating the topic under our investigation. Furthermore, we also mapped the physical characteristics and CBR values of numerous distinct soil samples using a Geographical Information System (GIS). This study concentrated on the West Lampung Regency, specifically the area between Bukit Kemuning in Central Lampung and Liwa in West Lampung, along the lines of Bukit Kemuning, Liwa, and Krui, all the way to the Lampung – Bengkulu province border. The soil samples from the area were taken for two tests: the unsoaked CBR test and the soaked CBR test. The results of the tests show that a 31-kilometre distance does not result in a significant difference in soil properties, which are generally similar except in clay-rich areas. Furthermore, the results of the laboratory analysis show that the amount of water in the soil sample affects the Liquid Limit (LL), Plastic Limit (PL), Maximum Dry Density (MDD), and CBR values; the lower the plastic limit value, and thus the lower the CBR value, the less water in the soil. The implications of the current findings are also discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Guoping Qian ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Xiangbing Gong ◽  
Xi Li ◽  
Yalong Zhang

Phosphorus slag, known as the waste product of the phosphate ore industry, is causing critical environmental issues due to its direct exposure to natural spaces. In this article, a partial replacement of the natural fine aggregate ordinarily used in cement-stabilized macadam (CSM) base by phosphorus slag was explored to be an effective solution for phosphorus slag waste. CSM specimens were fabricated by adding various dosages of phosphorus slag particle and fine powder, whereas the optimum moisture content and maximum dry density were analyzed through compaction tests. Compressive strength, bending tensile strength, fatigue life span, dry shrinkage, and temperature shrinkage performance at different curing durations were investigated to evaluate the properties of modified macadam. Results show that phosphorus slag reduced the early compressive strength of CSM to a small extent, but the compressive strength finally increased at 90 days’ curing. The modified slag particles and slag fine powder exhibited different behaviors to repeated loading, moisture loss, and temperature difference. Finally, according to the strength change, fatigue performance comparison, and shrinkage strain caused by the incorporation of phosphorous slag materials into the CSM, it was verified that 25% of the particles to 40% of the fine powder is the best replacement ratio.

Arun Kumar Jat

Abstract: Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a valuable, high quality material that can be replace over expensive virgin aggregates and binder that can be used for technical, economical and environmental reasons. Use of RAP can be favored all over the world over virgin material on the light of increasing cost of bitumen, the scarcity of high quality aggregates and the pressing need to preserve the environment. Overlay and maintenance resolve medium distress, but reconstruction may feasible and economical while Asphalt pavement are badly deteriorated with time and traffic. This requires the removal of existing pavement surfaces. Recycling such construction waste has benefited from economic to sustainability point of view and reduce the exploitation of natural resources. The shortage of virgin aggregate supplies along with the increase in processing and hauling cost have encouraged the use of reclaimed material from the old structure as base course construction materials and involved in regular practice in various countries around the world. Keywords: RAP1-Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement, DBM2-Dense Bitumenous Macadam,ITS3- Indirect Tensile Strength,MDD4- Maximum Dry Density,OMC5-Optimum Moisture Content, HMA6-Hot Mix Asphalt, UCS7-Unconfined Compressive Strength, CIPR8-Cold In Place Recycling.

Dr. G. Sireesha

Abstract: The variation of the stress-strain behavior and shear -parameters of reinforced silty sand is studied. The geotextiles were provided at different heights in the sample and tested in unconsolidated undrained condition. Two types of geotextiles, woven and nonwoven were used as reinforcement and the experiment was conducted at three water contents. Tests were performed on samples prepared at OMC, dry of OMC and wet of OMC in order to study the effect of water content. The results demonstrated that geotextile inclusion increases the peak strength, axial strain at failure. The sample was found to fail due to bulging between the layers. Keywords: Optimum Moisture Content, Maximum Dry Density, Unconsolidated Undrained, Deviator Stress, Normal Stress

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 123-129
Kamal Ahmed Rashed ◽  
Nihad Bahaaldeen Salih ◽  
Tavga Aram Abdalla

Soil’s characteristics are essential for the successful design of projects such as airports runway and flexible pavement. CBR (California Bering Ratio) is one of the significant soil characteristics for highways and airports projects. Thus, the CBR property can be used to determine the subgrade reaction of soil through correlations. Many of the soil geotechnical parameters such as compaction characteristics (Maximum Dry Density, MDD; Optimum Moisture Content, OMC), and consistency parameters (Liquid Limit, LL; Plastic Limit, PL; Plasticity Index, PI) can be in charge of changes that happen in soil CBR value. Soaked and/or non-soaked conditions of soils also affect CBR value. Hence, testing soils in a laboratory for CBR calculation is time-consuming that needs notable effort. Therefore, this study aims to generate some useful correlations for soil’s CBR with compaction and consistency parameters for 85 samples of fine-grained soils. The study trials were applied on natural soil samples of various places in Sulaimani Governorate, Northern Iraq. Statistical analysis has been carried out by using SPSS software (Version 28). Soaked CBR is counted, which is important for conditions such as rural roads that remain prone to water for few days. Based on the statistical analysis, there is a significant correlation between LL, PL, PI, MDD, and OMC with CBR as the dependent variable as a single variable equation with R2 of  0.7673, 0.5423, 0.5192, 0.6489, and 0.51, respectively. In addition, the highest value of R2 correlation was obtained between CBR value with consistency and compaction properties as a multiple regression equation with R2 of 0.82. The obtained equations for correlation purposes are successfully achieved and can be used, notably, to estimate CBR value.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document