normal values
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Bo Sun ◽  
Hongfen Wang ◽  
Zhaohui Chen ◽  
Fang Cui ◽  
Fei Yang ◽  

Background: Contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) is used to diagnose small fiber neuropathy (SFN). We established the normal values of CHEPs parameters in Chinese adults, optimized the test technique, and determined its reproducibility.Methods: We recruited 151 healthy adults (80 men; mean age, 37 ± 14 years). CHEPs was performed on the right forearm to determine the optimal number of stimuli, and then conducted at different sites to establish normal values, determine the effects of demographic characteristics and baseline temperature, and assess the short- (30 min) and long-term (1 year) reproducibility. N2 latency/height varied with age and sex, while P2 latency/height and N2–P2 amplitude varied with age. The optimal number of stimuli was three.Results: N2 latency/height (t = 5.45, P < 0.001) and P2 latency/height (χ2 = −4.06, P < 0.001) decreased and N2–P2 amplitude (t = −5.01, P < 0.001) and visual analog scale score (χ2 = −5.84, P < 0.001) increased with increased baseline temperature (35 vs. 32°C). CHEPs parameters did not differ with time (baseline vs. 30 min vs. 1 year).Conclusion: We established normal CHEPs values in Chinese adults. We found that CHEPs parameters changed with baseline temperature and that the short- and long-term test reproducibility were satisfactory.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 100-111
Amir n. Saleem

The activity of a single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at dose of 200 mcg/kg of body weight was evaluated against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal parasites in mules. Faecal samples were examined at the time of treatment and weekly thereafter up to 4 weeks. Results indicated that invrmectin was highly effective (100%) against Oxyuries equi, Strongyloides westeri, Tristostronglus axei, Trichhonema spp., and Strongylus spp. as judged one week after ivermectin administration.  Complete elimination of Parascaris equorum eggs occurred two weeks after treatment. In contrast, ivermectin was not effective against the tape worms, Anoplocephala spp.. Infected animals had low levels of haemoglobin and red blood cells counts and an elevated packed cell volume, white blood cells and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.  These values returned to normal values 21 days post treatment. No adverse reaction was recorded in the treated animals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Laura Deborah Locati ◽  
Mara Serena Serafini ◽  
Andrea Carenzo ◽  
Silvana Canevari ◽  
Federica Perrone ◽  

In an immune-competent context nivolumab showed long-term benefit in overall survival in recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, in special cancer population such as these patients with immunodeficiency and viral infections, data on checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) activity are scant. Herein, we report a patient with a Human papilloma virus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and CD4 lymphocytopenia. After a first-line treatment complete remission, the patient experienced Human Polyomavirus (JCV) infection in the brain. Consequently, to the recovery from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) the patient metastasized and was enrolled in a single-arm trial with nivolumab (EudraCT number: 2017-000562-30). A complete and durable response (more 3 years) was observed after 10 nivolumab injections Q2wks, interrupted for persistent drug related G2 diarrhea and a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. We describe the circulating immune profile (before-, during-, and after nivolumab), consistent with the clinical history. Moreover, during nivolumab treatment, brain MRI evidenced the presence of small punctuate areas of contrast enhancement, reflecting a mild immune response in perivascular spaces. By cytofluorimetry, we observed that during JCV infection the CD4/CD8 ratio of the patient was under the normal values. After JCV infection recovery and before nivolumab treatment, CD4/CD8 ratio reached the normality threshold, even if the CD4+ T cell count remained largely under the normal values. During ICI, gene expression xCell analyses of circulating immune cells of the patient, showed a progressive normalization of the total immune profile, with significant boost in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a reduction in NK T, comparable to the circulating immune profile of reference tumor-free HNSCC patients. The present case supports the activity of ICI in a population of special cancer patients; whether JCV and HPV infections (alone or together) might have a possible role as immune booster(s), require further investigations.

2022 ◽  
Frederieke A.J. Gigase ◽  
Nina M. Molenaar ◽  
Roy D. Missall ◽  
Anna-Sophie Rommel ◽  
Whitney Lieb ◽  

Objective: Dysregulation of the immune system during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Recent studies report cytokine changes during the acute phase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examine whether there is a lasting association between SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and peripheral blood cytokine levels. Study design: We conducted a case-control study at the Mount Sinai health system in NYC including 100 SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody positive people matched to 100 SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody negative people on age, race/ethnicity, parity, and insurance status. Blood samples were collected at a median gestational age of 34 weeks. Levels of 14 cytokines were measured. Results: Individual cytokine levels and cytokine cluster Eigenvalues did not differ significantly between groups, indicating no persisting maternal cytokine changes after SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the acute inflammatory response after SARS-CoV-2 infection may be restored to normal values during pregnancy.

Salvador Pérez Muñoz ◽  
David Recouvreur Encinas ◽  
Antonio Sánchez Muñoz ◽  
Alberto Rodríguez Cayetano

The aim of the research was to analyze how the practice of small sided games influences technique and decision-making in U-12 football players male, with modification of the space. There were 12 U-12 players participating. They carried out 20 training sessions based on small sided games of football on a playing field that is surrounded by walls generating an enclosed playing space. The sample showed normal values in the Saphiro-Wilk test. The main results show that there are significant differences in the pass and control variables, and there is a significant improvement in the execution and decision-making actions. Decision-making showed significant differences in all the indicators. Therefore, it improves the technique and decisions in specific game situations, through the use of small sided games, in this way it can be considered as a methodological resource to be used in these training phases. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar cómo influyen la práctica de juegos reducidos sobre la técnica y la toma de decisiones en jugadores sub-12 de fútbol masculino, con modificación del espacio. Participaron 12 jugadores Sub-12. Realizaron 20 sesiones de entrenamiento basado en juegos reducidos de fútbol en un campo de juego que está rodeado con paredes generando un espacio de juego cerrado. La muestra presentó valores normales en la prueba de Saphiro-Wilk. Los principales resultados mostraron que existen diferencias significativas en las variables de pase y control, y se mejoran las acciones técnicas y la toma de decisiones de forma significativa. La toma de decisiones presentó diferencias significativas en todos los índices. Por lo tanto, mejora la técnica y las decisiones en situaciones específicas de juego, mediante el uso de los juegos reducidos, de esta forma se puede considera como un recurso metodológico a utilizar en estas etapas de formación.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 56-57
D. Vandroux ◽  
C. Houehanou ◽  
A. Sonou ◽  
D. Saka ◽  
J. Magne ◽  

Biomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (4) ◽  
pp. 742-746
Tugolbai Tagaev ◽  
Farida Imanalieva ◽  
Sagynali Mamatov ◽  
Yethindra Vityala ◽  
Altynai Zhumabekova

Introduction and Aim: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by diminished bone strength that increases the risk of fracture in instances of trivial trauma. The objective was to conduct ultrasound bone densitometry in different age groups (18-60 years and older) in southern Kyrgyzstan, to identify and study the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study a total of 1200 participants were included, where 580 men and 620 women were aged between 18-60 years and older. Based on the age, the participants were divided into three groups. Bone mineral density in participants was measured using a SONOST-3000 densitometer model. The study was conducted among the population of the Osh and Jalal-Abad regions.   Results: Among the population of Osh state in the first group, normal values were found in 65.0%, osteopenia in 26.0%, and osteoporosis in 9.0% of participants. In the second group, values were significantly higher than in the first group. In the third age group, values exceeded significantly compared to the first and second groups. Similar data were obtained from the population of Jalal-Abad state, but a significant difference was found in the elderly people group with a higher percentage of osteopenia and osteoporosis.   Conclusion: The results showed the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in participants of different age categories of Osh and Jalal-Abad states, and especially in the elderly. Depending on the gender distribution, the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in our study is significantly higher in women than in men.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 617-620
N. R. Pandya ◽  
G. C. Mandali ◽  
K. M. Dave ◽  
S. K. Raval ◽  

The present study was carried out during August 2019 to March 2020 for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of mange in camel. A total of fourteen positive cases of mange infestation were selected for the therapeutic trial. The therapeutic trial was carried out with the use of two different treatment viz., aqueous extract of Wrightia tinctoria (20%) and coconut oil in mangy camels. The mite count was performed on weekly interval up to five weeks. The camels had more than twenty Sarcoptic mites on day 0 (pre-treatment). The mite count was gradually decreased on fifth week and the mite reduction was 96.50% and 96.77% in group A & B, respectively. The haematology shows the significantly (p<0.05) increase in Hb, TEC, PCV, Neutrophils and Monocytes whereas, significantly (p<0.05) decreased in TLC, and Lymphocyte. The serological and mineral estimation shows the significant (p<0.05) increase in values of total protein, ALT and Zinc; whereas creatinine, AST and copper were decreased significantly (p<0.05). After treatment of mange infected camels with two different treatments the values of all these hemato-biochemical and micromineral constituents returned nearer to normal values of camels. Thus, aqueous extract of Wrightia tinctoria (20%) and coconut oil gave positive effect on mange infested camels.

Sh. K. Yusupova ◽  

The aim of the study was to study the relationship between aldosterone and the degree of obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes associated with chronic heart failure.The features of metabolic and hormonal disorders were studied in 65 patients with DM2 and CHF, including 29 women and 36 men.The patients were subjected to anthropometric studies (OT, OB, OT/OB, BMI). The interpretation of BMI indicators was carried out in accordance with WHO recommendations. In the studied groups of subjects, lipid fluctuations varied from normal values to their significant deviations in group 3 of patients with grade 2 obesity.The main physiological effects of aldosterone that are important in CHF are 1) sodium and fluid retention (activation of renal aldosterone receptors); 2) activation of aldosterone-dependent; 3) increased excretion of potassium and magnesium; 4) delayed excretion of norepinephrine.So, our results confirm the results of these studies and require further study.In 54.5% of patients with DM2 and CHF with obesity of the 1st degree and 81.8% of patients with obesity of the 2nd degree, an increased level of plasma aldosterone is determined, accompanied by an increased content of renin, p < 0.05

Janni Kjærgaard Thillemann ◽  
Sepp De Raedt ◽  
Emil Toft Petersen ◽  
Katriina Bøcker Puhakka ◽  
Torben Bæk Hansen ◽  

Abstract Background Measurement of in vivo distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) pathomechanics during simple activities can represent the disability experienced by patients and may be useful in diagnostics of DRUJ instability. A first step is to describe the physiological normal limits for DRUJ kinematics in a reproducible and precise test setup, which was the aim of this study. Methods DRUJ kinematics were evaluated in 33 participants with dynamic radiostereometry (RSA) while performing a standardized press test examination. AutoRSA software was used for image analyses. Computed tomography (CT) forearm bone models were generated, and standardized anatomical axes were applied to estimate kinematic outcomes including, DRUJ translation, DRUJ position ratio, and changes in ulnar variance. Repeatability of dynamic RSA press test double examinations was evaluated to estimate the precision and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) test–retest agreement. Results The maximum force during the press test was 6.0 kg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1–6.9), which resulted in 4.7 mm (95% CI: 4.2–5.1) DRUJ translation, DRUJ position ratio of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.33–0.44), and increase in ulnar variance of 1.1 mm (95% CI: 1.0–1.2). The mean maximum DRUJ translation leveled off after a 5 kg force application. The DRUJ translation ICC coefficient was 0.93 within a prediction interval of ± 0.53mm. Conclusions This clinical study demonstrates the normal values of DRUJ kinematics and reports excellent agreement and high precision of the press tests examination using an automated noninvasive dynamic RSA imaging method based on patient-specific CT bone models. The next step is the application of the method in patients with arthroscopic verified triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. Level of Evidence This is a Level IV, case series study.

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