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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 266-272
Lila Amila ◽  
Ezrin Syariman bin Roslan ◽  
Nabila ◽  
Widati Fatmaningrum

Birth weight serves as an indicator of a newborn’s health status. It is associated with mortality rate in the first year, developmental problems in childhood and risk of various diseases in adulthood. Even in modern era, it continues to be a health concern globally, especially in developing countries. In Indonesia, the prevalence of low birth weight has increased from 2013 to 2018, swaying further from the national target. Low birth weight is often caused by insufficient nutrients supplied by the mother to the fetus. In Indonesia, chronic energy deficiency status is diagnosed in the first antenatal care visit by measuring maternal middle-upper arm circumference with a cut-off point of 23.5cm. Meanwhile, iron level is measured via assessing hemoglobin level will be measured in the first antenatal care visit and in trimester III. This study aims to describe the factors that may influence neonatal birth weight. It is a quantitative study with a cross sectional approach conducted at Sidotopo Wetan Public Health Centre. 97 samples are collected from medical records and analysed using bivariate correlative test. Result shows that maternal age (0.20), chronic energy deficiency status (0.026) and antenatal care visit minimal of 4 times (0.49) increase the risk of low-birth-weight incidence. On the other hand, educational level, maternal parity and anemia status does not acts as risks. In conclusion, maternal age, energy status and visits to antenatal care acts as risk factors in causing low birth weight.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 723-727
Varun Upadhyay ◽  
Sujata Lakhtakia ◽  
Baldev Sastya ◽  
Anamika Tiwari

To study the clinical profile of anterior uveitis in patients attending the Ophthalmology department of tertiary health centre of central India A cross-sectional, observational study was done in the department of Ophthalmology of tertiary health centre from January 2017 to July 2019. A total of 199 cases of anterior uveitis were studied to assess their clinical presentation and etiology. After thorough history taking, demographic data and clinical pattern were documented. Comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, necessary laboratory investigations and radiological imaging were performed to establish the etiology. The maximum number (n=79; 39.7%) of patients were in the age group of 21-40 years and the mean age of the study subjects was 36.9+21.8 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1.42 (117 females, 82 males). Uniocular disease was found in 91.95% cases and majority (n=175; 87.93%) of the patients had acute presentation with 95.47% cases having non granulomatous uveitis. A specific diagnosis could not be made in 62.8% cases. Trauma (21.7%) was the most common cause in patients with a specific diagnosis. Persistent posterior synechiae was the most frequently seen complication (21.08%) although majority of the patients (66.8%) did not reveal any major complications.Patients with anterior uveitis most commonly had acute presentation. The disease was rarely bilateral and was mostly non-granulomatous in presentation. It was mostly idiopathic and among the known etiological factors, trauma was the most common cause.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 322-325
Thomas Mathew ◽  
Shweta Ajay ◽  
B Ramakrishna Goud ◽  
Deepthi Narayan Shanbhag ◽  
Charles J Pallan ◽  

The prevalence of primary headache disorders (PHDs) and their burden has been seldom studied in the rural community setting of a developing country. To study the prevalence of primary headache disorders and their burden in the rural community A door to door survey was done in seven rural villages under Mugalur sub centre area, Sarjapura Primary Health Centre and Anekal taluk, Bangalore district, Karnataka State, south India, for finding the prevalence and burden of PHDs. During the study period of three months, a total of 1255 people were screened in the seven villages. 13.1% (165/1255) of people suffered from PHDs. The population prevalence of migraine without aura was 8.84% (111/1255), tension type headache was 2.86% (36/1255) and chronic migraine was 1.43%(18/1255). The mean number of headache days for all the PHDs was 4.26 (±1.64) days. 66.1% of persons with headache reported minimal or infrequent impact of headache. Among various demographic variables, headache was significantly associated with the female gender and marital status. PHDs are prevalent in the rural communities of developing countries and need urgent attention of primary care physicians, community health departments, governmental agencies and policy makers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 291-297
M.S. Madhu ◽  
S.M. Ahmed ◽  
Raghavendra. K.V.

There are no approved drugs to treat COVID-19, and the vaccine is likely to be ready by early 2021. Many clinical studies are ongoing around the globe to find a cure or prevention of the disease. The objective of the proposed study is to determine the efficacy and safety profile of Mulmina Mango as an adjunct to standard of care treatment on COVID-19 positive subjects undergoing treatment for COVID-19 in Hospital Quarantine. Settings and Design: The enrolled subjects were randomized into either of the two treatment arms in the ratio of 1:1. The freshly diagnosed (24-48 hrs.) COVID-19 positive Male or Female is aged 20 to 65 years (both inclusive) hospitalized patients were approached and checked for their eligibility. They were recruited after signing the written informed consent form. The number of patients included in the study is 48. In efficacy, both the treatment arms and the reduction in clinical symptom scale value and ordinal scale value are seen on day 7. On the ordinal scale, 41.7% of subjects in Treatment arm A showed a reduction of 2 points on the day, and 16.7% of subjects show 2 points reduction in Treatment arm B. In Safety results, there was no clinically significant finding in safety parameters in Treatment arm B. Mulmina Mango showed encouraging results concerning RTPCR, CRP, Dopamine, IgG, CD4, and CD8 parameters. The properties of Mulmina Mango are highlighted below, along with the parameters for each property. Mulmina Mango, COVID-19, Treatment Arm A, Treatment Arm B, MoHFW (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare)

2022 ◽  
Binod Shrestha ◽  
Dan Green ◽  
Manish Baidya ◽  
Tim Chater ◽  
Jiban Karki ◽  

Abstract Background: Large inequalities in child health remain in Nepal, with caste, ethnicity and sex being major determinants of deprivation and negative outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore whether key demographics on under 5s were associated with health seeking behaviours, utilisation of health care, and treatment received.Methods: Data came from Integrated Management of Neonatal & Childhood Illness (IMNCI) records of 23 health centres across five districts. After digitising the paper records, district, ethnicity, sex, age and temperature of the child were used to predict the number of days taken to seek medical care for Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), diarrhoea and fever. In addition to this, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment of pneumonia was assessed against IMNCI guidelines, again using the demographic factors of interest to predict these outcomes.Results: From 116 register books spanning 23 health centres, 33,860 child patient records were considered for analysis. The median age of attendance was 16 months (Inter-Quartile Range= 9, 30), while there were more male children that attended (55.8% vs. 44.2% for females). There were statistically significant differences for the time taken to attend a health centre between different districts for ARI, diarrhoea and fever, with children in the remote Humla and Mugu districts taking significantly longer to present at a health facility after the onset of symptoms (all p<0.012). Children from underprivileged ethnic groups, Madhesi and Dalit, were less likely to be given a correct diagnosis of pneumonia (p=0.001), while males were more likely to receive a correct diagnosis than females (73% vs. 67%, p=0.001). This sex difference remained in the adjusted regression models for diagnosis of pneumonia (p=0.011) but not for treatment of pneumonia (p=0.202).Conclusions: Significant demographic differences were found based on ethnicity, sex, and district when examining health seeking behaviours for ARI, diarrhoea, and fever. Significant associations were seen for these same factors when exploring accuracy of diagnoses of pneumonia, but not for treatment. This study has emphasised the importance of a digitalised healthcare system, where inequalities can be identified without the reliance on anecdotal evidence.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Alma Kurent ◽  
Dragica Kosec

Background: Childhood vision screening is aimed at the detection of reduced vision due to amblyopia, thus enabling early diagnosis and timely intervention. The purpose of the study was to review the demographics and visual parameters of children referred to the ophthalmologist at Community Health Centre Ljubljana from Slovenian community-based vision screening program and define the visual outcome after treatment in children with amblyopia. Methods: Retrospective medical records review of children referred from community-based vision screening program for further assessment. Medical records were reviewed to determine findings from ophthalmic assessments, treatment received, and visual acuity at the final visit. The main outcome measures were the cause of visual impairment and the visual acuity at the final follow-up visit. Results: From 439 children (mean age 7.3 +/- 3.7 years) referred from community-based vision screening program, 75 children (17%; mean age 5.3 +/- 2.6 years) had amblyopia and received treatment. They had amblyogenic refractive error (3.67 +/- 2.44 diopters of sphere and 1.86 +/- 1.23 diopters of astigmatism) with uncorrected visual acuity on average 0.32 +/- 0.28 logMAR in the worse eye. Visual outcomes after treatment were good with a visual acuity of 0.04 +/- 0.07 logMAR in the worse eye, 60% of them had a visual acuity of 0.00 logMAR (40/40). Conclusion: Children with amblyopia in the presented clinical sample were mostly diagnosed and treated before the school-age. These children showed significant improvement in visual acuity in the amblyopic eye.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Gang Li ◽  
Donglan Zhang ◽  
Zhuo Chen ◽  
Da Feng ◽  
Xinyan Cai ◽  

Abstract Background Early accurate diagnosis and risk assessment for malaria are crucial for improving patients’ terminal prognosis and preventing them from progressing to a severe or critical stage. This study aims to describe the accuracy of the initial diagnosis of malaria cases with different characteristics and the factors that affect the accuracy in the context of the agenda for a world free of malaria. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 494 patients admitted to hospitals with a diagnosis of malaria from January 2014 through December 2016. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and decision tree analysis was performed to predict the probability of patients who may be misdiagnosed. Results Of the 494 patients included in this study, the proportions of patients seeking care in county-level, prefecture-level and provincial-level hospitals were 27.5% (n = 136), 26.3% (n = 130) and 8.3% (n = 41), respectively; the proportions of patients seeking care in clinic, township health centre and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention were 25.9% (n = 128), 4.1% (n = 20), and 7.9% (n = 39), respectively. Nearly 60% of malaria patients were misdiagnosed on their first visit, and 18.8% had complications. The median time from onset to the first visit was 2 days (IQR: 0-3 days), and the median time from the first visit to diagnosis was 3 days (IQR: 0–4 days). The decision tree classification of malaria patients being misdiagnosed consisted of six categorical variables: healthcare facilities for the initial diagnosis, time interval between onset and initial diagnosis, region, residence type, insurance status, and age. Conclusions Insufficient diagnostic capacity of healthcare facilities with lower administrative levels for the first visit was the most important risk factor in misdiagnosing patients. To reduce diagnostic errors, clinicians, government decision-makers and communities should consider strengthening the primary care facilities, the time interval between onset and initial diagnosis, residence type, and health insurance status.

2022 ◽  
Carmen Herrero-Rodríguez ◽  
Raquel Almansa ◽  
Amanda de la Fuente ◽  
Misericordia Martínez-Huélamo ◽  
Maria Pilar Vicente-Andres ◽  

Abstract Early detection of patients with respiratory infection at risk of deteriorating could help to improve their outcome by facilitating immediate transfer to the hospital to receive the adequate level of care. In this regard, gene expression profiling is emerging as a promising tool to identify patients with infection at risk of suffering a complicated outcome. In a cohort of patients with respiratory infection attending to an Emergency Room at a community health centre, we quantified expression levels in blood of five genes involved in the granulocyte biology that have been previously described to be linked to infection severity: MMP8 (matrix metallopeptidase 8), LCN2 (lipocalin-2), LTF (lactotransferrin) and PRTN3 (proteinase 3) and FCER1A (receptor for Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I). Expression levels of these genes were evaluated to predict hospitalization. Multivariate analysis adjusted by the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), neurovascular disease, hypertension and age revealed that all these genes independently predicted hospitalization. Nonetheless, the ratio between PRTN3/FCER1A outperformed individual genes to predict necessity of hospitalization (OR [CI95%], p: 8.36 [2.02-34.52],0.003). In conclusion, quantification of PRTN3/FCER1A gene expression ratio could represent a useful test to early identify those patients with respiratory infection at risk of deterioration in extra-hospital settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e246494
Robin Shepherd ◽  
Alexandra Crossland ◽  
Rafal Turo ◽  
Michelle Christodoulidou

We describe an unusual case of a male patient presenting with penile and testicular swelling following an unprotected and traumatic sexual encounter. It was suspected that an isolated penile injury occurred during intercourse; however, ultrasound imaging identified an intact tunical layer and right-sided epididymo-orchitis. Following screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), he was discharged with antibiotics and advice to attend the Sexual Health Centre for contact tracing. He represented with a periurethral abscess and an antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) strain of Neisseria gonorrhoea was identified. Appropriate antibiotic treatment was initiated. Examination-under-anaesthesia, following abscess drainage, revealed a contained collection with no urethral fistula; however, a flat urethral lesion was seen during urethroscopy. Repeat urethroscopy and biopsy of the lesion indicated polypoid urethritis. Periurethral abscess secondary to gonococcal urethritis is a rare complication, but one that we should be suspicious of, especially with the growing incidence of AMR-STIs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 22-47
Maurice Ekwugha

COVID-19 is a relatively new disease, and most victims are in low income, people-facing jobs. The most economically disadvantaged in society are less able to comply with certain non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) partly due to their financial situation. Hope for the Helpless (H4H), set up as part of a micro social enterprise to cater for rough sleepers in London, UK, is at the heart of the COVID-19 response to the homeless there. A lack of financial resources or capital can constrain social entrepreneurs and restrict their ability to create social capital. However, some social entrepreneurs have been able to innovatively leverage on previous relationships to augment their resource base because engagement with stakeholders is critical. The study explores one such relationship between H4H and a local health centre. It is hoped that this study will uncover survival strategies for social entrepreneurs to succeed and thrive in a post-COVID-19 world.

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