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Athina I. Amanatidou ◽  
Andriana C. Kaliora ◽  
Charalampia Amerikanou ◽  
Stefan Stojanoski ◽  
Natasa Milosevic ◽  

Whereas the etiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complex, the role of nutrition as a causing and preventive factor is not fully explored. The aim of this study is to associate dietary patterns with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in a European population (Greece, Italy, and Serbia) affected by NAFLD. For the first time, iron-corrected T1 (cT1), proton density fat fraction (PDFF), and the liver inflammation fibrosis score (LIF) were examined in relation to diet. A total of 97 obese patients with NAFLD from the MAST4HEALTH study were included in the analysis. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the quality of diet and food combinations. Other variables investigated include anthropometric measurements, total type 2 diabetes risk, physical activity level (PAL), and smoking status. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify dietary patterns. Six dietary patterns were identified, namely “High-Sugar”, “Prudent”, “Western”, “High-Fat and Salt”, “Plant-Based”, and “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry”. The “Western” pattern was positively associated with cT1 in the unadjusted model (beta: 0.020, p-value: 0.025) and even after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), PAL, smoking, the center of the study, and the other five dietary patterns (beta: 0.024, p-value: 0.020). On the contrary, compared with low-intake patients, those with medium intake of the “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” pattern were associated with lower values of cT1, PDFF, and LIF. However, patients with a “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” dietary pattern were negatively associated with MRI parameters (cT1: beta: −0.052, p-value: 0.046, PDFF: beta: −0.448, p-value: 0.030, LIF: beta: −0.408, p-value: 0.025). Our findings indicate several associations between MRI parameters and dietary patterns in NAFLD patients, highlighting the importance of diet in NAFLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 977
Simona Rinaldi ◽  
Michela Contò ◽  
Salvatore Claps ◽  
Cinzia Marchitelli ◽  
Gianluca Renzi ◽  

Milk fat depression (MFD) syndrome, a consistent decrease in milk fat content, is related to important changes in fatty acid composition due to feed imbalances and the consequent ruminal metabolism alteration. Milk produced in two different farming systems was compared: Holstein Friesian fed with unified in intensive production and Podolica raised on a pasture in an extensive system. Milk chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition were determined comparing milk with a normal fat level (>3.8%) to milk with a low fat level (<3.2%) in each breeding system. Holstein Friesian milk showed the decrease in trans-11 and increase in trans-10 C18:1 (shift from trans-11 to trans-10 C18:1) in low fat with respect to normal fat milk with a consequent decrease in the trans-11/trans-10 C18:1 ratio. Even conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, was lower while CLA trans-10, cis-12 was higher in low fat milk than in normal fat milk from Holstein Friesian. These changes, that are indicators of MFD syndrome, were not found in Podolica milk between fat levels. Holstein Friesian milk showed less short-chain fatty acids (9.48 % vs. 11.05%, p < 0.001), trans vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11, 0.51% vs. 3.39%, p < 0.001), rumenic acid (CLA C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, 0.32% vs. 1.45%, p < 0.001) and total CLA (0.53% vs. 1.91%, p < 0.001) contents than Podolica milk. Further losses of these human healthy nutrients in low fat Friesian milk reduced the nutritional quality of the milk, while the milk from animals raised on the pasture was of better quality even when the level of fat was low.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Iurii Stafeev ◽  
Maria Boldyreva ◽  
Svetlana Michurina ◽  
Elizaveta Mamontova ◽  
Elizaveta Ratner ◽  

Background: Among vascular pathologies associated with obesity, peripheral artery disease (PAD) occupies the important position. In clinical practice, nutritional interventions are recommended for patients with PAD. In this work, we investigated how the different dietary backgrounds affect the regeneration rate of ischemic hindlimb in mice.Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were housed on three types of diet: low-fat (LFD), high-fat (HFD), and grain-based diet (GBD) for 13 weeks. Metabolic parameters including FBG level, ITT, and GTT were evaluated. The blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler scanning on 7, 14, and 21 days after hindlimb ischemia. Necrotic area of m.tibialis, macrophage infiltration, and angiogenesis/arteriogenesis were evaluated by histology. Glucose uptake in recovered skeletal muscle was analyzed using [3H]-2-deoxyglucose, and GLUT1 and GLUT4 expression were assessed by Western blotting.Results: In our work, we developed three experimental groups with different metabolic parameters: LFD with normal glucose metabolism, GBD with mild hyperglycemia, and HFD with impaired glucose tolerance. GBD-fed mice had a tendency to increase necrosis of m. tibialis and significantly higher macrophage infiltration than LFD and HFD groups. Moreover, GBD-fed mice had a trend to decreased blood flow recovery and significantly impaired arteriogenesis. Recovered skeletal muscle of GBD-fed mice had lower glucose uptake and decreased level of GLUT4 expression.Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that dietary background and metabolic status determine the rate of post-ischemic regeneration including angiogenesis, skeletal muscle recovery and metabolic activity. The most effective regeneration is supported by LFD, while the lowest rate of regeneration occurs on GBD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00021
Tri Umar Satriawan ◽  
Herly Evanuarini ◽  
Imam Thohari

Low fat mayonnaise as a low-calorie product modification has low emulsion stability. Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) has a high protein content and can act as a good emulsifier for emulsion of mayonnaise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate of a low-fat mayonnaise using WPC based on pH, moisture content, viscosity, and protein content. The materials used are egg yolk, sunflower seed oil, vinegar, WPC, and other complementary materials. This study used a laboratory experiment with a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment using control treatment without additional use of WPC and treatments using WPC as much as 5%, 10%, and 15% of the total oil use. The variables measured were pH, moisture content, viscosity, and protein. The results showed that the use of WPC in mayonnaise gave significantly different on pH, moisture content, viscosity, and protein content. The conclusion of this research that the use of WPC as much as 15% produces the best low fat mayonnaise.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 69
Josephine Skat-Rørdam ◽  
Kamilla Pedersen ◽  
Gry Freja Skovsted ◽  
Ida Gregersen ◽  
Sara Vangsgaard ◽  

Oxidative stress is directly linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the progression to steaotohepatitis (NASH). Thus, a beneficial role of antioxidants in delaying disease progression and/or accelerating recovery may be expected, as corroborated by recommendations of, e.g., vitamin E supplementation to patients. This study investigated the effect of vitamin C deficiency—often resulting from poor diets low in fruits and vegetables and high in fat—combined with/without a change to a low fat diet on NAFLD/NASH phenotype and hepatic transcriptome in the guinea pig NASH model. Vitamin C deficiency per se did not accelerate disease induction. However, the results showed an effect of the diet change on the resolution of hepatic histopathological hallmarks (steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning) (p < 0.05 or less) and indicated a positive effect of a high vitamin C intake when combined with a low fat diet. Our data show that a diet change is important in NASH regression and suggest that a poor vitamin C status delays the reversion towards a healthy hepatic transcriptome and phenotype. In conclusion, the findings support a beneficial role of adequate vitamin C intake in the regression of NASH and may indicate that vitamin C supplementation in addition to lifestyle modifications could accelerate recovery in NASH patients with poor vitamin C status.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261506
Arnon Gal ◽  
Williams Cuttance ◽  
Nick Cave ◽  
Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos ◽  
Aaron Herndon ◽  

New Zealand farm working dogs are supreme athletes that are crucial to agriculture in the region. The effects that low or high dietary carbohydrate (CHO) content might have on their interstitial glucose (IG) and activity during work are unknown. The goals of the study were to determine if the concentration of IG and delta-g (a measurement of activity) will be lower in dogs fed an ultra-low CHO high fat diet in comparison to dogs fed a high CHO low fat diet, and to determine if low concentrations of IG are followed by reduced physical activity. We hypothesized that feeding working farm dogs an ultra-low CHO diet would reduce their IG concentrations which in turn would reduce physical activity during work. We prospectively recruited 22 farm dogs from four farms. At each farm, dogs were randomized to one of two diets and had a month of dietary acclimation to their allocated diet. The macronutrient proportions as a percentage of metabolizable energy (%ME) for the high CHO low fat diet (Diet 1) were 23% protein, 25% fat, and 52% CHO, and for the ultra-low CHO high fat diet (Diet 2) 37% protein, 63% fat, and 1% CHO. Following the acclimation period, we continuously monitored IG concentrations with flash glucose monitoring devices, and delta-g using triaxial accelerometers for 96 h. Dogs fed Diet 2 had a lower area under the curve (±SE) for IG (AUC Diet 2 = 497 ± 4 mmol/L/96h, AUC Diet 1 = 590 ± 3 mmol/L/96h; P = 0.002) but a higher area under the curve (±SE) for delta-g (AUC Diet 2 = 104,122 ± 6,045 delta-g/96h, AUC Diet 1 = 80,904 ± 4,950 delta-g/96h; P< 0.001). Interstitial glucose concentrations increased as the activity level increased (P < 0.001) and were lower for Diet 2 within each activity level (P < 0.001). The overall incidence of low IG readings (< 3.5 mmol/L) was 119/3810 (3.12%), of which 110 (92.4%) readings occurred in the Diet 2 group (P = 0.001). In the Diet 2 group, 99/110 (90%) of the low IG events occurred during the resting period (19:00–06:00). We conclude that feeding Diet 2 (ultra-low CHO high fat diet) to working farm dogs was associated with increased delta-g despite decreased IG concentrations. Interstitial glucose concentrations were positively associated with dogs’ activity levels independent of diet. Lastly, events of low IG occurred at a low incidence and were predominantly seen between 19:00–06:00 in dogs fed the ultra-low CHO high fat diet.

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