Co2 Storage
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2022 ◽  
Vol 114 ◽  
pp. 103556
A.M. Kassa ◽  
S.E. Gasda ◽  
D. Landa-Marbán ◽  
T.H. Sandve ◽  
K. Kumar

2022 ◽  
Vol 114 ◽  
pp. 103579
Tae Wook Kim ◽  
Catherine Callas ◽  
Sarah D. Saltzer ◽  
Anthony R. Kovscek

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Vagia Ioanna Makri ◽  
Spyridon Bellas ◽  
Vasilis Gaganis

Although subsurface traps have been regularly explored for hydrocarbon exploration, natural gas and CO2 storage has drawn industrial attention over the past few decades, thanks to the increasing demand for energy resources and the need for greenhouse gas mitigation. With only one depleted hydrocarbon field in Greece, saline aquifers, salt caverns and sedimentary basins ought to be evaluated in furtherance of the latter. Within this study the potential of the Greek subsurface for underground storage is discussed. An overview and re-evaluation of the so-far studied areas is implemented based on the available data. Lastly, a pragmatic approach for the storage potential in Greece was created, delineating gaps and risks in the already proposed sites. Based on the above details, a case study for CO2 storage is presented, which is relevant to the West Katakolo field saline aquifer.

Lithosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (Special 4) ◽  
Jie Ren ◽  
Yuan Wang ◽  
Di Feng ◽  
Jiakun Gong

Abstract Deep saline aquifers have strong heterogeneity under natural conditions, which affects the migration of carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into the reservoir. How to characterize the heterogeneity of rock mass is of great significance to research the CO2 migration law during CO2 storage. A method is proposed to construct different heterogeneous models from the point of view of whether the amount of data is sufficient or not, the wholly heterogeneous model with sufficient data, the deterministic multifacies heterogeneous model which is simplified by lithofacies classification, and the random multifacies heterogeneous model which is derived from known formation based on transfer probability theory are established, respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the migration law of CO2 injected into the above three heterogeneous models. The results show that the migration of CO2 in heterogeneous deep saline aquifers shows a significant fingering flow phenomenon and reflect the physical process in CO2 storage; the migration law of CO2 in the deterministic multifacies heterogeneous model is similar to that in the wholly heterogeneous model and indicates that the numerical simulation of simplifying the wholly heterogeneous structure to the lithofacies classification structure is suitable for simulating the CO2 storage process. The random multifacies heterogeneous model based on the transfer probability theory accords with the development law of sedimentary formation and can be used to evaluate the CO2 migration law in unknown heterogeneous formations. On the other hand, by comparing the dry-out effect of CO2 in different heterogeneous models, it is pointed out that the multifacies characterization method will weaken the influence due to the local homogenization of the model in small-scale research; it is necessary to refine the grid and subdivide the lithofacies of the local key area elements to eliminate the research error. The research results provide feasible references and suggestions for the heterogeneous modeling of the missing data area and the simplification of large-scale heterogeneous models.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 344
Ping Yue ◽  
Rujie Zhang ◽  
James J. Sheng ◽  
Gaoming Yu ◽  
Feng Liu

As the demands of tight-oil Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and the controlling of anthropogenic carbon emission have become global challenges, Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration (CCUS) has been recognized as an effective solution to resolve both needs. However, the influential factors of carbon dioxide (CO2) geological storage in low permeability reservoirs have not been fully studied. Based on core samples from the Huang-3 area of the Ordos Basin, the feasibility and influential factors of geological CO2 sequestration in the Huang-3 area are analyzed through caprock breakthrough tests and a CO2 storage factor experiment. The results indicate that capillary trapping is the key mechanism of the sealing effect by the caprock. With the increase of caprock permeability, the breakthrough pressure and pressure difference decreased rapidly. A good exponential relationship between caprock breakthrough pressure and permeability can be summarized. The minimum breakthrough pressure of CO2 in the caprock of the Huang-3 area is 22 MPa, and the breakthrough pressure gradient is greater than 100 MPa/m. Huang-3 area is suitable for the geological sequestration of CO2, and the risk of CO2 breakthrough in the caprock is small. At the same storage percentage, the recovery factor of crude oil in larger permeability core is higher, and the storage percentage decreases with the increase of recovery factor. It turned out that a low permeability reservoir is easier to store CO2, and the storage percentage of carbon dioxide in the miscible phase is greater than that in the immiscible phase. This study can provide empirical reference for caprock selection and safety evaluation of CO2 geological storage in low permeability reservoirs within Ordos Basin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh ◽  
Irfan Ullah ◽  
Muzaffar Ali

Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in natural rocks is an important strategy for reducing and capturing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. The amount of CO2 stored in a natural reservoir such as natural rocks is the major challenge for any economically viable CO2 storage. The intricate nature of the porous media and the estimates of the replacement of residing aqueous media with the invading CO2 is the challenge. The current study uses MATLAB to construct a similar porous network model for simulation of complex porous storage. The model is designed to mimic the overall properties of the natural porous media in terms of permeability, porosity and inter-pore connectivity. Here a dynamic pore network is simulated and validated, firstly in the case of a porous network with one fluid invading empty network. Subsequently, the simulations for an invading fluid (CO2) capturing the porous media with filled aqueous brine solution are also carried out in a dynamic fashion. This resembles the actual storage process of CO2 sequestration in natural rocks. While the sensitivity analysis suggests that the differential pressure and porosity have a direct effect on saturation, increasing differential pressure or porosity increases the saturation of CO2 storage. The results for typically occurring rocks in Pakistan are also studies and related with the findings of the study.

2021 ◽  
Yuting Zhang ◽  
Samuel Krevor ◽  
Chris Jackson ◽  
Christopher Zahasky ◽  
Azka Nadhira

As a part of climate change mitigation plans in Europe, CO2 storage scenarios have been reported for the United Kingdom and the European Union with injection rates reaching 75 – 330 MtCO2 yr-1 by 2050. However, these plans are not constrained by geological properties or growth rates with precedent in the hydrocarbon industry. We use logistic models to identify growth trajectories and the associated storage resource base consistent with European targets. All of the targets represent ambitious growth, requiring average annual growth in injection rates of 9% – 15% from 2030-2050. Modelled plans are not constrained by CO2 storage availability and can be accommodated by the resources of offshore UK or Norway alone. Only if the resource base is significantly less, around 10% of current estimates, does storage availability limit mitigation plans. We further demonstrate the use of the models to define 2050 rate targets within conservative bounds of both growth rate and storage resource needs.

2021 ◽  
Yuting Zhang ◽  
Samuel Krevor ◽  
Chris Jackson

Existing centralised databases of industrial-scale CCS report various characteristics including capture capacities but do not specify the amount of CO2 stored from commercial CCS facilities. We review a variety of publicly available sources to estimate the amount of CO2 that has been captured and stored by operational CCS facilities since 1996. We organise these sources into three categories broadly corresponding to the associated degree of legal liability or auditing. Data were found for twenty commercial-scale facilities, indicating a combined capture capacity of 36 MtCO2 per year. Combining data from all three categories suggests that approximately 27 MtCO2 of this was stored in the subsurface in 2019. However, considering only categories 2 and 1 of reporting, storage estimates for 2019 reduce to 25 MtCO2 and 11 MtCO2, respectively. Nearly half of the projects investigated here are reporting injection rates close to their originally proposed capture rate capacity. Our data also show that between 1996 and 2020, 196 Mt of CO2 has been cumulatively stored, combining data for all three categories. The database presented here provides further insight into the factors influencing performances of CCS operations and the data can be used to parameterise energy system models for analysing plausible scaleup trajectories of CCS.

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