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Published By Universitat Politecnica De Valencia

1989-8886, 1257-5011
Updated Thursday, 01 July 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 99
Author(s):  
Jinxiang Wang ◽  
S. Sun ◽  
Y. Chen ◽  
D. Chen ◽  
L. Sang ◽  
...  

<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is a well-known pathogen that infects humans and animals. However, information on the fatal respiratory infection in rabbits caused by<em> S. aureus</em> is still limited. In the present study, a <em>S. aureus</em> isolate designated ND01 was recovered from lung samples of rabbits that died of fatal respiratory infection, and the ND01 was characterised by intranasal infection of rabbits, multi-locus sequencing typing, screening virulence genes and testing antimicrobial susceptibility. Clinical signs of matted forepaws and pathological lesions of haemorrhagic tracheitis and necrotising haemorrhagic pneumonia were observed in the ND01 infected rabbits, which were identical to those of naturally infected ones. The sequence type of the ND01 was defined as ST3320 and the ND01 was further grouped into the clonal complex 398. Notably, the ND01 was <em>pvl-positive</em> <em>S. aureus</em> and carried the human-associated scn gene. Moreover, the ND01 was methicillin-susceptible <em>S. aureus</em> and was susceptible to 6 of 10 tested antibiotics. This study described the characteristics of the ND01 causing fatal respiratory infection in rabbits. The results are helpful to further the understanding of the pathogenicity of S. aureus ST3320 clone in rabbits. The results also highlighted that operators must be on the alert for the colonisation of <em>pvl-positive</em> <em>S. aureus</em> in rabbits and potential transmission events between rabbits and humans.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 69
Author(s):  
Łukasz Migdał ◽  
Sylwia Pałka

In animal breeding, selection based on growth is very often used, as this trait affects the profitability of animal production. Identification of  polymorphisms within the genes affecting the growth process seems to be very important. Therefore, we decided to analyse rabbit myogenin (<em>MyoG</em> gene) for potential polymorphic sites and their association with growth and carcass traits in Termond White (TER), Belgian Giant Grey (BGG) and crossbred New Zealand White×Belgian Giant Grey (NZW×BGG) rabbits. We found three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) – in 5’ upstream sequence g.68679476 C&gt;T, in exon 1 – silent mutation g.68680096 T&gt;C and g.68680097 G&gt;A resulting in change of GTG triplet (valine) into ATG triplet (methionine). Association analysis showed that GG genotype weaning weight was statistically higher compared to GA in TER population (<em>P</em>=0.005), and that the hind parts for GG genotypes were heavier compared to those of GA (<em>P</em>=0.024), but association analysis of dissectible parts showed this was caused by higher bone weight (<em>P</em>=0.015). For g.68679476 C&gt;T in NZW×BGG population, the CC genotypes for fore (678±35) and hind part (615±29) weights were heavier compared to CT (588±16 and 549±13, respectively); moreover, association analysis of dissectible parts showed that weight of dissectible meat in hind part. Unfortunately, we did not find similar associations for other analysed breeds. For g.68679476 C&gt;T in NZWxBGG musculus longissimus lumborum pH leg after 24 h chilling (pH24L) were statistically lower for CC genotypes compared to CT (<em>P</em>=0.027). For g.68680097 G&gt;A in Termond White population L* value on the hind leg after 24 h chilling (L*24H) was higher for GA genotypes compared to GG (<em>P</em>=0.03), while for g.68679476 C&gt;T for musculus longissimus lumborum L* value after 24 h (L*24L) CC genotypes had higher value compared to CT (<em>P</em>=0.016) in BGG population. Moreover, in BGG population CT genotypes had higher weaning weight compared to CC (<em>P</em>=0.018). Our results show that SNPs within the <em>MyoG </em>gene may influence growth traits in some rabbit breeds, but the evolutionary conserved sequence may not be favourable for changes within coding sequences. For a better understanding thereof, additional analysis is required.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 87
Author(s):  
Adeline Huneau-Salaün ◽  
Samuel Boucher ◽  
Julie Fontaine ◽  
Bernadette Le Normand ◽  
Sébastien Lopez ◽  
...  

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a critical health threat to the rabbit industry in Europe. In 2018, the French rabbit industry adopted a voluntary control plan against this disease. In this context, two epidemiological studies were conducted on RHD outbreaks that occurred between 2013 and 2018 in France. The objectives were to describe the spread of RHD due to the new genotype RHDV GI.2 (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus GI.2) and to identify rearing factors influencing the occurrence of the disease in order to guide the prevention measures recommended in the control plan. An analysis of cases on 295 farms between 2013 and 2017 showed that 32% of farms were affected at least once; the incidence of the disease increased in 2016-2017 compared to 2013-2015. Farms already affected in 2013-2015 had a higher risk of being infected in 2016-2017 than those that remained unaffected until 2015 (Relative Risk and 95% Confident Interval 1.7 [1.1-2.7]). A case-control study carried out between 2016 and 2018 on 37 outbreaks and 32 control farms revealed variability in biosecurity and decontamination practices between farms. The risk of being infected tends to be linked to these practices, but certain structural factors (e.g. the manure disposal system, transfer of rabbits at weaning) could also influence the risk of virus introduction into farms. In the context of a limited vaccination coverage of the farms (only females are vaccinated), these hypotheses will be studied further, using information from the RHD outbreak monitoring system implemented at the same time as the control plan in 2018.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 81
Author(s):  
Ejaz Ahmad ◽  
Zahid Naseer ◽  
Melih Aksoy

In the present study, we evaluated the sustaining effect of various glutathione (GSH) concentrations in extender on rabbit sperm attributes during storage at 5°C for 24 h. Semen was collected from regular donor rabbit bucks using an artificial vagina and initially evaluated for sperm quality. The qualifying ejaculates were diluted with one of the extenders having 0, 1, 2, 4 or 8 mM GSH, to achieve a final concentration of 1×108 sperm/mL. The extended samples were stored at 5°C for 24 h. Sperm motility, motion kinetics, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed after 3, 6, 12 and 24 h of storage. The results showed that total sperm motility and sperm motion kinetics (oscillation index of the sperm, straightness index and beat cross frequency) were influenced (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) by glutathione dose and refrigeration time. An interaction of (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) GSH concentrations and refrigeration time was observed for sperm viability and acrosome reaction rate. In conclusion, the 4 mM GSH supplemented extender’s protective influence was remarkable to maintainrabbit sperm quality for 24 h 5°C.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 109
Author(s):  
Kassy Gomes da Silva ◽  
Mariah Gomes Stange ◽  
Martina Pergorara ◽  
Cristina Santos Sotomaior ◽  
Saulo Henrique Weber ◽  
...  

Environmental enrichment improves rabbit welfare in rabbitries. Various toys for cats and dogs are commercially available, which are made of materials that could be safely used for rabbits as well. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether cardboard and rubber materials could be used for environmental enrichment for rabbits. The study involved 42 adult New Zealand white rabbits (20 females and 22 males), randomly assigned to seven treatment groups: “C”, without object (control); “RB”, a solid rubber ball; “FT”, a fillable teether filled with hay; “CH”, a cardboard hole; “CS”, a piece of a cat scratcher; “CSC”, a piece of a cat scratcher with catnip; “CF”, an articulated cardboard fish. The behaviour of the rabbits and the percentage of destruction of the objects were recorded for 28 d. The normal behaviours of locomotion, rearing, stretching, stereotypies and sitting were not influenced by the treatments. Lying down was observed more frequently than the full stretched out position for resting. The FT-treatment group presented most behaviours of interaction (biting and sniffing) (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) as compared to RB, CSC, and CF-treatment groups. All the objects showed some level of destruction; the mean rates of destruction for CH, CS, CSC and CF were up to 40%, whereas those for FT and RB were under 30%. Taken together, the results suggest that cardboard and rubber materials can be used as means of environmental enrichment for rabbits.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 115
Author(s):  
Kassy Gomes da Silva ◽  
Tâmara Duarte Borges ◽  
Leandro Batista Costa ◽  
Cristina Santos Sotomaior

<p>Rabbit production has great growth potential in a country where animal production is very important. However, there is little data about this industry in Southern and Southeast Brazil. The aim of this study was to describe Brazilian rabbit farms that provide meat, pets and animals for learning or research. Three pet farms, four meat farms and five research rabbit farms were visited, and the production and farm characteristics data were collected between June 2018 and March 2019. A total of 1170 rabbits and 617 cages were evaluated. Most farms had 21 to 60 (58.3%) does. Considering all farms, the farmers reported an average rate of conception of 71.8%, prolificacy rate of 6.7 kits per parturition, average interval between parturitions of 65 d and 6.3 parturitions/doe yr. The mean mortality rate for breeding rabbits was 10.4%, compared to 1.7% for growing rabbits (rabbits post-weaning until slaughter or sale). The average area of a cage was 0.43±0.1 m², with an average stocking density for growing rabbits of 3 rabbits/m². The most common cage system used by farmers was a flat-deck (66.7% of farms) system with a wire cage (91.7%). Metal (41.7%) and clay (33.3%) feeders were the most common types of feeders, and automatic nipple drinkers were present in 75% of the farms. Dirt accumulation was observed in 11.2% of the cages and 5.7% of the drinkers, but not in feeders. A total of 4.1% of the cages were considered unsafe, and 0.8% had problems with the drinkers. The farms studied ranged from small to medium in size, used an extensive reproductive rhythm and followed basic production techniques. Animal health and management aspects need to be reviewed by the farmer if the rabbit production conditions are to improve.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Author(s):  
Maher Hasab El-Nabi Khalil ◽  
Abdelfatah R. Zaghloul ◽  
Mahmoud M. Iraqi ◽  
Ayman G. El Nagar ◽  
Sherif I. Ramadan

<p>Although growth hormone (<em>GH</em>) gene mutations are described in several species, the studies concerning their variabilities and associations with economic traits in rabbits are scarce, particularly associations with semen traits. A total of 149 rabbit bucks from five populations (V-line=36, Moshtohor line=28, APRI line=42, cross ½A½M=23, and Gabali=20) were used in the present study to identify polymorphism of c.-78 C&gt;T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of <em>GH</em> gene among these populations and to investigate the association of <em>GH</em> gene polymorphism with body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DG) and semen traits. DNA was extracted from blood samples for genotyping of c.-78 C&gt;T SNP of <em>GH</em> gene based on polymerase chain reaction with the restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The genetic diversity of SNP C&gt;T of <em>GH</em> gene was assessed in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies, effective number of alleles (Ne), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), reduction in heterozygosity due to inbreeding (F<sub>IS</sub>) and polymorphism information content (PIC). Three genotypes of TT, CC and TC of PCR product of 231 bp of <em>GH</em> gene were detected and all the populations were in HWE in terms of <em>GH</em> gene. The highest Ne was obtained for the Moshtohor line (1.978), while the lowest allelic numbers were obtained for V-line (1.715) and Gabali breed (1.800). The highest genotype frequency of <em>GH</em> gene was 0.48 in TT genotype of V-line, 0.21 in CC genotype of Moshtohor line, 0.67 and 0.56 in TC genotype of ½A½M and Gabali rabbits (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). The highest frequency for C allele was recorded by Moshtohor line (0.45) and the lowest frequency by Gabali (0.32). The genetic diversity scores for <em>GH</em> gene were intermediate (Ho=0.551, He=0.471, PIC=0.358). The values of Ho ranged from 0.444 in V-line to 0.667 in ½A½M cross, while the values of He were 0.425 in V-line and 0.508 in Moshtohor line. The values of PIC were moderate and ranged from 0.332 in V-line to 0.375 in M-line. The highest F<sub>IS</sub> was observed in Moshtohor line (0.042) and the lowest value was observed in ½A½M cross (–0.413). The CT genotype of <em>GH</em> gene showed the highest and significant values for body weights at 4, 8, 10 and 12 wk (542, 1131, 1465 and 1861 g) and daily gains at intervals of 4-6 and 8-10 wk (23.1 and 26.5 g). Additionally, the CT genotype recorded the highest and significant values for volume of ejaculate (1.1 mL), sperm motility (57.6%), live sperm (85.6%), normal sperm (93.1%) and sperm concentration in semen (611×106/mL), along with the lowest and significant values for dead sperms (14.4%) and abnormal sperms (6.9%).</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Author(s):  
Yingjie Wu ◽  
Ang Zhao ◽  
Yinghe Qin

<p>In order to establish a lighting regime suitable for rabbit farms in East China, the effects of lighting schedule, intensity and colour on the reproductive performance of rabbit does were evaluated by three experiments, respectively. In experiment 1, does were exposed to different lighting schedules: 16L:8D-continuous, 16L:8D-18d (6 d before artificial insemination (AI) to 12 d post-AI), 16L:8D-6d (6 d before AI to the day of AI) and 12L:12D-continuous. In experiment 2, does were exposed to different light intensities: 40 lx, 60 lx, 80 lx and 120 lx. In experiment 3, does were exposed to different light colours: white, yellow, blue and red. For all experiments, conception rate, kindling rate and pre-weaning mortality were calculated; litter size at birth, litter weight at birth, litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning and individual kit weight at weaning were recorded. Results showed that none of the reproductive parameters of does were affected by the application of 16L:8D-18d lighting schedule compared with the continuous 16L:8D group(<em>P</em>&gt;0.05). Moreover, rabbits does exposed to 80 lx light performed as well as those under 120 lx light in conception rate, kindling rate, litter size (total and alive) at birth and litter weight at birth (<em>P</em>&gt;0.05). Furthermore, the exposures of 60 lx and 80 lx light were beneficial for litter weight at weaning. In addition, red light had a positive effect, as it led to a larger litter size and litter weight at weaning and lower pre-weaning mortality than white light (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). In summary, a 16L:8D photoperiod with 80 lx red light from 6 d before AI to 12 d post-AI is recommended for use in breeding of rabbit does according to our results.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 51
Author(s):  
Rafik Belabbas ◽  
Maria de la Luz García ◽  
Hacina AinBaziz ◽  
Ali Berbar ◽  
Maria José Argente

<p>The aim of this study was to estimate the limiting litter size components in rabbit females from a Synthetic line (n=32) and a Local population (n=34). Ovulation rate, number of implanted and live embryos were counted by laparoscopy at 12 d after mating. Prolificacy (total newborn, number born alive and mortality) and embryonic, foetal and prenatal survival at day of birth of the 3<sup>rd</sup> gestation were measured. The analysed traits were body weight of the female at mating, ovulation rate, implanted, live and resorbed embryos, embryonic, foetal and prenatal survival, as well as total newborn, number born alive and mortality at birth. Synthetic line females had a higher ovulation rate compared to the Local population (11.03±0.23 vs. 8.41±0.23 corpora lutea; <em>P</em>&lt;0.0001). Synthetic line displayed a higher number of implanted embryos (10.00±0.25 vs. 7.85±0.25 embryos; <em>P</em>&lt;0.0001). No difference was found between groups for number of resorbed embryos. Similar embryonic, foetal and prenatal survival rates were reported between the Synthetic line and the Local population. Additionally, total newborn was higher in the Synthetic line than in the Local population (+1.46 kits; <em>P</em>&lt;0.05). A principal components analysis was performed. The first four principal components (PC) explained more than 90% of the total variation in both lines. Total newborn, number born alive and live embryos were the main variables defining the 1<sup>st</sup> PC. Resorbed embryos and foetal survival were located in the 2<sup>nd</sup> PC. Ovulation rate and embryonic survival were the predominant variables defining the 3<sup>rd</sup> PC. The body weight of females was located in the 4<sup>th</sup> PC. The phenotypic correlation between total newborn and its components were high and positive in both lines, except for ovulation rate and total newborn, where it was moderate in Synthetic line. In conclusion, the females from Synthetic line have a higher total newborn than those from Local population, as a consequence of a higher number of released oocytes and embryos that successfully reach implantation. However, a higher uterine crowding in Synthetic line seems to limit survival of foetuses that reach term of gestation, while ovulation rate is the principal limiting factor of total newborn in Local population.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Author(s):  
Deyana Gencheva Gencheva ◽  
Tsvetoslav V. Koynarski ◽  
Vanya Dafova ◽  
Svetlin G. Tanchev

Five rabbit populations of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CAL), crossbred NZW×GW and two generations of the synthetic population – SPF<sub>1</sub> and SPF<sub>2</sub> reared in Bulgaria were included in the present study with the aim of detecting the genetic variability of the growth hormone encoding gene (<em>GH</em>) via polymerase chain reaction with the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing. The targeted region of the rabbit <em>GH</em> gene was amplified and a fragment of a total of 231 bp was obtained in all studied populations. Allele identification was determined after enzymatic digestion, where two fragments of 62 and 169 bp correspond to allele C and an undigested fragment of 231 bp corresponds to allele T. Two additional bands of 107 and 124 bp evidenced A/G genetic polymorphism in the rabbit <em>GH</em> gene. Thirtyeight percent of the studied rabbits were carriers of the double mutation (C/T+A/G) in the same locus as the studied <em>GH</em> gene. The sequence analysis revealed two nucleotide substitutions – g.111C&gt;T and g.156A&gt;G in the non-coding region between the regulatory TATA box and 5’ UTR region, and a novel g.255G&gt;A genetic variant in intron 1 of GH gene. The A&gt;G transition was most frequent (40.57%), compared to the other ones, G&gt;A (28.57%) and C&gt;T (10.80%), respectively. The most frequent genotype in the NZW population was homozygous TT (0.93), with a prevalence of the T allele (0.97) over allele C (0.03) for g.111C&gt;T SNP site. The distribution of the allele and genotype frequencies at the sites g.156A&gt;G and g.255G&gt;A in this rabbit group was identical, with the highest value of 0.93 for alleles A and G, respectively. The rabbit populations CAL and NZW×GW showed equal frequencies of the prevalent T allele (0.83) and for homozygous TT genotype (0.67) according to g.111C&gt;T SNP. The highest values were obtained for the allele А (0.83) and for homozygous AA genotype (0.67) at c.33A&gt;G SNP in these rabbit groups. The highest values (0.67, 0.60 and 0.80) for the heterozygous genotypes at g.111C&gt;T, g.156A&gt;G and g.255G&gt;A SNPs, respectively, were detected among the SPF<sub>2</sub> rabbit population, compared to the both homozygous genotypes. The results obtained in the present research indicates a significant degree of genetic variability of the studied polymorphic <em>GH</em> locus in the SPF<sub>2</sub> rabbit group.


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