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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-61
Budi Waluyo ◽  
Rahmah Bakoko

Recently, Willingness to Communicate (WTC) has been explored and proposed to be one of the key concepts for identifying when one decides to initiate communication in the target language. The attention, nonetheless, has been concentrated on how WTC interacts with other learners’ variables. This study, on the other hand, intends to offer empirical evidence on the direct roles of affective variables (self-confidence, anxiety, motivation, and grit) and WTC variables (WTC inside the classroom, WTC outside the classroom, and WTC in a digital setting) in Thai students’ English-speaking performance. The data were obtained from 35 undergraduate students (17.1% males; 82.9% females) using a survey questionnaire. Then, a speaking test was taken from an English Communication Skills course and was analysed using correlation and hierarchical regression. The results disclosed positive correlations among self-confidence, motivation, grit, WTC in a digital setting, WTC inside the classroom, WTC outside the classroom, and speaking performance, and negative correlations among self-confidence, anxiety, and grit. However, motivation was the only significant predictor of speaking performance. The findings offer some implications for English teachers in improving students’ English-speaking performance. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
David Tak Wai Lui ◽  
Chi Ho Lee ◽  
Wing Sun Chow ◽  
Alan Chun Hong Lee ◽  
Anthony Raymond Tam ◽  

BackgroundBoth lymphopenia and thyroid dysfunction are commonly observed among COVID-19 patients. Whether thyroid function independently correlates with lymphocyte counts (LYM) remains to be elucidated.MethodsWe included consecutive adults without known thyroid disorder admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for COVID-19 from July 2020 to April 2021 who had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and LYM measured on admission.ResultsA total of 541 patients were included. Median LYM was 1.22 x 109/L, with 36.0% of the cohort lymphopenic. 83 patients (15.4%) had abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs), mostly non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). Patients with lymphopenia had lower TSH, fT4 and fT3 levels than those without. Multivariable stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that both TSH (standardized beta 0.160, p<0.001) and fT3 (standardized beta 0.094, p=0.023), but not fT4, remained independently correlated with LYM, in addition to age, SARS-CoV-2 viral load, C-reactive protein levels, coagulation profile, sodium levels and more severe clinical presentations. Among the 40 patients who had reassessment of TFTs and LYM after discharge, at a median of 9 days from admission, there were significant increases in TSH (p=0.031), fT3 (p<0.001) and LYM (p<0.001). Furthermore, patients who had both lymphopenia and NTIS were more likely to deteriorate compared to those who only had either one alone, and those without lymphopenia or NTIS (p for trend <0.001).ConclusionTSH and fT3 levels showed independent positive correlations with LYM among COVID-19 patients, supporting the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and immune system in COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
pp. 001100002110480
Stacy Y. Ko ◽  
Meifen Wei ◽  
Julio Rivas ◽  
Jeritt R. Tucker

The purpose of this study was to validate the use and interpretation of scores derived from the Stigma of Loneliness Scale (SLS) with a sample of college students from a large, Midwestern university. A two-factor oblique solution with 10 items was selected through exploratory factor analysis and cross-validated through confirmatory factor analysis. Correlational evidence was demonstrated through positive correlations with loneliness and shame scores, and a negative correlation with social connectedness scores. Construct evidence was demonstrated through positive correlations with self-concealment and depression scores, and a negative association with distress disclosure scores. For incremental validity, items on the SLS accounted for additional variance in predicting contingent self-worth based on approval from others, shame, self-esteem, and social self-efficacy above and beyond scores on a measure of loneliness. The internal structure of the SLS was invariant across gender groups and across Time 1 and Time 2 assessments.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Imre Juhász ◽  
Szilvia Ujfalusi ◽  
Ildikó Seres ◽  
Hajnalka Lőrincz ◽  
Viktória Evelin Varga ◽  

Background: Afamin is a liver-produced bioactive protein and features α- and γ-tocopherol binding sites. Afamin levels are elevated in metabolic syndrome and obesity and correlate well with components of metabolic syndrome. Afamin concentrations, correlations between afamin and vitamin E, afamin and lipoprotein subfractions in non-diabetic, obese patients have not been fully examined. Methods: Fifty non-diabetic, morbidly obese patients and thirty-two healthy, normal-weight individuals were involved in our study. The afamin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Lipoprotein subfractions were determined with gel electrophoresis. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to measure α- and γ tocopherol levels. Results: Afamin concentrations were significantly higher in the obese patients compared to the healthy control (70.4 ± 12.8 vs. 47.6 ± 8.5 μg/mL, p < 0.001). Positive correlations were found between afamin and fasting glucose, HbA1c, hsCRP, triglyceride, and oxidized LDL level, as well as the amount and ratio of small HDL subfractions. Negative correlations were observed between afamin and mean LDL size, as well as the amount and ratio of large HDL subfractions. After multiple regression analysis, HbA1c levels and small HDL turned out to be independent predictors of afamin. Conclusions: Afamin may be involved in the development of obesity-related oxidative stress via the development of insulin resistance and not by affecting α- and γ-tocopherol levels.

2022 ◽  
Liliana Dell’Osso ◽  
Ivan Mirko Cremone ◽  
Ilaria Chiarantini ◽  
Alessandro Arone ◽  
Danila Casagrande ◽  

Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of ON symptoms, measured by means of the ORTO-R, in a sample of University students with or without AT, specifically focusing on evaluating the role of sex and of dietary habits in the association between ON and autism spectrum. Methods: Subjects were requested to anonymously fulfil the ORTO-R and the Adult Autism Subthreshold Autism Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) through an online form. Results: 2140 students participated in the study. Subjects with significant AT reported significantly higher ORTO-R scores than subjects without AT. Females and subjects following a vegetarian/vegan diet reported significantly higher ORTO-R scores than males and than subjects following an omnivorous diet, respectively. Significant positive correlations were found between ORTO-R and AdAS Spectrum scores. A decision tree model, with sex, type of diet and presence of AT as independent variables and ORTO-R score as dependent variable, showed in the first step the presence of significantly higher ORTO-R scores among females than among males, and in the second step showed in both sexes the presence of higher ORTO-R scores among subjects with AT than in those without. A significant interaction of sex and presence/absence of AT was reported on ORTO-R score, with a higher increasing trend of ORTO-R score with the increase of AdAS Spectrum score among females than among males. Conclusions: Our results further highlighted the association between AT and ON, in particular among females.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262447
Arjuna S. Maharaj ◽  
Jennifer Parker ◽  
Jessica P. Hopkins ◽  
Effie Gournis ◽  
Isaac I. Bogoch ◽  

Background Limitations in laboratory diagnostic capacity impact population surveillance of COVID-19. It is currently unknown whether participatory surveillance tools for COVID-19 correspond to government-reported case trends longitudinally and if it can be used as an adjunct to laboratory testing. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether self-reported COVID-19-like illness reflected laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case trends in Ontario Canada. Methods We retrospectively analyzed longitudinal self-reported symptoms data collected using an online tool–Outbreaks Near Me (ONM)–from April 20th, 2020, to March 7th, 2021 in Ontario, Canada. We measured the correlation between COVID-like illness among respondents and the weekly number of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases and provincial test positivity. We explored contemporaneous changes in other respiratory viruses, as well as the demographic characteristics of respondents to provide context for our findings. Results Between 3,849–11,185 individuals responded to the symptom survey each week. No correlations were seen been self-reported CLI and either cases or test positivity. Strong positive correlations were seen between CLI and both cases and test positivity before a previously documented rise in rhinovirus/enterovirus in fall 2020. Compared to participatory surveillance respondents, a higher proportion of COVID-19 cases in Ontario consistently came from low-income, racialized and immigrant areas of the province- these groups were less well represented among survey respondents. Interpretation Although digital surveillance systems are low-cost tools that have been useful to signal the onset of viral outbreaks, in this longitudinal comparison of self-reported COVID-like illness to Ontario COVID-19 case data we did not find this to be the case. Seasonal respiratory virus transmission and population coverage may explain this discrepancy.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 157
Kamila Pokorná ◽  
Jaroslav Čítek ◽  
Petr Doležal ◽  
Martyna Małopolska ◽  
Mirosłav Tyra ◽  

With the increasing age of boars, the possibility of androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one (AND), 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol (α-AND), and 5α-androst-16-en-3β-ol (β-AND)) occurrence increases as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate concentrations of androstenone compounds in the saliva of boars concerning the age of animals. In total, 72 boars were evaluated (24 boars per replication). The effect of age (three different ages—152, 163, and 172 days) was observed, and (Landrace × Large White) × Pietrain genotypes were used. Chemical analysis of saliva samples was conducted by multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MDGC/MS). Salivary α-AND increased with age (p < 0.05), and positive correlations were found between age and submaxillary salivary gland weight (p < 0.05), age, and salivary AND concentration (p < 0.05), body weight and submaxillary salivary gland weight (p < 0.05), submaxillary salivary gland weight and salivary β-AND concentration (p < 0.05), as well as submaxillary salivary gland weight and total salivary 5α-androstenone (AND total) concentration (p < 0.001). Nowadays, animal welfare is becoming a more and more discussed topic, and pig breeding is not an exception. Specifically, the castration ban is a current issue, so it is very important to know as much as possible about compounds responsible for boar taint. Androstenone’s appearance in boars’ saliva could be one of the most important precursors for future early detection of boar taint.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Gacek ◽  
Grażyna Kosiba ◽  
Agnieszka Wojtowicz ◽  
Guillermo F. López Sánchez ◽  
Jacek Szalewski

We aimed to analyze personality-related determinants of physical activity among Polish and Spanish physical education (PE) students. The study was conducted among 219 Polish and 280 Spanish PE students, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the NEO-FFI Personality Inventory. Compared with Spanish PE students, their Polish counterparts are characterized by a higher level of extraversion and conscientiousness and a lower level of neuroticism. The level of total physical activity for all students was 8,697.21 METs, and this value was higher among Polish students. Among Polish and Spanish PE students, the level of total, vigorous, and moderate physical activity increased along with the increase in extraversion, while a decrease occurred along with the increase in neuroticism. The level of each domain of physical activity also increased in line with the intensification of student conscientiousness. In moderation analyses, it was shown that the home country of students may be considered a moderator of the relationship between conscientiousness and total exercise in such a way that the physical activity increased along with the increase in conscientiousness only among the Polish students. In addition, the country is a moderator of the correlation between moderate physical activity and neuroticism (p = 0.031), openness (p = 0.049), and conscientiousness (p = 0.019), with moderate activity only decreasing among Polish students and increasing along with the increase in openness and conscientiousness. Positive correlations among physical activity, extraversion, and conscientiousness, as well as negative ones with neuroticism, were demonstrated among Polish and Spanish students, and also the moderating impact of the country on the correlation between personality-related dimensions and physical activity.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 842
Minshan Hu

Backgroundː Numerous in vivo human cohort studies have suggested that the apolipoprotein B100/apolipoprotein AI (ApoB100/ApoAI) ratio might be a risk factor in coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to measure ApoB100/ApoAI ratio changes in cell secretions by incubating HepG2 cells with various amounts of glucose in vitro. Methods ː HepG2 cells were cultured in low-, normal- or high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) (1, 4.5 and 10g/L, respectively). Levels of ApoAI and ApoB100 were measured with commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (cat#: H0123 and H0124) from ShangHai MEIXUAN Biological Science and Technology Ltd (Shanghai, China). Experiments were repeated six times for each assay. Resultsː The results showed that ApoB100/ApoAI ratio have positive correlations with the glucose concentration increase. Conclusionsː A higher concentration of glucose induced an undesirable ApoB100/ApoAI ratio change, which suggests a new regulatory pathway in lipoprotein catabolism and provides a cell model for further mechanism study. This finding may lead to novel therapeutic ways for diagnosis and treatment for coronary artery disease.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
María Martínez-Olcina ◽  
Laura Miralles-Amorós ◽  
Nuria Asencio-Mas ◽  
Manuel Vicente-Martínez ◽  
Rodrigo Yáñez-Sepúlveda ◽  

Triathlons are endurance events that include swimming, running, and cycling. Triathletes need to eat optimally during training and competitions to maximize their potential for success. The presence of carbohydrates in the mouth could activate regions in the brain to enhance athletic performance in exercise. Methods: This study examined the effects of glucose and mouthwash in ten male triathletes (age: 26.0 ± 8.7 years, height: 173.6 ± 10.4 cm, BMI 22.0 ± 1.7 kg/m2). The four oral test solutions included (A) Rinse with placebo, (B) Water + gel with placebo, (C) Rinse with 15% CH concentration, and (D) Water + gel with 15% CH concentration (25 g gel in 165 mL water). The Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE), Sensation Scale (FS), Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), blood glucose, sprints, and dietary habits were assessed in each subject. All preceded ingestion of the oral-based test solution during workouts. Results: RPE showed no significant differences for subjective perceptions. The same was observed for FS and sprints. FAS scores increased over time (p = 0.039) in all groups. POMS score increased significantly in group D (p = 0.041). There was no effect of time on plasma glucose levels (p = 0.737). As for correlations, positive correlations were observed between sprint and FAS variables (p = 0.011). Conclusions: It appears that CH intake correlates positively with mood, but in all other variables, there are no differences depending on the product.

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