scholarly journals Associations among traumatic experiences, threat exposure, and mental health in Pakistani journalists

Suzanna M. Koster ◽  
Hans M. Koot ◽  
Jamil A. Malik ◽  
Marit Sijbrandij
2020 ◽  
pp. 089826432097523
Stephanie Ureña ◽  
Miles G. Taylor ◽  
Dawn C. Carr

Objectives: We examine the impact of exposure to the dead, dying, and wounded (DDW) during military service on the later-life depressive symptom trajectories of male United States veterans, using psychological resilience as an internal resource that potentially moderates negative consequences. Methods: The Health and Retirement Study (2006–2014) and linked Veteran Mail Survey were used to estimate latent growth curve models of depressive symptom trajectories, beginning at respondents’ first report of resilience. Results: Veterans with higher levels of resilience do not have increased depressive symptoms in later life, despite previous exposure to DDW. Those with lower levels of resilience and previous exposure to DDW experience poorer mental health in later life. Discussion: Psychological resilience is important for later-life mental health, particularly for veterans who endured potentially traumatic experiences. We discuss the importance acknowledging the role individual resources play in shaping adaptation to adverse life events and implications for mental health service needs.

1991 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 481-490 ◽  
Derrick Silove ◽  
Ruth Tarn ◽  
Robin Bowles ◽  
Janice Reid

Growing recognition that the world faces a modern epidemic of torture has stimulated widespread interest amongst mental health professionals in strategies for the treatment of survivors. In this article we outline the distinctive experiences of torture survivors who present for treatment in western countries. These survivors are usually refugees who, in addition to torture, have suffered a sequence of traumatic experiences and face ongoing linguistic, occupational, financial, educational and cultural obstacles in their country of resettlement. Their multiple needs call into question whether “working through” their trauma stories in psychotherapy will on its own ensure successful psychosocial rehabilitation. Drawing on our experience at a recently established service [1], we propose a broader therapeutic aim.

2016 ◽  
Vol 132 (1) ◽  
pp. 85-92 ◽  
Julie A. Cederbaum ◽  
Sherrie L. Wilcox ◽  
Kathrine Sullivan ◽  
Carrie Lucas ◽  
Ashley Schuyler

Objectives: Although many service members successfully cope with exposure to stress and traumatic experiences, others have symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety; contextual factors may account for the variability in outcomes from these experiences. This work sought to understand mechanisms through which social support influences the mental health of service members and whether dyadic functioning mediates this relationship. Methods: We collected cross-sectional data as part of a larger study conducted in 2013; 321 military personnel who had at least 1 deployment were included in these analyses. Surveys were completed online; we collected data on demographic characteristics, social support, mental health measures (depression, PTSD, and anxiety), and dyadic functioning. We performed process modeling through mediation analysis. Results: The direct effects of social support on the mental health of military personnel were limited; however, across all types of support networks, greater social support was significantly associated with better dyadic functioning. Dyadic functioning mediated the relationships between social support and depression/PTSD only when social support came from nonmilitary friends or family; dyadic functioning mediated social support and anxiety only when support came from family. We found no indirect effects of support from military peers or military leaders. Conclusion: Findings here highlight the need to continue to explore ways in which social support, particularly from family and nonmilitary-connected peers, can bolster healthy intimate partner relationships and, in turn, improve the well-being of military service members who are deployed.

2005 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Anissa Abi-Dargham ◽  
Christer Allgulander ◽  
O Gureje ◽  
Rachel Jenkins ◽  
R N Kalaria ◽  

List of abstract titles and authors:1. Antipsychotics across the spectrum: An overview of their mechanisms of actionAnissa Abi-Dargham2. Recent advances in the treatment of common anxiety disordersChrister Allgulander3. Psychiatry in Africa: The myths, the realities and the exoticO Gureje4. Mental Health policy developmet in Kenya and Tanznia - A DFID funded projectRachel Jenkins, David Kima, Joseph Mbatia, Frank Njenga5. Vascular factors in Alzheimer's diseaseR N Kalaria6. Depression as an immunologically based Neurodegenerative disorderBrian Leonard7. Eight years of progress in Arican PsychiatryF Njenga8. Treatment of Depression: Present and futureDr R.M. Pinder9. Imaging the Serotinergic system in impulsive aggressive personality disorder patientsLarry J Siever, Antonia S. New, Mari Goodman, Monte Buchsbaum, Erin Hazlett, Karen O'Flynn, Anissa Abi-argham, Marc Lauelle10. Mode of action of Atypical antipsychotic rugs: Focus on A2 AdrnoceptorsT.H. SvenssonNeuroscience: Selected Abstracts11. Chemical odulato of Fronto-execuitive functions: Neropsychiatric implicationsTrevor W Robbins12. Neural mechanisms of recognition memory and of social atacntProf. G Horn13. Estrogen signling after estrogen receptor ß (ERß)Jan-Ake Gustafsson14. Getting Lost: Hippocampal contributions to agerelated memory dysfunctionCarol BarnesMetals and the brain: Selected abstracts15. Modeling the contributin of iron mismanagement to Neurological disordersProf. J R C Connor16. Aluminium-triggered fibrillogenesis of B-AmyloidsProf. PZ Zatta, Dr D Drago, Mr G Tognon, Dr F RicchelliPsychiatry in Africa:17. Psychosocal aspects of Khat use among the youth of NairobiMs T M Khamis18. PTSD among motor vehicle accident survivors, KenyaDr F A Ongecha19. Psychiatric relities within African context - The Kenyan case StudyProf. D M  N Ndetei20. Adolescent-parenta interactions from infancy, Nairobi KenyaDr L K Ksakhala, Prof. D M N Ndetei21. Alcohol use ong young persons: A focus group study in Southwest NigeriaO A Obeijide22. Personality disorders and personality traits among tyoe 2 Diabetic patientsProf. O El Rufaie, Dr M Sabosy, Dr M S Abuzeid23. Association of traumatic experiences with depression among Nigerian adolescentsDr O Omigbodun, Dr K BakareMs O B Yusuf, Dr O Esan24. Prevalence of depression among women attending outpatient clinics in MalawiDr  M Tugumisirize, Prof. Agn, Dr Musisi25. Non-fatal suicidalbehaviour at the Johannesburg General HospitalDr  M Y H Moosa, Prof. F Y Jeenah, Dr A Pillay, Pof. M Vorstere, Dr R Liebenberg26. Integrating mental health into general primary health care - Uganda's experienceDr N Kigozi27. Depression among Nigerian survivors of stroke:Prevalance and associated factorsDr F.O Fatoye Dr M A Komolafe, Dr A. O Adewuya, Dr B.A. Eegunranti Prof. M.A. Lawal28. NGO Involvement mental health care -The way forwardDr  Basangwa29. Prevalen of Attenton Deficit Hyperactivity sorder among African school childrenDr E KashalaProf. T Tylleskar, Dr I Elgen, Dr K Sommerfelt30. Barriers to effective mental health care in NigeriaMs L. Kola31. Quay of life evaluation in patients with HIV-I infection with respect to the impact of Phyttherapy (Traditional Herb in Zimbabwe)M B Sebit, S K Chandiwaa, A S Latif, E Gomo, S W Acuda, F Makoni, J Vushe

2021 ◽  
Boris Gindis

This book presents specific methods for the physical rehabilitation, mental health restoration, and academic remediation of post-institutionalized international adoptees. The focus of the book is on the neurological, psychological, and educational consequences of complex childhood trauma in the context of a fundamental change in the social situation of development of former orphanage residents. A discussion of after-adoption traumatic experiences includes a critique of certain “conventional” approaches to the treatment of mental health issues and different disabilities in international adoptees. Using his 30-year background in research and clinical practice, the author expertly describes and analyses a range of methodologies in order to provide an integrated and practical system of “scaffolding” and “compensation” for the successful rehabilitation and remediation of children with ongoing traumatic experiences. This is essential reading for researchers and practicing clinicians concerned with childhood trauma, remedial education, and issues of international adoption.

2020 ◽  
pp. 002076402095425 ◽  
Maria Sundvall ◽  
David Titelman ◽  
Valerie DeMarinis ◽  
Liubov Borisova ◽  
Önver Çetrez

Background: Problems with social networks and social support are known to be associated with mental ill-health in refugees. Social support after migration promotes resilience. Aim: To study how Iraqi refugees who arrived in Sweden after the year 2000 perceived their social networks and social support, and to relate the observed network characteristics and changes to the refugees’ mental health and well-being. Method: Semi-structured interviews with 31 refugees, including questions on background and migration experiences, a biographical network map, and three health assessment scales. The findings were analysed with descriptive statistics and content thematic analysis. Results: The respondents’ networks were diminished. Social support was continued to be provided mainly by family members and supplemented by support from authorities. The main themes of the refugee experience of post-migration challenges were weakened social networks, barriers to integration and challenges to cultural and religious belonging. Failed reunion and worrying about relatives was described as particularly painful. Negative contacts with authority persons were often seen as humiliating or discriminating. Acquiring a new cultural belonging was described as challenging. At the same time, changing family and gender roles made it more difficult to preserve and develop the culture of origin. Traumatic experiences and mental health problems were common in this group. Family issues were more often than integration difficulties associated with mental health problems. Conclusion: In order to strengthen post-migration well-being and adaptation, authorities should support the refugees’ social networks. Clinicians need to address post-migration problems and challenges, including the meaning and function of social networks.

Dorothy King ◽  
Glorianne Said

AbstractThis paper outlines a psychological skills group for unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people with a focus on cultural adaptations in the context of a UK mental health service. Unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people have typically experienced multiple losses, traumatic experiences, significant disruption and psychosocial stressors. These experiences occur during a key developmental period and outside of the context of a supportive family environment. Mental health difficulties are estimated to be present in 41–69% of this population. Prevalence rates are higher than among children seeking asylum with their families or children who are not from refugee or asylum-seeking backgrounds. Cognitive behavioural approaches were considered to be applicable and useful when working with this client group. Group approaches may offer unique benefits for this population through peer support and normalization. The group described was planned around three key themes: physical health needs, emotional wellbeing and resilience-building. A number of adaptations were made to meet the needs of this population which included engagement, considering physical health needs, sleep, language needs, issues related to power, race and status, and thinking about the needs of the group as young people. Attendance ratings, session rating scale outcomes, preliminary effectiveness data and qualitative feedback from young people identified that this is an acceptable approach for these young people. Unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people require a broad package of care; however, making adaptations to routine practice allowed access to evidence-based interventions to support mental health and wellbeing.

2000 ◽  
Vol 15 (4) ◽  
pp. 55-61 ◽  
Kathleen J. Tierney

AbstractControversies regarding the mental health consequences of disasters are rooted both in disciplinary orientations and in the widely varied research strategies that have been employed in disaster mental health studies. However, despite a history of dissensus, there are also key issues on which researchers agree. Disasters constitute stressful and traumatic experiences. However, vulnerability to such experiences, as well as to more chronic Stressors, is socially structured, reflecting the influence of socio-economic status and other axes of stratification, including gender, race, and ethnicity. Disaster events differ in the extent to which they generate stress for victims. A holistic perspective on disaster mental health would take into account not only disaster event characteristics, but also social-systemic sources of both acute and chronic stress, secondary and cumulative Stressors, and victims internal and external coping capacities.

2006 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 341-346 ◽  
Masao Ichikawa ◽  
Shinji Nakahara ◽  
Susumu Wakai

Objectives: Afghan asylum seekers in Japan were increasingly subject to detention following the terrorist attack in New York in September 2001, yet little is reported about the net impact of the detention on their mental health. We examined this by comparing asylum seekers who had once been detained in post-migration and their non-detained counterparts. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2002/03 among asylum seekers from Afghanistan who were in the process of refugee application in Japan. We contacted them through their lawyers or non-governmental organizations. Of 73 contacted, 55 agreed to participate. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25, and posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and past traumatic experiences were studied with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. These mental disorders were scored on a 4-point scale; the average symptom score of 4 indicates the worst mental health status. Results: Respondents reported a mean (SD) of 10 (4.0) pre-migration traumas. Since their arrival in Japan, 18 (33%) had once been detained. Trauma exposures and other characteristics of those detained were not significantly different from those not detained, whereas the symptom scores of anxiety (2.91), depression (2.75) and PTSD (2.90) among those detained were higher than among those not detained (2.30, 2.41, 2.34 respectively). Multiple regression analyses revealed independent adverse effects of post-migration detention, alongside exposure to greater trauma and living alone, and the effects were comparable between these variables. Conclusion: The post-migration detention of Afghan asylum seekers in Japan was independently related to their worsened mental health.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document