scholarly journals Diet of Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus)

2019 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-39 ◽  
Fagner Daniel Teixeira ◽  
Elisa Paraíso Mesquita ◽  
Michele Alves Ferreira ◽  
Felipe Carvalho de Araújo

AbstractThe Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) is a top predator and inhabits mainly preserved forests. It occurs from Mexico to Argentina and throughout Brazil, where it is threatened by extinction. It hunts birds, mammals and reptiles, picking up both on the ground and on the branches in the forest. Here we report data on a pair and one young individual of this species registered in the southeast of Minas Gerais state, eastern portion of the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. In addition, a literature review on the diet of the species was carried out aiming gather data on food habits. The nesting territory, as well as the nest was discovered in semi-deciduous seasonal forest area. We recorded predation of a Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) by the young. After two days of observation, the nest was overthrown, what allowed its screening for other food items discovered after analysis of some feathers and bones. Detailed records of predation of S. ornatus were non-existent or inaccurate. Taking together our own field observation and the literature review, we found 121 taxa consumed by S. ornatus. A total of 78 bird species were reported, mainly Galliformes, followed by medium-sized mammals (38 species), well represented by Rodentia and Primates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (04) ◽  
pp. 871-879
Estevão Luís Pereira Lima ◽  
Rone Fernando de Carvalho ◽  
Leonardo Guimarães Lessa

The Central Espinhaço Range forms a large biogeographical barrier that contains areas of ecological transition between two important conservation hotspots in Brazil: the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado. This research aims to present the first consolidated list of bird species from Parque Estadual do Biribiri (PEBI) located in the Central Espinhaço Range at Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. We recorded 172 bird species between August/November 2018 and January/April 2019, of which 15 are associated with the surrounding biomes (Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest) and three species restricted to the southeastern Brazilian mountain tops. Among those species, four are considered globally Near Threatened and 41 species are listed under wildlife trafficking species, indicating the importance of conserving this area. Therefore, our results highlight the importance of PEBI and stress the importance of such transitional areas for maintaining diversity of birds in the Espinhaço Range.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 505 (2) ◽  
pp. 187-200

Two new micro-endemic species of Eriocaulaceae are described from the Campos Rupestres of Serra Nova State Park, a conservation unit located in the Espinhaço Range in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Herein we provide descriptions, illustrations, photographs and maps, together with notes on morphology, distribution, phenology, taxonomy, and conservation. Paepalanthus ferrugineus is distinguished mainly by the reddish-brown involucral bracts, surpassing the floral disc, with the apex attenuate and tufted adaxially, tufted sepals and hairy petals. Syngonanthus polyaxis is easily differentiated by the inflorescence architecture with three morphologically distinct axial parts. Both species are considered Critically Endangered according to the IUCN Red List criteria.

2010 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-29 ◽  
Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos ◽  
Marcos Rodrigues

Montane open-habitats of southeastern Brazil are represented by the campos rupestres (principally in the Espinhaço Range) and by the campos de altitude (in the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). In spite of the occurrence of endemic species in both vegetation types, an analysis and synthesis of their bird communities have never been conducted. In this paper, we present an avifaunal survey of these areas, describe patterns of geographic distribution, and comment on the conservation of those open-habitats and their avifauna. A total of 231 bird species was recorded in the open-habitats of southeastern Brazilian mountaintops. In the campos rupestres, 205 species were recorded, while in the campos de altitude, the total was 123 species. Five patterns of distribution are recognizable among birds occurring in these habitats: non-endemic (191 species), Atlantic Forest endemics (26 species), Cerrado endemics (6 species), Caatinga endemic (1 species), and montane open-habitat endemics (7 species). In spite of the presence of several protected areas in those regions, the existing reserves do not guarantee the conservation of their important vegetation types and their avifaunas under current low levels of implementation. Since several endemic and threatened bird species live in the campos rupestres and campos de altitude, more efforts must be directed for their conservation.

2005 ◽  
Vol 119 (4) ◽  
pp. 546 ◽  
Ryan M. Wersal ◽  
Brock R. McMillan ◽  
John D. Madsen

We conducted an analysis of dabbling duck food habits in the fall of 2002 and 2003 in the Heron Lake system. Gizzard contents of hunter-harvested birds were analyzed using the percent aggregate volume method to determine what food items were consumed and in what quantity. Curltop Ladysthumb (Polygonum lapathifolium) was the food item consumed most often (82.2%) and in the greatest volume (34.2 ml). Sago Pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) was the only food item of which multiple plant parts were consumed. However, the seeds and tubers only comprised 1.27 and 0.07 of the total aggregate percent.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Jorg J. M. Massen ◽  
Sofia M. Haley ◽  
Thomas Bugnyar

Abstract Helping others is a key feature of human behavior. However, recent studies render this feature not uniquely human, and describe discoveries of prosocial behavior in non-human primates, other social mammals, and most recently in some bird species. Nevertheless, the cognitive underpinnings of this prosociality; i.e., whether animals take others’ need for help into account, often remain obscured. In this study, we take a first step in investigating prosociality in azure-winged magpies by presenting them with the opportunity to share highly desired food with their conspecifics i) in a situation in which these conspecifics had no such food, ii) in a situation in which they too had access to that highly desired food, and iii) in an open, base-line, situation where all had equal access to the same food and could move around freely. We find that azure-winged magpies regularly share high-value food items, preferably with, but not restricted to, members of the opposite sex. Most notably, we find that these birds, and specifically the females, seem to differentiate between whether others have food or do not have food, and subsequently cater to that lack. Begging calls by those without food seem to function as cues that elicit the food-sharing, but the response to that begging is condition-dependent. Moreover, analyses on a restricted dataset that excluded those events in which there was begging showed exactly the same patterns, raising the possibility that the azure-winged magpies might truly notice when others have access to fewer resources (even in the absence of vocal cues). This sharing behavior could indicate a high level of social awareness and prosociality that should be further investigated. Further studies are needed to establish the order of intentionality at play in this system, and whether azure-winged magpies might be able to attribute desire states to their conspecifics.

The Auk ◽  
1980 ◽  
Vol 97 (1) ◽  
pp. 160-166
Michael L. Avery

Abstract From April 1975 through March 1977, the food habits and breeding seasonality of a population of Sharp-tailed Munias (Lonchura striata) were studied in northwestern peninsular Malaysia. The abundance of munias on the study area varied in accordance with the 6-month rice-growing cycle there. The population peaked in March and September when juvenile birds were most numerous and when rice was most plentiful. Field observations and stomach analyses showed that the munias ate rice and the green filamentous alga, Spirogyra, almost exclusively. The primary periods of algae eating occurred in January and June-August, coinciding with the munias' two peak periods of reproductive activity, as determined by gonadal examination. Apparently munias on the study area ate Spirogyra as a source of protein to enable them to become physiologically ready for breeding, much as othe tropical bird species eat insects. Thus, unlike other species, Sharp-tailed Munias' breeding seasonality is determined by manmade cycles of rice cultivation rather than by natural cycles of rain and insect abundance.

2019 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 212-217
Keila Nunes Purificação

AbstractBeak deformities in wild birds are rarely reported. Here, I described a case of beak deformity in Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis, and also provide a review on beak deformities recorded in wild birds in Brazil. In October 2016, I observed a M. bonariensis with a grossly elongated maxilla in the east region of the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The literature review revealed 60 records of beak deformities in the Brazilian avifauna. The most common types of deformity were crossed maxillae or mandibles (38%), probable accidental injuries (27%), and elongations (15%). Deformities were reported in 35 bird species of 22 families. The most affected species was Ramphastos toco with 21 records. The number of published reports from Brazil was low overall, and are not related as an epizootic episode recorded in some bird communities.

2010 ◽  
Vol 58 (spe4) ◽  
pp. 1-9 ◽  
Luana Prestrelo Palmeira ◽  
Cassiano Monteiro-Neto

The ecomorphology and food habits of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus and Menticirrhus littoralis caught in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Niterói, RJ, were investigated between July 2006 and May 2007. These fish species differ morphologically, but present similarities in their diet composition suggest some slight overlapping in their diet. The importance of food items was assessed using Kawakami and Vazzoler's feeding index. Morphometric variables were recorded to correlate with the diet composition of the different size classes for each species. A total of 210 fishes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88), ranging between 24.2 mm and 112 mm total length, were analyzed, but the stomachs of only 84.8% of them contained food. Trachinotus carolinus presented mysids, Polychaetes and Emerita spp. as the predominant items in their diet. Formicidae and Isopoda were the most important items for class I individuals, whereas mysids and Emerita spp. were important for classes II and III. Class I individuals also showed smaller sized prey (amphipods and isopods) and clupeid fish larvae in their diet. Emerita spp. dominated the food items of Menticirrhus littoralis regardless of the size class. Polychaetes, the second most important item was better represented in class sizes II and III. The main morphometric variable correlated with such differences included mouth position and diameter of the eye.

The Auk ◽  
1986 ◽  
Vol 103 (4) ◽  
pp. 710-725 ◽  
Nathaniel T. Wheelwright

Abstract I present a quantitative description of the diet of American Robins (Turdus migratorius) and consider how food habits (particularly the proportion of fruit eaten and the diversity of individual meals) are influenced by season, habitat, sex, and time of day. The study is based on an analysis of records of stomach contents compiled by the U.S. Biological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Across their entire range, robins ate fruits representing over 50 genera and invertebrates representing over 100 families. Diets were diverse even within local regions, and there was no obvious single feeding niche. The major food classes, consumed in every combination, were soft-bodied invertebrates, hard-bodied invertebrates, and fruits. The same taxa (especially fruits of the family Rosaceae and invertebrates of the orders Coleoptera and Lepidoptera) predominated in robins' diets, irrespective of habitat or geographical location, which presumably reflects both selective foraging and the availability of these widespread taxa. The proportion of fruit (by volume) in the diet was much higher in the fall and winter (median values >90%) than in the spring (<10%); summer values were intermediate. The transition from a diet dominated by invertebrates to a diet dominated by fruits occurred over a 1-2-month period. The number of distinct food items in stomachs, a measure of the species diversity of individual meals, was positively correlated with the fraction of invertebrates in the diet. Thus, at the time of year when robins were dependent on fruits for food, the diversity of their meals was also lowest. The degree of fullness of the stomach showed few consistent trends with season or habitat. Despite different sex roles and nutritional requirements, male and female robins did not differ in the proportion of fruit in the diet in any month or in any region. Nor did their stomachs contain different numbers of distinct food items, different amounts of food, or a different range or distribution of prey taxa. Habitat was an important variable explaining dietary differences. The Biological Survey records have unavoidable shortcomings, most notably problems of sampling biases and the inability to correct for differential digestion of food items. Nonetheless, they are a valuable and underused data base for testing hypotheses, generating new questions of ecological interest, and describing in detail the diets of North American bird species.

2002 ◽  
Vol 61 (4) ◽  
pp. 553-558 ◽  
Antonia Trichopoulou ◽  
Androniki Naska ◽  
Tina Costacou ◽  

Socially-and culturally-patterned differences in food habits exist both between and within European populations. Daily individual food availability data, collected through the national household budget surveys (HBS) and harmonized in the context of the Data Food Networking (DAFNE) project, were used to assess disparities in food habits of seven European populations and to evaluate dietary changes within a 10-year interval. The availability of selected food items was further estimated according to the educational level of the household head and, based only on the Greek HBS data, according to quintiles of the household's food purchasing capacity. Results for overall food availability support the north-south differentiation in food habits. Generally, the availability of most food items, including foods such as vegetable fats, animal lipids and sugar products, has decreased over the 10 years. Households in which the head was in the higher education categories reported lower availability for most food items, with the exception of low-fat milk, fresh fruit, animal lipids and soft drinks; the latter showing a sharp increase even within southern European households. The household's food purchasing capacity can be used as an indicator of socio-economic status, with higher values being associated with lower status. Greek households of lower social class follow a healthier diet in terms of greater availability of vegetable oils, fresh vegetables, legumes, fish and seafood. Data from the DAFNE databank may serve as a tool for identifying and quantifying variation in food habits in Europe, as well as for providing information on the socio-economic determinants of food preferences.

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