On the Matter of Obtaining High-Density Corundum Ceramics with a Defect-Free Polished Surface and Low Roughness by SPS

A. G. Anisimov ◽  
V. A. Bezlepkin ◽  
V. I. Mali
P. S. Kotval ◽  
C. J. Dewit

The structure of Ta2O5 has been described in the literature in several different crystallographic forms with varying unit cell lattice parameters. Earlier studies on films of Ta2O5 produced by anodization of tantalum have revealed structural features which are not consistent with the parameters of “bulk” Ta2O5 crystalsFilms of Ta2O5 were prepared by anodizing a well-polished surface of pure tantalum sheet. The anodic films were floated off in distilled water, collected on grids, dried and directly examined in the electron microscope. In all cases the films were found to exhibit diffraction patterns representative of an amorphous structure. Using beam heating in the electron microscope, recrystallization of the amorphous films can be accomplished as shown in Fig. 1. As suggested by earlier work, the recrystallized regions exhibit diffraction patterns which consist of hexagonal arrays of main spots together with subsidiary rows of super lattice spots which develop as recrystallization progresses (Figs. 2a and b).

S. McKernan ◽  
C. B. Carter ◽  
D. Bour ◽  
J. R. Shealy

The growth of ternary III-V semiconductors by organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) is widely practiced. It has been generally assumed that the resulting structure is the same as that of the corresponding binary semiconductors, but with the two different cation or anion species randomly distributed on their appropriate sublattice sites. Recently several different ternary semiconductors including AlxGa1-xAs, Gaxln-1-xAs and Gaxln1-xP1-6 have been observed in ordered states. A common feature of these ordered compounds is that they contain a relatively high density of defects. This is evident in electron diffraction patterns from these materials where streaks, which are typically parallel to the growth direction, are associated with the extra reflections arising from the ordering. However, where the (Ga,ln)P epilayer is reasonably well ordered the streaking is extremely faint, and the intensity of the ordered spot at 1/2(111) is much greater than that at 1/2(111). In these cases it is possible to image relatively clearly many of the defects found in the ordered structure.

L. Mulestagno ◽  
J.C. Holzer ◽  
P. Fraundorf

Due to the wealth of information, both analytical and structural that can be obtained from it TEM always has been a favorite tool for the analysis of process-induced defects in semiconductor wafers. The only major disadvantage has always been, that the volume under study in the TEM is relatively small, making it difficult to locate low density defects, and sample preparation is a somewhat lengthy procedure. This problem has been somewhat alleviated by the availability of efficient low angle milling.Using a PIPS® variable angle ion -mill, manufactured by Gatan, we have been consistently obtaining planar specimens with a high quality thin area in excess of 5 × 104 μm2 in about half an hour (milling time), which has made it possible to locate defects at lower densities, or, for defects of relatively high density, obtain information which is statistically more significant (table 1).

Evelyn R. Ackerman ◽  
Gary D. Burnett

Advancements in state of the art high density Head/Disk retrieval systems has increased the demand for sophisticated failure analysis methods. From 1968 to 1974 the emphasis was on the number of tracks per inch. (TPI) ranging from 100 to 400 as summarized in Table 1. This emphasis shifted with the increase in densities to include the number of bits per inch (BPI). A bit is formed by magnetizing the Fe203 particles of the media in one direction and allowing magnetic heads to recognize specific data patterns. From 1977 to 1986 the tracks per inch increased from 470 to 1400 corresponding to an increase from 6300 to 10,800 bits per inch respectively. Due to the reduction in the bit and track sizes, build and operating environments of systems have become critical factors in media reliability.Using the Ferrofluid pattern developing technique, the scanning electron microscope can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the examination of failure sites on disks.

J. P. Benedict ◽  
R. M. Anderson ◽  
S. J. Klepeis

Ion mills equipped with flood guns can perform two important functions in material analysis; they can either remove material or deposit material. The ion mill holder shown in Fig. 1 is used to remove material from the polished surface of a sample for further optical inspection or SEM ( Scanning Electron Microscopy ) analysis. The sample is attached to a pohshing stud type SEM mount and placed in the ion mill holder with the polished surface of the sample pointing straight up, as shown in Fig 2. As the holder is rotating in the ion mill, Argon ions from the flood gun are directed down at the top of the sample. The impact of Argon ions against the surface of the sample causes some of the surface material to leave the sample at a material dependent, nonuniform rate. As a result, the polished surface will begin to develop topography during milling as fast sputtering materials leave behind depressions in the polished surface.

M. Hibino ◽  
K. Irie ◽  
R. Autrata ◽  
P. schauer

Although powdered phosphor screens are usually used for scintillators of STEM, it has been found that the phosphor screen of appropriate thickness should be used depending on the accelerating voltage, in order to keep high detective quantum efficiency. 1 It has been also found that the variation in sensitivity, due to granularity of phosphor screens, makes the measurement of fine electron probe difficult and that the sensitivity reduces with electron irradiation specially at high voltages.In order to find out a preferable scintillator for STEM, single crystals of YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet), which are used for detecting secondary and backscattered electrons in SEM were investigated and compared with powdered phosphor screens, at the accelerating voltages of 100kV and 1 MV. A conventional electron detection system, consisting of scintillator, light guide and PMT (Hamamatsu Photonics R268) was used for measurements. Scintillators used are YAG single crystals of 1.0 to 3.2mm thicknesses (with surfaces matted for good interface to the light guide) and of 0.8mm thickness (with polished surface), and powdered P-46 phosphor screens of 0.07mm and 1.0mm thicknesses for 100kV and 1MV, respectively. Surfaces on electron-incidence side of all scintillators are coated with reflecting layers.

A. Cziráki ◽  
E. Ková-csetényi ◽  
T. Torma ◽  
T. Turmezey

It is known that the formation of cavities during superplastic deformation can be correlated with the development of stress concentrations at irregularities along grain boundaries such as particles, ledges and triple points. In commercial aluminium alloys Al-Fe-Si particles or other coarse constituents may play an important role in cavity formation.Cavity formation during superplastic deformation was studied by optical metallography and transmission scanning electron microscopic investigations on Al-Mg-Si and Al-Mg-Mn alloys. The structure of particles was characterized by selected area diffraction and X-ray micro analysis. The volume fraction of “voids” was determined on mechanically polished surface.It was found by electron microscopy that strongly deformed regions are formed during superplastic forming at grain boundaries and around coarse particles.According to electron diffraction measurements these areas consist of small micro crystallized regions. See Fig.l.Comparing the volume fraction and morphology of cavities found by optical microscopy a good correlation was established between that of micro crystalline regions.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document