scholarly journals Corrigendum to “PTPN3 is a potential target for a new cancer immunotherapy that has a dual effect of T cell activation and direct cancer inhibition in lung neuroendocrine tumor” [Volume 14, Issue 9, September 2021, 101152]

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
pp. 101344
Satoko Koga ◽  
Hideya Onishi ◽  
Shogo Masuda ◽  
Akiko Fujimura ◽  
Shu Ichimiya ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 30 (25) ◽  
pp. 1706098 ◽  
Yu Mi ◽  
Christof C. Smith ◽  
Feifei Yang ◽  
Yanfei Qi ◽  
Kyle C. Roche ◽  

2018 ◽  
Zheng Zhao ◽  
Jodi McGill ◽  
Mei He

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs), particularly exosomes (30-150 nm), are an emerging delivery system in mediating cellular communications, which have been observed for priming immune responses by presenting parent cell signaling proteins or tumor antigens to immune cells. Therefore, preparation of antigenic exosomes that can play therapeutic roles, particularly in cancer immunotherapy, is emerging. However, standard benchtop methods (e.g., ultracentrifugation and filtration) lack the ability to purify antigenic exosomes specifically among other microvesicle subtypes, due to the non-selective and time-consuming (>10 h) isolation protocols. Exosome engineering approaches, such as the transfection of parent cells, also suffer from poor yield, low purity, and time-consuming operations. In this paper, we introduce a streamlined microfluidic cell culture platform for integration of harvesting, antigenic modification, and photo-release of surface engineered exosomes in one workflow, which enables the production of intact, MHC peptide surface engineered exosomes for cytolysis activation. The PDMS microfluidic cell culture chip is simply cast from a 3D-printed mold. The proof-of-concept study demonstrated the enhanced ability of harvested exosomes in antigen presentation and T cell activation, by decorating melanoma tumor peptides on the exosome surface (e.g., gp-100, MART-1, MAGE-A3). Such surface engineered antigenic exosomes were harvested in real-time from the on-chip culture of leukocytes isolated from human blood, leading to much faster cellular uptake. The activation of gp100-specific CD8 T cells which were purified from the spleen of 2 Pmel1 transgenic mice was evaluated using surface engineered exosomes prepared from muring antigen presenting cells. Antigen-specific CD8 T cell proliferation was significantly induced by the engineered exosomes compared to native, non-engineered exosomes. This microfluidic platform serves as an automated and highly integrated cell culture device for rapid, and real-time production of therapeutic exosomes that could advance cancer immunotherapy.

Blood ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 134 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. SCI-46-SCI-46
Melody A. Swartz

Tumor engagement or activation of surrounding lymphatic vessels is well-known to correlate with tumor progression and metastasis in melanoma and many other cancers. We and others have identified several mechanisms by which the lymphatic growth factor VEGF-C and lymphangiogenesis can promote metastasis, including (i) increasing immune suppressive cell types and factors in the tumor microenvironment both directly and indirectly, (ii) inhibiting maturation of antigen-presenting cells and T cell activation, and (iii) driving changes in the stromal microenvironment that promote both cancer invasion and immune suppression. However, lymphatic activation also enhances communication with cells in the draining lymph node by antigen and cell transport, which may trigger the initiation of adaptive immune responses against the tumor. Under normal conditions, the potential anti-tumor effects are rendered 'dormant' by the pro-tumor immune suppression, and the tumor progresses. However, we are now observing that lymphangiogenic tumors are exceptionally responsive to immunotherapy, implying that the anti-tumor aspects can be unleashed when the overall balance of pro- and anti-tumor immune aspects is tipped enough towards the latter (e.g., upon tumor cell killing). On the mechanistic side, we are finding that 'lymphangiogenic potentiation' depends on tumor cell infiltration of both CD103+ dendritic cells and naïve T cells, driving local T cell education post-immunotherapy and antigen spreading. On the translational side, we are developing novel strategies to exploit lymphangiogenesis for cancer immunotherapy. Understanding the yin and yang of lymphatic activation in the tumor microenvironment and how it affects immunity may lead to exciting new translational strategies for cancer immunotherapy. Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

2021 ◽  
Chenyang Wu ◽  
Xin Cao ◽  
xiaojin zhang

V-domain immunoglobulin (Ig) suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a novel negative checkpoint regulator that mediates T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Blockade of the VISTA signaling pathway has...

2020 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Sabah Nisar ◽  
Ajaz A. Bhat ◽  
Sheema Hashem ◽  
Santosh K. Yadav ◽  
Arshi Rizwan ◽  

AbstractImmunotherapy is an efficient way to cure cancer by modulating the patient’s immune response. However, the immunotherapy response is heterogeneous and varies between individual patients and cancer subtypes, reinforcing the need for early benefit predictors. Evaluating the infiltration of immune cells in the tumor and changes in cell-intrinsic tumor characteristics provide potential response markers to treatment. However, this approach requires invasive sampling and may not be suitable for real-time monitoring of treatment response. The recent emergence of quantitative imaging biomarkers provides promising opportunities. In vivo imaging technologies that interrogate T cell responses, metabolic activities, and immune microenvironment could offer a powerful tool to monitor the cancer response to immunotherapy. Advances in imaging techniques to identify tumors' immunological characteristics can help stratify patients who are more likely to respond to immunotherapy. This review discusses the metabolic events that occur during T cell activation and differentiation, anti-cancer immunotherapy-induced T cell responses, focusing on non-invasive imaging techniques to monitor T cell metabolism in the search for novel biomarkers of response to cancer immunotherapy.

2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (Suppl 3) ◽  
pp. A468-A468
Aude de Gassart ◽  
Patrick Brune ◽  
LE Suong ◽  
Sophie Agaugué ◽  
Emmanuel Valentin ◽  

Background gdT-cells are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy given their strong cytolytic and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion activities, and the association between tumor infiltration and positive prognosis.1 2 ImCheck Therapeutics is developing ICT01, an anti-human butyrophilin-3A (BTN3A/CD277) mAb specifically activating g9d2 T-cells in a phosphoantigen (pAg)-independent manner. ICT01 is currently in a Phase 1/2a study in solid and hematologic tumors (NCT04243499).IL-2 has been shown to expand g9d2 T-cells in vitro and in non-human primates in presence of pAgs.3 4 5 We wanted to characterize the proliferative effects of combining ICT01 with IL-2 on γ9δ2 T-cells as an approach to potentiate g9d2 T-cell mediated cancer immunotherapy.Methods g9d2 T-cell activation and expansion was assessed in vitro in human PBMCs treated with ICT01±IL-2, and in vivo, in the blood of immunocompromised NCG mice engrafted with 20 × 106 human PBMCs and treated with ICT01 (single IV dose, 5 mg/kg on Day 1) ±IL-2 (0.3MIU/kg IP on Day 1–4). A dose-ranging ICT01 (single IV dose, 1 or 5 mg/kg on Day 1)+IL-2 combination (1 MIU SC QD on Days 1–5) study was conducted in cynomolgus monkeys.ResultsIn PBMCs cultures in vitro, ICT01 selectively activated g9d2 T-cells and IL-2 significantly enhanced ICT01-mediated g9d2 T-cell proliferation, this compartment reaching >50% of T-cells after 8 days of treatment versus ~10% with ICT01 alone. This was confirmed in vivo in mice models. Flow cytometry analysis of mice blood revealed a 5.5-fold increase in human g9d2 T-cell number in the combination groups compared to ICT01 or IL-2 alone treated animals, with g9d2 T-cell frequency reaching ~35% of the CD3+ T-cell compartment. In Cynomolgus, a specific expansion and activation of peripheral g9d2 T-cells from ~1–2% at baseline to up to 30% of T cells 7 days post ICT01 administration was observed. No ICT01 effect was observed on other immune cells. Histopathological examinations revealed a trend towards higher numbers of g9d2 T-cells in several organs in ICT01+IL-2 treated monkeys. There was no evidence for a systemic cytokine release syndrome at any time point. Adverse effects with variable severity were observed, most of them being reversible and commonly associated with IL-2 alone, and not reported in the IND-enabling GLP toxicity study with ICT01 monotherapy at doses up to 100 mg/kg.ConclusionsThese results demonstrate the ability of ICT01+IL-2 combination to trigger profound γ9δ2 T-cell activation and expansion, suggesting that the clinical combination of ICT01 with a lymphoproliferative cytokine (e.g., IL-2) may be a novel therapeutic approach for cancer patients.Ethics ApprovalPseudonymized samples isolated from healthy volunteers: whole blood by ImCheck Therapeutics under the agreement n° 7173 between ImCheck Therapeutic SAS and EFS PACA (Etablissement Français du Sang Provence-Alpes-cote d’Azur)ReferencesGentles AJ, Newman AM, Liu CL, et al. The prognostic landscape of genes and infiltrating immune cells across human cancers. Nature Medicine 2015;21(8):938–945.Tosolini M, Pont F, Poupot M, et al. Assessment of tumor-infiltrating TCRVγ9Vδ2 γδ lymphocyte abundance by deconvolution of human cancers microarrays. OncoImmunology 2017;6(3):e1284723.Nada MH, Wang H, Workalemahu G, Tanaka Y, Morita CT. Enhancing adoptive cancer immunotherapy with Vγ2Vδ2 T cells through pulse zoledronate stimulation. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2017;5(1):9.Sicard H, Ingoure S, Luciani B, et al. In Vivo Immunomanipulation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with a synthetic phosphoantigen in a preclinical nonhuman primate model. The Journal of Immunology 2005;175(8):5471–5480.Ali Z, Shao L, Halliday L, et al. Prolonged (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-But-2-Enyl pyrophosphate-driven antimicrobial and cytotoxic responses of pulmonary and systemic Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in macaques. The Journal of Immunology 2007;179(12):8287–8296.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 2958
Beatrice Belmonte ◽  
Valeria Cancila ◽  
Alessandro Gulino ◽  
Mohsen Navari ◽  
Walter Arancio ◽  

Due to the high expression of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) in lymphoproliferative disorders and in multiple myeloma, it has been considered as a potential target for humoral immunotherapy, as well as an immune checkpoint inhibitor in T-cells. By investigating the expression of SELPLG in 678 T- and B-cell samples by gene expression profiling (GEP), further supported by tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis, we identified anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (ALCL) as constitutively expressing SELPLG at high levels. Moreover, GEP analysis in CD30+ ALCLs highlighted a positive correlation of SELPLG with TNFRSF8 (CD30-coding gene) and T-cell receptor (TCR)-signaling genes (LCK, LAT, SYK and JUN), suggesting that the common dysregulation of TCR expression in ALCLs may be bypassed by the involvement of PSGL-1 in T-cell activation and survival. Finally, we evaluated the effects elicited by in vitro treatment with two anti-PSGL-1 antibodies (KPL-1 and TB5) on the activation of the complement system and induction of apoptosis in human ALCL cell lines. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that PSGL-1 is specifically enriched in ALCLs, altering cell motility and viability due to its involvement in CD30 and TCR signaling, and it might be considered as a promising candidate for novel immunotherapeutic approaches in ALCLs.

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