t cell activation
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2022 ◽  
Judith F Ashouri ◽  
Elizabeth McCarthy ◽  
Steven Yu ◽  
Noah Perlmutter ◽  
Charles Lin ◽  

How autoreactive CD4 T cells develop to cause rheumatoid arthritis remains unknown. We used a reporter for antigen-receptor signaling in the SKG autoimmune arthritis model to profile a T cell subpopulation enriched for arthritogenic naive CD4 T cells before arthritis onset by bulk and single cell RNA and T cell antigen-receptor (TCR) sequencing. Our analyses reveal that despite their impaired proximal TCR signaling, a subset of SKG naive CD4 T cells that have recently encountered endogenous antigen upregulate gene programs associated with positive regulation of T cell activation and cytokine signaling at higher levels than wild type cells in the pre-disease state. These arthritogenic cells also induce genes associated with negative regulation of T cell activation but do so less efficiently than wild type cells. Furthermore, their TCR sequences exhibit a previously unrecognized biased peripheral TCR Vβ repertoire likely driven by endogenous viral superantigens. These particular Vβs, known to recognize endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) superantigen, are further expanded in arthritic joints. Our results demonstrate that autoreactive naive CD4 T cells which recognize endogenous viral superantigens are poised to cause disease by their altered transcriptome.

2022 ◽  
Vardges Tserunyan ◽  
Stacey D Finley

In recent decades, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been successfully used to generate engineered T cells capable of recognizing and eliminating cancer cells. The structure of CARs frequently includes costimulatory domains, which enhance the T cell response upon antigen encounter. However, it is not fully known how the CAR co-stimulatory domains influence T cell activation in the presence of biological variability. In this work, we used mathematical modeling to elucidate how the inclusion of one such co-stimulatory molecule, CD28, impacts the response of a population of engineered T cells under different sources of variability. Particularly, our simulations demonstrate that CD28-bearing CARs mediate a faster and more consistent population response under both target antigen variability and kinetic rate variability. We identify kinetic parameters that have the most impact on mediating cell activation. Finally, based on our findings, we propose that enhancing the catalytic activity of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) can result in drastically reduced and more consistent response times among heterogeneous CAR T cell populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Niels C. Lory ◽  
Mikolaj Nawrocki ◽  
Martina Corazza ◽  
Joanna Schmid ◽  
Valéa Schumacher ◽  

Antigen recognition by the T-cell receptor induces a cytosolic Ca2+ signal that is crucial for T-cell function. The Ca2+ channel TRPM2 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 2) has been shown to facilitate influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the plasma membrane of T cells. Therefore, it was suggested that TRPM2 is involved in T-cell activation and differentiation. However, these results are largely derived from in vitro studies using T-cell lines and non-physiologic means of TRPM2 activation. Thus, the relevance of TRPM2-mediated Ca2+ signaling in T cells remains unclear. Here, we use TRPM2-deficient mice to investigate the function of TRPM2 in T-cell activation and differentiation. In response to TCR stimulation in vitro, Trpm2-/- and WT CD4+ and CD8+ T cells similarly upregulated the early activation markers NUR77, IRF4, and CD69. We also observed regular proliferation of Trpm2-/- CD8+ T cells and unimpaired differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th1, Th17, and Treg cells under specific polarizing conditions. In vivo, Trpm2-/- and WT CD8+ T cells showed equal specific responses to Listeria monocytogenes after infection of WT and Trpm2-/- mice and after transfer of WT and Trpm2-/- CD8+ T cells into infected recipients. CD4+ T-cell responses were investigated in the model of anti-CD3 mAb-induced intestinal inflammation, which allows analysis of Th1, Th17, Treg, and Tr1-cell differentiation. Here again, we detected similar responses of WT and Trpm2-/- CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, our results argue against a major function of TRPM2 in T-cell activation and differentiation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 874
Emma J. Keller ◽  
Nina Dvorina ◽  
Trine N. Jørgensen

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by dysregulated T and B lymphocytes. Type I interferons (IFN-I) have been shown to play important pathogenic roles in both SLE patients and mouse models of lupus. Recent studies have shown that B cell intrinsic responses to IFN-I are enough to drive B cell differentiation into autoantibody-secreting memory B cells and plasma cells, although lower levels of residual auto-reactive cells remain present. We speculated that IFN-I stimulation of T cells would similarly drive specific T-cell associated lupus phenotypes including the upregulation of T follicular helper cells and Th17, thereby affecting autoantibody production and the development of glomerulonephritis. Using the B6.Nba2 mouse model of lupus, we evaluated disease parameters in T cell specific IFN-I receptor (IFNAR)-deficient mice (cKO). Surprisingly, all measured CD4+ T cell abnormalities and associated intra-splenic cytokine levels (IFNγ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-21) were unchanged and thus independent of IFN-I. In contrast B6.Nba2 cKO mice displayed reduced levels of effector CD8+ T cells and increased levels of Foxp3+ CD8+ regulatory T cells, suggesting that IFN-I induced signaling specifically affecting CD8+ T cells. These data suggest a role for both pathogenic and immunosuppressive CD8+ T cells in Nba2-driven autoimmunity, providing a model to further evaluate the role of these cell subsets during lupus-like disease development in vivo.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 344
Natalia Diaz-Garrido ◽  
Josefa Badia ◽  
Laura Baldomà

Gut bacteria release extracellular vesicles (BEVs) as an intercellular communication mechanism that primes the host innate immune system. BEVs from E. coli activate dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequent T-cell responses in a strain-specific manner. The specific immunomodulatory effects were, in part, mediated by differential regulation of miRNAs. This study aimed to deepen understanding of the mechanisms of BEVs to drive specific immune responses by analyzing their impact on DC-secreted cytokines and exosomes. DCs were challenged with BEVs from probiotic and commensal E. coli strains. The ability of DC-secreted factors to activate T-cell responses was assessed by cytokine quantification in indirect DCs/naïve CD4+ T-cells co-cultures on Transwell supports. DC-exosomes were characterized in terms of costimulatory molecules and miRNAs cargo. In the absence of direct cellular contacts, DC-secreted factors triggered secretion of effector cytokines by T-cells with the same trend as direct DC/T-cell co-cultures. The main differences between the strains influenced the production of Th1- and Treg-specific cytokines. Exosomes released by BEV-activated DCs were enriched in surface proteins involved in antigen presentation and T-cell activation, but differed in the content of immune-related miRNA, depending on the origin of the BEVs. These differences were consistent with the derived immune responses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lili Tang ◽  
Ge Li ◽  
Yang Zheng ◽  
Chunmei Hou ◽  
Yang Gao ◽  

Tim-3, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, is widely expressed on the immune cells and contributes to immune tolerance. However, the mechanisms by which Tim-3 induces immune tolerance remain to be determined. Major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) plays a key role in antigen presentation and CD4+T cell activation. Dysregulated expressions of Tim-3 and MHC-II are associated with the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis. Here we demonstrated that, by suppressing MHC-II expression in macrophages via the STAT1/CIITA pathway, Tim-3 inhibits MHC-II-mediated autoantigen presentation and CD4+T cell activation. As a result, overexpression or blockade of Tim-3 signaling in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) inhibited or increased MHC-II expression respectively and finally altered clinical outcomes. We thus identified a new mechanism by which Tim-3 induces immune tolerance in vivo and regulating the Tim-3-MHC-II signaling pathway is expected to provide a new solution for multiple sclerosis treatment.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12680
Peng Wang ◽  
Zexin Zhang ◽  
Bin Yin ◽  
Jiayuan Li ◽  
Cheng Xialin ◽  

Background Burn patients are prone to infection as well as immunosuppression, which is a significant cause of death. Currently, there is a lack of prognostic biomarkers for immunosuppression in burn patients. This study was conducted to identify immune-related genes that are prognosis biomarkers in post-burn immunosuppression and potential targets for immunotherapy. Methods We downloaded the gene expression profiles and clinical data of 213 burn patients and 79 healthy samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Immune infiltration analysis was used to identify the proportion of circulating immune cells. Functional enrichment analyses were carried out to identify immune-related genes that were used to build miRNA-mRNA networks to screen key genes. Next, we carried out correlation analysis between immune cells and key genes that were then used to construct logistic regression models in GSE77791 and were validated in GSE19743. Finally, we determined the expression of key genes in burn patients using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results A total of 745 differently expressed genes were screened out: 299 were up-regulated and 446 were down-regulated. The number of Th-cells (CD4+) decreased while neutrophils increased in burn patients. The enrichment analysis showed that down-regulated genes were enriched in the T-cell activation pathway, while up-regulated genes were enriched in neutrophil activation response in burn patients. We screened out key genes (NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4) that could be regulated by miRNA. The expression of key genes was related to the proportion of Th-cells (CD4+) and survival, and was an excellent predictor of prognosis in burns with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.945. Finally, we determined that NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4 were down-regulated in burn patients. Conclusion We found that NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4 were likely prognostic biomarkers in post-burn immunosuppression and potential immunotherapeutic targets to convert Th-cell dysfunction.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Dóra Romhányi ◽  
Kornélia Szabó ◽  
Lajos Kemény ◽  
Endre Sebestyén ◽  
Gergely Groma

An increasing amount of evidence indicates the critical role of the cutaneous nervous system in the initiation and maintenance of psoriatic skin lesions by neurogenic inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms affecting cutaneous neurons are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we reanalyzed a psoriatic RNA sequencing dataset from published transcriptome experiments of nearly 300 individuals. Using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we associated several hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) to nervous system development and functions. Since neuronal projections were previously reported to be affected in psoriasis, we performed an in-depth analysis of neurite formation-related process. Our in silico analysis suggests that SEMA-PLXN and ROBO-DCC-UNC5 regulating axonal growth and repulsion are differentially affected in non-lesional and lesional skin samples. We identified opposing expressional alterations in secreted ligands for axonal guidance signaling (RTN4/NOGOA, NTNs, SEMAs, SLITs) and non-conventional axon guidance regulating ligands, including WNT5A and their receptors, modulating axon formation. These differences in neuritogenesis may explain the abnormal cutaneous nerve filament formation described in psoriatic skin. The processes also influence T-cell activation and infiltration, thus highlighting an additional angle of the crosstalk between the cutaneous nervous system and the immune responses in psoriasis pathogenesis, in addition to the known neurogenic pro-inflammatory mediators.

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