Notes on the family ophiotrichidae (Ophiuroidea)

1966 ◽  
Vol 9 (106-108) ◽  
pp. 637-655 ◽  
Ailsa M. Clark
1988 ◽  
Vol 62 (03) ◽  
pp. 419-423 ◽  
Baba Senowbari-Daryan ◽  
George D. Stanley

Two Upper Triassic sphinctozoan sponges of the family Sebargasiidae were recovered from silicified residues collected in Hells Canyon, Oregon. These sponges areAmblysiphonellacf.A. steinmanni(Haas), known from the Tethys region, andColospongia whalenin. sp., an endemic species. The latter sponge was placed in the superfamily Porata by Seilacher (1962). The presence of well-preserved cribrate plates in this sponge, in addition to pores of the chamber walls, is a unique condition never before reported in any porate sphinctozoans. Aporate counterparts known primarily from the Triassic Alps have similar cribrate plates but lack the pores in the chamber walls. The sponges from Hells Canyon are associated with abundant bivalves and corals of marked Tethyan affinities and come from a displaced terrane known as the Wallowa Terrane. It was a tropical island arc, suspected to have paleogeographic relationships with Wrangellia; however, these sponges have not yet been found in any other Cordilleran terrane.

E. S. Boatman ◽  
G. E. Kenny

Information concerning the morphology and replication of organism of the family Mycoplasmataceae remains, despite over 70 years of study, highly controversial. Due to their small size observations by light microscopy have not been rewarding. Furthermore, not only are these organisms extremely pleomorphic but their morphology also changes according to growth phase. This study deals with the morphological aspects of M. pneumoniae strain 3546 in relation to growth, interaction with HeLa cells and possible mechanisms of replication.The organisms were grown aerobically at 37°C in a soy peptone yeast dialysate medium supplemented with 12% gamma-globulin free horse serum. The medium was buffered at pH 7.3 with TES [N-tris (hyroxymethyl) methyl-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid] at 10mM concentration. The inoculum, an actively growing culture, was filtered through a 0.5 μm polycarbonate “nuclepore” filter to prevent transfer of all but the smallest aggregates. Growth was assessed at specific periods by colony counts and 800 ml samples of organisms were fixed in situ with 2.5% glutaraldehyde for 3 hrs. at 4°C. Washed cells for sectioning were post-fixed in 0.8% OSO4 in veronal-acetate buffer pH 6.1 for 1 hr. at 21°C. HeLa cells were infected with a filtered inoculum of M. pneumoniae and incubated for 9 days in Leighton tubes with coverslips. The cells were then removed and processed for electron microscopy.

A.D. Hyatt

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the type species os the genus orbivirus in the family Reoviridae. The virus has a fibrillar outer coat containing two major structural proteins VP2 and VP5 which surround an icosahedral core. The core contains two major proteins VP3 and VP7 and three minor proteins VP1, VP4 and VP6. Recent evidence has indicated that the core comprises a neucleoprotein center which is surrounded by two protein layers; VP7, a major constituent of capsomeres comprises the outer and VP3 the inner layer of the core . Antibodies to VP7 are currently used in enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays and immuno-electron microscopical (JEM) tests for the detection of BTV. The tests involve the antibody recognition of VP7 on virus particles. In an attempt to understand how complete viruses can interact with antibodies to VP7 various antibody types and methodologies were utilized to determine the physical accessibility of the core to the external environment.

2004 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
pp. 157-167 ◽  
Maria Nilsson ◽  
Karin Dahlman-Wright ◽  
Jan-Åke Gustafsson

For several decades, it has been known that oestrogens are essential for human health. The discovery that there are two oestrogen receptors (ERs), ERalpha and ERbeta, has facilitated our understanding of how the hormone exerts its physiological effects. The ERs belong to the family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors, which act by modulating the expression of target genes. Studies of ER-knockout (ERKO) mice have been instrumental in defining the relevance of a given receptor subtype in a certain tissue. Phenotypes displayed by ERKO mice suggest diseases in which dysfunctional ERs might be involved in aetiology and pathology. Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ER genes and disease have been demonstrated in several cases. Selective ER modulators (SERMs), which are selective with regard to their effects in a certain cell type, already exist. Since oestrogen has effects in many tissues, the goal with a SERM is to provide beneficial effects in one target tissue while avoiding side effects in others. Refined SERMs will, in the future, provide improved therapeutic strategies for existing and novel indications.

1996 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-32 ◽  
Chris Halpin ◽  
Barbara Herrmann ◽  
Margaret Whearty

The family described in this article provides an unusual opportunity to relate findings from genetic, histological, electrophysiological, psychophysical, and rehabilitative investigation. Although the total number evaluated is large (49), the known, living affected population is smaller (14), and these are spread from age 20 to age 59. As a result, the findings described above are those of a large-scale case study. Clearly, more data will be available through longitudinal study of the individuals documented in the course of this investigation but, given the slow nature of the progression in this disease, such studies will be undertaken after an interval of several years. The general picture presented to the audiologist who must rehabilitate these cases is that of a progressive cochlear degeneration that affects only thresholds at first, and then rapidly diminishes speech intelligibility. The expected result is that, after normal language development, the patient may accept hearing aids well, encouraged by the support of the family. Performance and satisfaction with the hearing aids is good, until the onset of the speech intelligibility loss, at which time the patient will encounter serious difficulties and may reject hearing aids as unhelpful. As the histological and electrophysiological results indicate, however, the eighth nerve remains viable, especially in the younger affected members, and success with cochlear implantation may be expected. Audiologic counseling efforts are aided by the presence of role models and support from the other affected members of the family. Speech-language pathology services were not considered important by the members of this family since their speech production developed normally and has remained very good. Self-correction of speech was supported by hearing aids and cochlear implants (Case 5’s speech production was documented in Perkell, Lane, Svirsky, & Webster, 1992). These patients received genetic counseling and, due to the high penetrance of the disease, exhibited serious concerns regarding future generations and the hope of a cure.

2019 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 1507-1515
Lauren L. Madhoun ◽  
Robert Dempster

Purpose Feeding challenges are common for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). While sufficient oral feeding is typically a goal during NICU admission, this can be a long and complicated process for both the infant and the family. Many of the stressors related to feeding persist long after hospital discharge, which results in the parents taking the primary role of navigating the infant's course to ensure continued feeding success. This is in addition to dealing with the psychological impact of having a child requiring increased medical attention and the need to continue to fulfill the demands at home. In this clinical focus article, we examine 3 main areas that impact psychosocial stress among parents with infants in the NICU and following discharge: parenting, feeding, and supports. Implications for speech-language pathologists working with these infants and their families are discussed. A case example is also included to describe the treatment course of an infant and her parents in the NICU and after graduation to demonstrate these points further. Conclusion Speech-language pathologists working with infants in the NICU and following hospital discharge must realize the family context and psychosocial considerations that impact feeding progression. Understanding these factors may improve parental engagement to more effectively tailor treatment approaches to meet the needs of the child and family.

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