The Metaphors of Conscientia in Seneca’s Epistles

Mnemosyne ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-29
Attila Németh

Abstract Seneca’s masterful application of metaphors often illuminates some Stoic technical terminology in contexts, which render them meaningful and familiar to his Roman readers. In this paper I argue that in certain instances, these metaphors are also used to organize whole systems of concepts that refer to an essential theoretical component of Seneca’s philosophy. By studying the literary and philosophical context of these metaphors, I reconstruct Seneca’s requirement for moral self-improvement in his Epistles and propose that his conception of conscientia or ‘moral conscience’—a notion scattered throughout his writings but which, as the examination of his systematic metaphors will prove, has a consistent, identical function everywhere it appears—points to some novel rational characteristics of the philosopher’s conception of the self.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 269-273
Oksana Konstantinovna Pozdnyakova

The paper raises the problem of students orientation towards moral self-determination as one of the directions of moral education of students. The necessity of carrying out a categorical analysis of the personality self-determination concept to determine the content and methods of orientation of students towards moral self-determination is substantiated. Personality self-determination is considered at the philosophical, psychological and pedagogical levels of analysis. At the philosophical level of analysis, the essence of the personality self-determination phenomenon and the concept adequate to it is revealed; it consists in a persons choice of certain actions and deeds in a given situation; shows the role of moral choice in the self-determination of the individual. At the psychological level of analysis, the author substantiates the relationship between the self-determination of the individual and the system of his/her relations (to the surrounding reality, other people and himself/herself), which determine the content of the personalitys position. At the pedagogical level of analysis, the self-determination of a person is associated with his/her choice of values, the source of which is his/her needs. The paper argues that the self-determination of a person is both a process and a result of a persons choice of his/her own position, there is a choice of relations that form the content of a position, there is a choice of values, the focus on which constitutes the value orientations of a person, which become the core of self-determination. The author also has determined some practical pedagogical tasks, the solution of which is aimed at creating conditions for the orientation of students towards moral self-determination: the task of students moral principles development, which will ensure their choice of their position, goals and means of self-realization in life; the task of familiarizing students with the value of good, which is the essence of their ethical attitude to the world, to people and to themselves; the task of developing students ability to substantiate the foundations of moral choice and its principles to reflection.

2019 ◽  
Vol 3 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S918-S918
Trang T Nguyen

Abstract In Vietnam, the majority of dementia caregivers are women. They play multiple social roles, and confront role conflicts and caregiving burdens with insufficient social supports. Dementia caregiving alters their self-concepts, or who they think they are. This paper aims to explore self-concepts of Vietnamese female caregivers of older relatives with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). In total, 21 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews, including six follow-up interviews, with 13 Vietnamese female caregivers of older patients with AD were conducted. These 13 caregivers were from 44 to 71 years old, mostly spouses of the patients with AD (n = 8), and retired (n = 9). Thematic coding procedure and the program MaxQDA12 were used for data analysis. Results show that the self-concepts of female caregivers in dementia care were complex, contextualized, and manifested in different aspects. First, self-concepts of these female caregivers were the outcome of the interactions between the guided-self and the performed-self. Their guided-self was the self that their social norms and cultural traditions told them about who they should be, while their performed-self was the self they demonstrated to the outside world. The mismatch between these two types of self caused distress among caregivers. Second, caregivers’ self-concept was the combination of the three key types of the self: the moral-self (a filial daughter or a responsible wife); the feminine-self (a patient and graceful women); and the worthy-self (a devoted and helpful caregiver). Understanding Vietnamese women’s self-concepts associated with their sociocultural context will better inform the development of support programs for them.

1992 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-64 ◽  
Pauline Chazan

Hume’s account of how the self enters the moral domain and comes to a consciousness of itself as a moral being is one which he superimposes upon his Treatise account of the constitution of the non-metaphysical self. This primordial self is for Hume constructed out of the passions of pride and humility which are themselves in tum constructed out of certain feelings of pain and pleasure, these feelings being worked on by memory and imagination, and converted back and forth into series of ideas and impressions. In presenting this account of the way in which we achieve a coherent self-awareness and self-knowledge such that we ‘know our own force’ (T 597), Hurne in fact employs a radical psychology which he must discard once the moral self comes into view. The use Hume makes of this psychology has gone unnoticed in the literature, but once we understand its implications we will be able to dispel the confusion that some have found in his story.

2020 ◽  
Vol 116 (5) ◽  
pp. 46-52
Svetlana V. Nesyna ◽  

The aim of this article is to determine the particularities of the dynamics of the existential sphere components of future pedagogues in the process of professional education. The theoretical basis of the presented empirical research is O. Grebeniuk’s pedagogy of the individuality. The significant part of the concept of individuality is the existential sphere being a «dominatrix» of all individuality of a person. 63 undergraduates from 1-year of studying to 4 one with the major in pedagogy have taken part in the research. T. Grebeniuk’s diagnostic method of seven spheres of student’s individuality was used in this work. The research demonstrates students’ high assessment in the development of the components of the existential sphere. They understand its importance in the development of the individuality. The serious deference in the dynamics of the self-assessment of individual valuable positions and orientations has been determined. The qualitative improvements of «Self-concept» reflective processes and components happen in the 2-year of studying with the development of the ability of the self-analysis, deliberate self-respect and making a right choice. The existential sphere in the final year of studying becomes more complicated and at the same time there is a process of structuring: awareness of the inner world and moral self-assessment are in the centre of this process. It defines the development of the components of the existential sphere which reflect the development of the components of «Selfconcept» and provide the realization of the meaning of «Self-concept» in external active actions due to the desire of self-improvement. The development and self-development of the deliberate self-respect and the ability of analyzing the behavior should become the aim of psychological and pedagogical interactions between future pedagogues and their mentors as well as in the university and in resource centers. The significant potential in the development of the existential sphere of individuality is the system of specific pedagogical situations where the necessity of realizing a free choice appears.

2018 ◽  
Vol 224 (3) ◽  
pp. 293-316
Assist. Inst. Fadia Fakhry Smoaay

The goal of the current research is to identify the Self-Concept for children according to the age of (5, 6, and 7 years). These variable1 can be shown as follow:  A - Age (5, 6, and 7) years .  B - Gender (male - female)       The present study shows that there is no statistically significant differences between the averages of the age of children (5, 6, and 7) years in self-concept, and sex variable (male - female) .The research sample consists of (230) boys and girls, they have been selected by class style randomly from kindergarten and elementary schools affiliated to Al Rusafa in the province of Baghdad.      For the purpose of achieving the objectives of the research ,the researchers formulaes  a suitable instrument for the research sample, so the researcher uses a tool to measure the evolution of self-concept in children aged (5, 6 and 7) years, it was rely on the theory of Carl Rogers and some previous studies on this concept, which was to reach for five dimensions to measure self-concept that includes ( Physical-self dimension, mental-self dimension, social-self dimension, emotional-self dimension, moral-self dimension) .  This tool consists of (42) paragraph, that reflects the truth of virtual scale, discrimination paragraphs,  in addition it is distinguishing the relationship between the paragraph degree with the total degree of the standard, and the link of the paragraph degree with the area degree, and it has been verified the stability of the standard by re-testing it, which was (0.75), and coefficient of Alvacrobach, in order to calculate the stability of (internal consistency) for the standard which was (0.84), which makes the standard ready for the final application.

2019 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Fanny Lalot ◽  
Juan M. Falomir-Pichastor

Abstract People generally tend to stay consistent in their attitudes and actions but can feel licensed to act less-than-virtuously when an initial moral action provides an excuse to do so (i.e., moral self-licensing). A handful of studies have tested how relevant initial attitudes moderate the self-licensing effect but yielded mixed findings: Initial attitudes either decrease, increase, or do not influence licensing dynamics. To account for these inconsistent findings, we propose that the effect of attitudes could itself interact with other factors, notably motivational orientation. We conducted two studies taking into account initial attitudes, absence/presence of moral credentials, and participants’ chronic regulatory focus. Drawing from self-completion theory, we expected self-licensing to occur specifically amongst prevention-focused participants holding positive intergroup attitudes. Results supported this prediction. Prevention-focused participants with positive intergroup attitudes supported affirmative action policies to a lesser extent when they had acquired moral credentials, as compared to when they had not (i.e., self-licensing), t(329) = –3.79, p < .001, d = –.42, 95% CI [–.64, –.20]. Additionally, promotion-focused participants holding positive intergroup attitudes supported affirmative action policies to a greater extent when they had acquired moral credentials (i.e., behavioral consistency), t(329) = 2.44, p = .015, d = .27, 95% CI [.05, .49].

2015 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
Ayesha Khan ◽  
Dr Shah Alam

The purpose of this investigation was to find out the significant relationship between Self-concept and achievement motivation of high school students and also tried to measure the self-concept and achievement motivation in relation to gender. For the purpose of the present study 400 (200 boys, 200 girls) students of high school were selected randomly from four different schools of Aligarh (UP) within the age range of 16-17 years. To assess the self concept of high school students Self-Concept Questionnaire developed by Dr. R. K. Saraswat (1984) was used which provides six dimensions viz. physical, social, intellectual, moral, educational, and temperamental as well as a total self-concept score. The achievement motivation of high school students was measured by the Achievement Motivation (n-Ach) Scale developed by Dr. Pratibha Deo and Asha Mohan (1985). Pearson’s product moment co-efficient correlation was applied to investigate the relationship between self-concept and achievement motivation; t-test was applied to see the differences between mean scores of girls and boys on self-concept and achievement motivation. One of the findings of the study showed a significant positive correlation existed between self concept and achievement motivation of high school students. Another finding of the study revealed that there was no significant gender differences existed on total self-concept, physical self-concept, intellectual self-concept, educational self-concept and temperamental self-concept. Furthermore it was found that girls and boys differed significantly on social self-concept and moral self-concept.

2017 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
pp. 107-121 ◽  
Nicholas Hookway

This article is a qualitative exploration of how contemporary morality is understood and constructed using Australian blog and interview data. A key finding is that the bloggers articulate morality as an actively created and autonomous do-it-yourself project that prioritises the subjective authority and authenticity of the self. While the blog stories do lend support to charges of narcissism, this is partly a product of bloggers misidentifying their own evaluative practices. In the interview accounts they tend to describe morality in subjectivist terms – I do what I believe/think/feel is right – but in their blogged accounts, they highlight a relational and responsive morality which attends to the Other and the situation. Further, the article highlights how the bloggers are producing a particular classed model of selfhood and moral reflexivity where they have access to the resources to self-tell as choosing and self-responsible subjects.

Darcia F. Narvaez

What has gone wrong with humanity that it is the only species that is destroying its habitat and justifying it as good or inevitable? The quality of a child’s early nest, including experience with mother and others, co-construct the nature of the child, shaping a highly intertwined biology and sociality. The species-typical nest that humans inherited for their young facilitates the development of a self that is relationally attuned and communal and receptively intelligent. Neurobiological studies today support the general insight from psychoanalytic theory that early experiences with caregivers initialize the formation of the self. But civilization typically does not provide the evolved nest, promoting a species-atypical pathway for social and moral development, one of self-focused protectionism. Cultures that adults build and perpetuate are founded on the human dispositions brought about by early experience.

1994 ◽  
Vol 56 (1) ◽  
pp. 71-99
David A. Nordquest

Lonergan's cognitional theory, though generally unknown in the discipline, points the way toward a more concrete understanding of politics through its emphasis on the self-appropriation of our knowing. This article examines the invariant structure or method Lonergan finds in all practical or scientific knowing, the precepts that can be derived from the operations of the mind, the continuity between cognitive and moral self-transcendence, and the different horizons which may confine our knowing. It considers the biases which distort personal and political development, the need for cosmopolis, an informal community which helps to save practicality by transcending it, the methodological natural right which may be derived from norms inherent in our knowing, and the emergent probability of progress or decline set by the stock of insights or oversights operative in a society. It concludes that Lonergan's work makes a substantial contribution to the critical human science he seeks and that it could play a helpful role in unifying the discipline.

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