Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Molecular Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii in Alex Ekwueme-Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria

Ikechukwu Herbert Egwu ◽  
Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha ◽  
Modesta Mmaduabuchi Egwu-Ikechukwu ◽  
Ikemesit Udeme Peter ◽  
Charity Chinyere Nnabugwu ◽  

Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii, a notorious opportunistic pathogen known to seriously affect debilitated individuals especially intensive care unit (ICU) patients and others with underlying illness, have consistently jeopardized many antibiotics. This study was therefore aimed to ascertain the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and molecularly identify A. baumannii pathogens in Alex Ekwueme-Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Methodology: A total of 385 clinical samples were collected aseptically from debilitated patients and analyzed following standard microbiological procedures. Acinetobacter species was confirmed by Gram staining reaction and biochemical tests. All bacterial isolates were phenotypically screened for multidrug resistance using the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion technique and results interpreted as per CLSI criteria. A. baumannii isolates were finally confirmed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: A total of 23(6%) A. baumannii isolates were recovered from 385 clinical samples collected from 87 patients comprising 48 males and 39 females admitted in various hospital wards of AE-FETHA. The age of the patients varied from 20–79 years. The commonest sites for isolation of A. baumannii pathogen were catheter urine (8/8%) and wound sores (7/8%). The highest percentage resistance was observed with cefuroxime (96%), tetracycline (96%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (96 %), and ofloxacin (91%) while meropenem (91%) and imipenem (78%) were the most effective antibiotics against A. baumannii. The isolated A. baumannii was re-confirmed genotypically by 16S rRNA gene amplification. Variations were observed in the gene sequence of all the isolated A. baumannii.  Conclusion: Catheter urine, wound sores, and respiratory fluids were the more easily colonized samples. Also, high frequency of multidrug resistance observed in this study further established A. baumannii as a notorious opportunistic pathogen.

2012 ◽  
Vol 56 (12) ◽  
pp. 6267-6271 ◽  
Ni Tien ◽  
Bang-Jau You ◽  
Hui-Lan Chang ◽  
Hsiu-Shen Lin ◽  
Chin-Yi Lee ◽  

ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to compare the prevalences of antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical isolates in theAcinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumanniicomplex from sterile and nonsterile sites and to further study the relationship of antimicrobial resistance profiles and genospecies by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA). A total of 1,381 isolates were tested with 12 different antibiotics to show their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A total of 205 clinical isolates were further analyzed by ARDRA of the intergenic spacer (ITS) region of the 16S-23S rRNA gene. It was found that the overall percentage of isolates from nonsterile sites (urine, sputum, pus, or catheter tip) that were resistant to the 12 antibiotics tested was significantly higher than that of isolates from sterile sites (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF], ascites fluid, and bloodstream) (46% versus 22%;P< 0.05). After ARDRA, it was found that 97% of the 62 isolates resistant to all antibiotics tested were theA. baumanniigenospecies, which was identified in only 31% of the isolates susceptible to all antibiotics tested. More genospecies diversity was identified in the isolates susceptible to all antibiotics tested, including genospecies of 13TU (34%), genotype 3 (29%), andA. calcoaceticus(5%). Furthermore, as 91% (10/11) of the isolates from CSF were susceptible to all antibiotics tested, theA. calcoaceticus-A. baumanniicomplex isolates with multidrug resistance could be less invasive than the more susceptible isolates. This study also indicated current emergence of carbapenem-, fluoroquinolone-, aminoglycoside-, and cephalosporin-resistantA. calcoaceticus-A. baumanniicomplex isolates in Taiwan.

2008 ◽  
Vol 52 (11) ◽  
pp. 3837-3843 ◽  
Jennifer M. Adams-Haduch ◽  
David L. Paterson ◽  
Hanna E. Sidjabat ◽  
Anthony W. Pasculle ◽  
Brian A. Potoski ◽  

ABSTRACT A total of 49 unique clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii identified at a tertiary medical center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, between August 2006 and September 2007 were studied for the genetic basis of their MDR phenotype. Approximately half of all A. baumannii clinical isolates identified during this period qualified as MDR, defined by nonsusceptibility to three or more of the antimicrobials routinely tested in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Among the MDR isolates, 18.4% were resistant to imipenem. The frequencies of resistance to amikacin and ciprofloxacin were high at 36.7% and 95.9%, respectively. None of the isolates was resistant to colistin or tigecycline. The presence of the carbapenemase gene bla OXA-23 and the 16S rRNA methylase gene armA predicted high-level resistance to imipenem and amikacin, respectively. bla OXA-23 was preceded by insertion sequence ISAba1, which likely provided a potent promoter activity for the expression of the carbapenemase gene. The structure of the transposon defined by ISAba1 differed from those reported in Europe, suggesting that ISAba1-mediated acquisition of bla OXA-23 may occur as an independent event. Typical substitutions in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA and parC genes were observed in the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, including the qnr genes, were not identified. Fifty-nine percent of the MDR isolates belonged to a single clonal group over the course of the study period, as demonstrated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

2016 ◽  
Vol 62 (9) ◽  
pp. 794-801 ◽  
Sirawit Pagdepanichkit ◽  
Chanwit Tribuddharat ◽  
Rungtip Chuanchuen

One hundred Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates were examined for inhibitory effect of reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of 4 resistant–nodulation–cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux systems, including AdeABC, AdeDE, AdeIJK, and AdeFGH, using RT-PCR. Ten A. baumannii isolates expressing AdeABC, AdeIJK, or AdeFGH were randomly selected for determination of transcription level and regulatory mutations. While all the isolates were resistant to multiple drugs, the reserpine and CCCP experiment showed that the multidrug resistance phenotype in most A. baumannii isolates was associated with efflux pumps. Most isolates expressed at least one of the RND-type efflux pumps tested (97%). AdeIJK expression was most common (97%), but none of the isolates produced AdeDE. Fifty-two percent of the A. baumannii isolates simultaneously produced up to 3 RND-type efflux systems (i.e., AdeABC, AdeFGH, and AdeIJK). No good correlation between the expression of RND-type efflux pumps and the type of antimicrobial resistance was observed. Overexpression of AdeABC, AdeIJK, and AdeFGH was not always related to the presence of mutations in their corresponding regulatory genes. This study highlights (i) the universal presence of the RND-type efflux pumps with variable levels of expression level among the A. baumannii in this collection and (ii) the complexity of their regulation of expression.

2018 ◽  
Vol 2018 ◽  
pp. 1-7 ◽  
Teshale Worku ◽  
Dejene Derseh ◽  
Abera Kumalo

Background. Nosocomial infections occur among patients during their stay in hospitals. The severity of infection depends on the characteristics of microorganisms with a high risk of being acquired when the environment is contaminated. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging rapidly around the globe creating a serious threat. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016–February 2017 at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Samples were collected from the equipment and hospital surfaces. The isolated bacteria were checked for susceptibility by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method following the standards of CLSI 2014. Health professionals and sanitary team members were included in the study which assessed the disinfection practice of objects from which samples were taken. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 201 swab samples were taken, and most bacteria were recovered from thermometer and floor consisting of 21.6% S. aureus, 19.3% CoNS, 15.9% E. coli, 14.8% Klebsiella species, 11.4% P. aeruginosa, 10.2% Proteus species, and 6.8% Serratia species. The most multidrug resistant organisms were S. aureus (79%), Klebsiella species (53.8%), CoNS (47%), and Proteus species (44.4%). Only 6.45% of health professionals disinfect their stethoscope consistently. Conclusion. S. aureus, CoNS, and E. coli were the predominant isolates. Most isolates showed highest susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and least to ampicillin and penicillin. There is no regular sanitation and disinfection of hospital equipment and surfaces.

Antibiotics ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 31 ◽  
Cristiana Cerasella Dragomirescu ◽  
Brandusa Elena Lixandru ◽  
Ileana Luminita Coldea ◽  
Olguta Nicoleta Corneli ◽  
Marina Pana ◽  

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most important public health issues. Besides classical multidrug resistance species associated with medical care involved in superficial or invasive infections, there are strains less commonly associated with hospital or outpatient setting’s infections. Non-diphtheria Corynebacterium spp. could produce infections in patients with or without immune-compromised status. The aim of our study was to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents to Corynebacterium spp. from clinical samples collected from Romanian hospitalized individuals and outpatients. Twenty Corynebacterium strains were isolated and identified as Corynebacterium striatum (n = 7), Corynebacterium amycolatum (n = 7), C. urealyticum (n = 3), Corynebacterium afermentans (n = 2), and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (n = 1). All isolates have been tested for antibiotic susceptibility by standardized disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests. Seventeen isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance phenotypes. The molecular support responsible for high resistance to quinolones for ten of these strains was determined by the detection of point mutation in the gene sequence gyrA.

Antibiotics ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 148 ◽  
Cuong Hoang Quoc ◽  
Thao Nguyen Thi Phuong ◽  
Hai Nguyen Duc ◽  
Trung Tran Le ◽  
Hang Tran Thi Thu ◽  

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen found in hospital-acquired infections including nosocomial pneumonia, especially multidrug-resistant Ab. This study aims to survey the drug resistance profiles of Ab isolated from patients in Thong Nhat Dong Nai General Hospital and assess the relationship between genotypes and antibiotic resistance; Methods: Ninety-seven Ab strains isolated from 340 lower respiratory tract specimens among pneumonia patients were used to screen the most common local carbapenemase genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results and demographic data were collected and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of colistin were also determined; Results: Over 80% and 90% of Ab strains were determined as carbapenem-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR), respectively. Most of the strains carried carbapenemase genes, including blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, and blaNDM-1, with proportions of 97 (100%), 76 (78.4%), 10 (10.3%), 6 (6.2%), respectively. Amongst these genes, blaOXA-23-like was the only gene which significantly influenced the resistance (p < 0.0001); and Conclusions: The severity of Ab antibiotic resistance is urgent and specifically related to carbapenemase encoding genes. Therefore, screening of MDR Ab and carbapenemase for better treatment options is necessary.

Pathogens ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 164 ◽  
Tomilola Adesina ◽  
Obinna Nwinyi ◽  
Nandita De ◽  
Olayemi Akinnola ◽  
Emmanuel Omonigbehin

Recently discovered extraintestinal Escherichia fergusonii obtained from non-clinical samples has exhibited the potential for acquiring multiple beta-lactamase genes, just like many extraintestinal Escherichia coli strains. Albeit, they are often omitted or classified as E. coli. This study aimed to, therefore, identify carbapenem-resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. fergusonii isolates from clinical samples, determine their evolutionary relatedness using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and screen for beta-lactamase genes. A total of 135 septic wound samples were obtained from patients on referral at a General Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. For the phenotypic identification of isolates from culture-positive samples, morphological, and physiological tests were carried out. Identities of the isolates harbouring beta-lactamase genes were assigned to their genus strains using the 16S rRNA sequencing. The Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique and double-disc synergy test were used to screen isolates for multidrug resistance and ESBL production. Carbapenem-resistant ESBL producing isolates were screened for beta-lactamase genes in a polymerase chain reaction. Three E. fergusonii isolates (CR11, CR35 and CR49) were obtained during this study. E. fergusonii strains were motile, non-lactose and non-sorbitol fermenting but positive for cellobiose and adonitol fermentation. The I6S rRNA assigned the phenotypically identified isolates to E. fergusonii species. All three isolates were multidrug-resistant, carbapenem-resistant and ESBL producers. Isolates CR11 and CR35 harboured cefotaximase (CTX-M) and temoniera (TEM) beta-lactamase genes while CR49 harboured sulfhydryl variable (SHV) beta-lactamase gene. We herein report the detection of multiple beta-lactamase genes in carbapenem-resistant ESBL producing E. fergusonii from clinical samples.

2019 ◽  
Vol 13 (01) ◽  
pp. 50-55
Umut Safiye Say Coskun ◽  
Emel Caliskan ◽  
Asegul Copur Cicek ◽  
Halbay Turumtay ◽  
Cemal Sandalli

Introduction: The spread of Acinetobacter baumannii, resistant to most of the available antimicrobial agents, is a serious health problem. The high rate of carbapenem resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates is considered as a threat to public health. In this study, we aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance and related genes in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. Methodology: Ninety six isolates of A. baumannii were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Phoenix Automated System and disk diffusion method. Carbapenem resistane was characterized by scrneeing of resistance genes such as blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M1-2, blaPER, blaVEB, blaKPC, blaGES, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaOXA23-24-51-58 using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results: Resistance for the levofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin, and tigecycline were determined as 96.9%, 93.7%, 72.9% and 45.8% respectively. Colistin was the only susceptible antibiotic against all clinical isolates. All isolates were defined as multidrug resistance and of these, 31.2% were extensively drug-resistant (sensitive only to colistin). BlaOXA-51­  and blaOXA-23 genes were detected in 100% strains while blaTEM was found in only 2% strains. There was no amplification for the blaSHV, blaCTX-M1-2, blaPER, blaVEB, blaKPC, blaGES blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaOXA24-58 genes. Conclusions: The high frequency of blaOXA-23 and low frequency of blaTEM gene was observed that indicate prevalence of a variety of A. baumannii strains. The rates of resistance genes vary from region to region. Studies are required for the prevention and control of A. baumannii infection and to formulate the strategies of antibiotic usage.

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