shear stresses
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2022 ◽  
Vol 609 ◽  
pp. 260-268
Author(s):  
Ludmila B. Boinovich ◽  
Elizaveta V. Chulkova ◽  
Kirill A. Emelyanenko ◽  
Alexander G. Domantovsky ◽  
Alexandre M. Emelyanenko

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 157
Author(s):  
Timothy Ngeru ◽  
Dzhem Kurtulan ◽  
Ahmet Karkar ◽  
Stefanie Hanke

multiaxial stress states frequently occur in technical components and, due to the multitude of possible load situations and variations in behaviour of different materials, are to date not fully predictable. This is particularly the case when loads lie in the plastic range, when strain accumulation, hardening and softening play a decisive role for the material reaction. This study therefore aims at adding to the understanding of material behaviour under complex load conditions. Fatigue tests conducted under cyclic torsional angles (5°, 7.5°, 10° and 15°), with superimposed axial static compression loads (250 MPa and 350 MPa), were carried out using smooth specimens at room temperature. A high nitrogen alloyed austenitic stainless steel (nickel free), was employed to determine not only the number of cycles to failure but particularly to aid in the understanding of the mechanical material reaction to the multiaxial stresses as well as modes of crack formation and growth. Experimental test results indicate that strain hardening occurs under the compressive strain, while at the same time cyclic softening is observable in the torsional shear stresses. Furthermore, the cracks’ nature is unusual with multiple branching and presence of cracks perpendicular in direction to the surface cracks, indicative of the varying multiaxial stress states across the samples’ cross section as cross slip is activated in different directions. In addition, it is believed that the static compressive stress facilitated the Stage I (mode II) crack to change direction from the axial direction to a plane perpendicular to the specimen’s axis.


Development ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexandre Souchaud ◽  
Arthur Boutillon ◽  
Gaëlle Charron ◽  
Atef Asnacios ◽  
Camille Nous ◽  
...  

To investigate the role of mechanical constraints in morphogenesis and development, we develop a pipeline of techniques based on incompressible elastic sensors. These techniques combine the advantages of incompressible liquid droplets, which have been used as precise in situ shear stress sensors, and of elastic compressible beads, which are easier to tune and to use. Droplets of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mix, made fluorescent through specific covalent binding to a rhodamin dye, are produced by a microfluidics device. The elastomer rigidity after polymerization is adjusted to the tissue rigidity. Its mechanical properties are carefully calibrated in situ, for a sensor embedded in a cell aggregate submitted to uniaxial compression. Thelocal shear stress tensor is retrieved from the sensor shape, accurately reconstructed through an active contour method. In vitro, within cell aggregates, and in vivo, in the prechordal plate of the Zebrafish embryo during gastrulation,our pipeline of techniques demonstrates its efficiency to directly measure the three dimensional shear stress repartition within a tissue.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Adnan ◽  
Waqas Ashraf ◽  
Umar Khan ◽  
Amnah S. Al-Johani ◽  
Naveed Ahmed ◽  
...  

AbstractThe dynamics of nanofluid by considering the role of imposed Lorentz forces, thermal radiations and velocity slip effects over a vertically convectively heated surface is a topic of huge interest. Therefore, the said study is conducted for Al2O3-H2O nanofluid. Mathematical modelling of the problem is done via nanofluid effective correlations comprising the influences of freezing temperature, molecular diameter and similarity transformations. The results for multiple parameters are plotted and provide comprehensive discussion. From the analysis, it is examined that Al2O3-H2O nanofluid motion drops by strengthening Lorentz forces. The temperature in the nanofluid (Al2O3-H2O) is improved by inducing viscous dissipation effects (Ec number), surface convection (Biot number) and thermal radiations (Rd). Moreover, the shear stresses at the surface decreased due to higher magnetic field effects and rises due to velocity slip. A significant rise in Local Nusselt number is observed due to thermal radiations and Biot effects. Finally, enhanced heat transport mechanism in Al2O3-H2O is examined than a conventional liquid. Therefore, nanofluids are better for industrial applications and the uses of conventional liquids are limited due to low thermal conductivity.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Thomas Hudson ◽  
Sofia-Katerina Kufner ◽  
Alex Brisbourne ◽  
Michael Kendall ◽  
Andrew Smith ◽  
...  

Abstract The slip of glaciers over the underlying bed is the dominant mechanism governing the migration of ice from land into the oceans, contributing to sea-level rise. Yet glacier slip remains poorly understood or constrained by observations. Here we observe both frictional shear-stress and slip at the bed of an ice stream, using 100,000 repetitive stick-slip icequakes from Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica. Basal shear-stresses and slip-rates vary from 10^4 to 10^7 Pa and 0.2 to 1.5 m day^(-1), respectively. Friction and slip vary temporally over the order of hours and spatially over 10s of meters, caused by corresponding variations in ice-bed interface material and effective-normal-stress. Our findings also suggest that the bed is substantially more complex than currently assumed in ice stream models and that basal effective-normal-stresses may be significantly higher than previously thought. The observations also provide previously unresolved constraint of the basal boundary conditions of ice dynamics models. This is critical for constraining the primary contribution of ice mass loss in Antarctica, and hence the endeavour to reduce uncertainty in sea-level rise projections.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Oanh L. Pham ◽  
Samuel E. Feher ◽  
Quoc T. Nguyen ◽  
Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou

AbstractThe configuration of proteins is critical for their biochemical behavior. Mechanical stresses that act on them can affect their behavior leading to the development of decease. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) protein circulating with the blood loses its efficacy when it undergoes non-physiological hemodynamic stresses. While often overlooked, extensional stresses can affect the structure of vWF at much lower stress levels than shear stresses. The statistical distribution of extensional stress as it applies on models of the vWF molecule within turbulent flow was examined here. The stress on the molecules of the protein was calculated with computations that utilized a Lagrangian approach for the determination of the molecule trajectories in the flow filed. The history of the stresses on the proteins was also calculated. Two different flow fields were considered as models of typical flows in cardiovascular mechanical devises, one was a Poiseuille flow and the other was a Poiseuille–Couette flow field. The data showed that the distribution of stresses is important for the design of blood flow devices because the average stress can be below the critical value for protein damage, but tails of the distribution can be outside the critical stress regime.


Author(s):  
Quanshun Luo

AbstractX-ray diffraction has been widely used in measuring surface residual stresses. A drawback of the conventional d ~ sin2ψ method is the increased uncertainty arising from sin2ψ splitting when a significant residual shear stress co-exists with a residual normal stress. In particular, the conventional method can only be applied to measure the residual normal stress while leaving the residual shear stress unknown. In this paper, we propose a new approach to make simultaneous measurement of both residual normal and shear stresses. Theoretical development of the new approach is described in detail, which includes two linear regressions, $$\frac{{d}_{\psi }+ {d}_{-\psi }}{2}$$ d ψ + d - ψ 2 ~sin2ψ and {dψ-d-ψ} ~ sin(2ψ), to determine the residual normal and shear stresses separately. Several samples were employed to demonstrate the new method, including turning-machined and grinding-machined cylindrical bars of a high strength steel as well as a flat sample of magnetron sputtered TiN coating. The machined samples were determined to have residual compressive normal stresses at both the axial and hoop directions as well as various scales of residual shear stresses. The TiN coating showed a high scale of residual compressive (normal) stress whereas the measured residual shear stress was extremely low. The new method showed significantly increased precision as compared to the conventional d ~ sin2ψ method.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Scott Atwell ◽  
Catherine Badens ◽  
Anne Charrier ◽  
Emmanuèle Helfer ◽  
Annie Viallat

In this work, we compared the dynamics of motion in a linear shear flow of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from healthy and pathological donors (Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) or Sickle Cell-β-thalassemia) and of low and high densities, in a suspending medium of higher viscosity. In these conditions, at lower shear rates, biconcave discocyte-shaped RBCs present an unsteady flip-flopping motion, where the cell axis of symmetry rotates in the shear plane, rocking to and fro between an orbital angle ±ϕ observed when the cell is on its edge. We show that the evolution of ϕ depends solely on RBC density for healthy RBCs, with denser RBCs displaying lower ϕ values than the lighter ones. Typically, at a shear stress of 0.08 Pa, ϕ has values of 82 and 72° for RBCs with average densities of 1.097 and 1.115, respectively. Surprisingly, we show that SCD RBCs display the same ϕ-evolution as healthy RBCs of same density, showing that the flip-flopping behavior is unaffected by the SCD pathology. When the shear stress is increased further (above 0.1 Pa), healthy RBCs start going through a transition to a fluid-like motion, called tank-treading, where the RBC has a quasi-constant orientation relatively to the flow and the membrane rotates around the center of mass of the cell. This transition occurs at higher shear stresses (above 0.2 Pa) for denser cells. This shift toward higher stresses is even more remarkable in the case of SCD RBCs, showing that the transition to the tank-treading regime is highly dependent on the SCD pathology. Indeed, at a shear stress of 0.2 Pa, for RBCs with a density of 1.097, 100% of healthy RBCs have transited to the tank-treading regime vs. less than 50% SCD RBCs. We correlate the observed differences in dynamics to the alterations of RBC mechanical properties with regard to density and SCD pathology reported in the literature. Our results suggest that it might be possible to develop simple non-invasive assays for diagnosis purpose based on the RBC motion in shear flow and relying on this millifluidic approach.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Adnan ◽  
Waqas Ashraf ◽  
Abdulaziz H. Alghtani ◽  
Ilyas Khan ◽  
M. Andualem

The analysis of nanofluid dynamics in a bounded domain attained much attention of the researchers, engineers, and industrialists. These fluids became much popular in the researcher’s community due to their broad uses regarding the heat transfer in various industries and fluid flowing in engine and in aerodynamics as well. Therefore, the analysis of Cu-kerosene oil and Cu-water is organized between two Riga plates with the novel effects of thermal radiations and surface convection. The problem reduced in the form of dimensionless system and then solved by employing variational iteration and variation of parameter methods. For the sake of validity, the results checked with numerical scheme and found to be excellent. Further, it is examined that the nanofluids move slowly by strengthen Cu fraction factor. The temperature of Cu-kerosene oil and Cu-water significantly rises due to inducing thermal radiations and surface convection. The behaviour of shear stresses is in reverse proportion with the primitive parameters, and local Nusselt number increases due to varying thermal radiations, Biot number, and fraction factor, respectively.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Author(s):  
Vitor Anes ◽  
Luis Reis ◽  
Manuel Freitas

In this paper, we investigate the cyclic response of AISI 303 stainless steel subjected to non-proportional loads with different amplitude ratios between shear stresses and normal stresses. Based on the experiments, a relationship between the proportional reference load and a varied range of non-proportional loads was established. To achieve this objective, an experimental program was implemented to evaluate the non-proportional parameter Y. Then, the evolution of this parameter was analyzed with the number of cycles to failure and with the ratio between shear and normal stresses, finally, the evolution of the non-proportional parameter Y was mapped by two functions. The results show that the non-proportional response of the AISI 303 can be estimated using the two functions obtained. This allows the estimation of the relationship between non-proportional and proportional stresses as a function of the number of cycles to failure together with the relationship between shear and normal stresses. The results obtained have direct application in the evaluation of accumulated damage, assessed in real-time, resulting from variable amplitude loading spectra. This is of particular interest for the evaluation of structural health monitoring of structures and mechanical components.


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