endothelial cell apoptosis
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FEBS Open Bio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Hanlin Peng ◽  
Shangyue Zhang ◽  
Zaifeng Zhang ◽  
Xiuli Wang ◽  
Xiaoyu Tian ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (19) ◽  
pp. 10309
Chen-Sheng Chen ◽  
Bo-Yi Pan ◽  
Ping-Hsuan Tsai ◽  
Fang-Yu Chen ◽  
Wen-Chin Yang ◽  

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis is strongly associated with atherosclerosis progression. Herein, we aimed to examine whether Kansuinine A (KA), extracted from Euphorbia kansui L., prevents atherosclerosis development in a mouse model and inhibits cell apoptosis through oxidative stress reduction. Atherosclerosis development was analyzed in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) using Oil Red O staining and H&E staining. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with KA, followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to investigate the KA-mediated inhibition of ROS-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Oil Red O staining and H&E staining showed that atherosclerotic lesion size was significantly smaller in the aortic arch of ApoE−/− mice in the HFD+KA group than that in the aortic arch of those in the HFD group. Further, KA (0.1–1.0 μM) blocked the H2O2-induced death of HAECs and ROS generation. The H2O2-mediated upregulation of phosphorylated IKKβ, phosphorylated IκBα, and phosphorylated NF-κB was suppressed by KA. KA also reduced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression, preventing H2O2-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. Our results indicate that KA may protect against ROS-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and has considerable clinical potential in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Mangyuan Wang ◽  
Fen Liu ◽  
Binbin Fang ◽  
Qiang Huo ◽  
Yining Yang

Abstract Background Vascular endothelial cell apoptosis is the leading risk factor of atherosclerosis (AS). The purpose of our study was to use a new generation high-throughput transcription factor (TF) detection method to identify novel key TFs in vascular endothelial cell apoptosis induced by palmitic acid (PA). Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with 0, 300, or 500 µM PA. Candidate TFs in the three groups were identified by differential expression, pathway enrichment, Western Blot (WB), and RT-qPCR analyses. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using FITC-annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Results We established a HUVEC apoptosis model to simulate the process of atherosclerosis onset and identified 51 significant TFs. of the 51 TFs, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein G (MAFG) and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein F (MAFF), were matched to known AS signalling pathways and were validated by WB and RT-qPCR analyses in our study. Overexpression of MAFG or MAFF in HUVECs significantly inhibited PA-induced early apoptosis. Conclusions We identified MAFF and MAFG as novel key TFs in vascular endothelial cell apoptosis.

Cyrine Ben Dhaou ◽  
Kamel Mandi ◽  
Mickaël Frye ◽  
Angela Acheampong ◽  
Ayoub Radi ◽  

AbstractChemerin is a multifunctional protein initially characterized in our laboratory as a chemoattractant factor for leukocyte populations. Its main functional receptor is CMKLR1. We identified previously chemerin as an anti-tumoral factor inhibiting the vascularization of tumor grafts. We show here that overexpression of bioactive chemerin in mice results in a reduction of the density of the retinal vascular network during its development and in adults. Chemerin did not affect vascular sprouting during the post-natal development of the network, but rather promoted endothelial cell apoptosis and vessel pruning. This phenotype was reversed to normal in CMKLR1-deficient mice, demonstrating the role of this receptor. Chemerin inhibited also neoangiogenesis in a model of pathological proliferative retinopathy, and in response to hind-limb ischemia. Mechanistically, PTEN and FOXO1 antagonists could almost completely restore the density of the retinal vasculature, suggesting the involvement of the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway in the chemerin-induced vessel regression process.

Nephron ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Yuan Zhang ◽  
Xiaolan Chen ◽  
Yaping Fan ◽  
Jing Liu ◽  
Li Yuan

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Glomerular endothelial cell damage plays an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). <b><i>Objectives:</i></b> This study aimed to clarify the role of XCL1 in DN-mediated glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis and whether the function was related to the activation of the p53/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Candidate biomarkers were identified by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value was calculated and used to evaluate the discriminating ability. Cell viability, apoptosis, and interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression at messenger RNA and protein levels were detected by using the Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, ELISA, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assays. In vivo studies were conducted in the DN mice. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The LASSO regression model displayed good discriminating performance, with a C-index of 0.803 and good calibration, and high XCL1 expression was identified as the predicting factor for DN in diabetes mellitus patients. XCL1 expression was upregulated in glomeruli of db/db mice, which was closely related to the expression of its receptor (XCR1). XCL1 overexpression played an important role in the apoptosis and inflammatory response of high glucose (HG)-treated human renal glomerular endothelial cells. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 and the levels of inflammatory cytokines were upregulated upon XCL1 overexpression. p53 silencing with its inhibitor blocked the apoptotic response and inflammatory response in XCL1-overexpressed cells exposed to HG. Besides, the XCL1 overexpression-induced downregulation of NF-κB was reversed by pifithrin-α pretreatment. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Our findings in this work provided the mechanistic insights into the effects of XCL1 on the modulation of DN development, illustrating that XCL1 might serve as an essential prognostic indicator and therapeutic target for DN progression.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Hyo Jin Kim ◽  
Eun Young Seong ◽  
Wonho Lee ◽  
Suhkmann Kim ◽  
Hee-Sung Ahn ◽  

AbstractIn this single-center prospective study of 20 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD), we compared the therapeutic effects of medium cut-off (MCO) and high flux (HF) dialyzers using metabolomics and proteomics. A consecutive dialyzer membrane was used for 15-week study periods: 1st HF dialyzer, MCO dialyzer, 2nd HF dialyzer, for 5 weeks respectively. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance was used to identify the metabolites and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis was used to identify proteins. To compare the effects of the HF and MCO dialyzers, orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed. OPLS-DA showed that metabolite characteristics could be significantly classified by 1st HF and MCO dialyzers. The Pre-HD metabolites with variable importance in projection scores ≥ 1.0 in both 1st HF versus MCO and MCO versus 2nd HF were succinate, glutamate, and histidine. The pre-HD levels of succinate and histidine were significantly lower, while those of glutamate were significantly higher in MCO period than in the HF period. OPLS-DA of the proteome also substantially separated 1st HF and MCO periods. Plasma pre-HD levels of fibronectin 1 were significantly higher, and those of complement component 4B and retinol-binding protein 4 were significantly lower in MCO than in the 1st HF period. Interestingly, as per Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, an increase in epithelial cell proliferation and a decrease in endothelial cell apoptosis occurred during the MCO period. Overall, our results suggest that the use of MCO dialyzers results in characteristic metabolomics and proteomics profiles during HD compared with HF dialyzers, which might be related to oxidative stress, insulin resistance, complement-coagulation axis, inflammation, and nutrition.

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