low shear stress
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Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3563
Karthika Chandran Latha ◽  
Ahalya Sreekumar ◽  
Vyshna Beena ◽  
Binil Raj S.S. ◽  
RaviKumar B. Lakkappa ◽  

Chronic venous diseases, including varicose veins, are characterized by hemodynamic disturbances due to valve defects, venous insufficiency, and orthostatism. Veins are physiologically low shear stress systems, and how altered hemodynamics drives focal endothelial dysfunction and causes venous remodeling is unknown. Here we demonstrate the occurrence of endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in human varicose veins. Moreover, the BMP4-pSMAD5 pathway was robustly upregulated in varicose veins. In vitro flow-based assays using human vein, endothelial cells cultured in microfluidic chambers show that even minimal disturbances in shear stress as may occur in early stages of venous insufficiency induce BMP4-pSMAD5-based phenotype switching. Furthermore, low shear stress at uniform laminar pattern does not induce EndMT in venous endothelial cells. Targeting the BMP4-pSMAD5 pathway with small molecule inhibitor LDN193189 reduced SNAI1/2 expression in venous endothelial cells exposed to disturbed flow. TGFβ inhibitor SB505124 was less efficient in inhibiting EndMT in venous endothelial cells exposed to disturbed flow. We conclude that disturbed shear stress, even in the absence of any oscillatory flow, induces EndMT in varicose veins via activation of BMP4/pSMAD5-SNAI1/2 signaling. The present findings serve as a rationale for the possible use of small molecular mechanotherapeutics in the management of varicose veins.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13300
Fabio Bertani ◽  
Dalila Di Francesco ◽  
Maria Dolores Corrado ◽  
Maria Talmon ◽  
Luigia Grazia Fresu ◽  

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), mainly ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, are the leading cause of global mortality and major contributors to disability worldwide. Despite their heterogeneity, almost all CVDs share a common feature: the endothelial dysfunction. This is defined as a loss of functionality in terms of anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and vasodilatory abilities of endothelial cells (ECs). Endothelial function is greatly ensured by the mechanotransduction of shear forces, namely, endothelial wall shear stress (WSS). Low WSS is associated with endothelial dysfunction, representing the primary cause of atherosclerotic plaque formation and an important factor in plaque progression and remodeling. In this work, the role of factors released by ECs subjected to different magnitudes of shear stress driving the functionality of downstream endothelium has been evaluated. By means of a microfluidic system, HUVEC monolayers have been subjected to shear stress and the conditioned media collected to be used for the subsequent static culture. The results demonstrate that conditioned media retrieved from low shear stress experimental conditions (LSS-CM) induce the downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression while upregulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) adhesion by means of higher levels of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin and ICAM-1. Moreover, LSS-CM demonstrated a significant angiogenic ability comparable to the inflammatory control media (TNFα-CM); thus, it is likely related to tissue suffering. We can therefore suggest that ECs stimulated at low shear stress (LSS) magnitudes are possibly involved in the paracrine induction of peripheral endothelial dysfunction, opening interesting insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of coronary microvascular dysfunction.

Nikhilesh Bappoo ◽  
Maaz B.J. Syed ◽  
Georgia Khinsoe ◽  
Lachlan J. Kelsey ◽  
Rachael O. Forsythe ◽  

Background: Low shear stress has been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) expansion and clinical events. We tested the hypothesis that low shear stress in AAA at baseline is a marker of expansion rate and future aneurysm-related events. Methods: Patients were imaged with computed tomography angiography at baseline and followed up every 6 months >24 months with ultrasound measurements of maximum diameter. From baseline computed tomography angiography, we reconstructed 3-dimensional models for automated computational fluid dynamics simulations and computed luminal shear stress. The primary composite end point was aneurysm repair and/or rupture, and the secondary end point was aneurysm expansion rate. Results: We included 295 patients with median AAA diameter of 49 mm (interquartile range, 43–54 mm) and median follow-up of 914 (interquartile range, 670–1112) days. There were 114 (39%) aneurysm-related events, with 13 AAA ruptures and 98 repairs (one rupture was repaired). Patients with low shear stress (<0.4 Pa) experienced a higher number of aneurysm-related events (44%) compared with medium (0.4–0.6 Pa; 27%) and high (>0.6 Pa; 29%) shear stress groups ( P =0.010). This association was independent of known risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.08–2.73]; P =0.023). Low shear stress was also independently associated with AAA expansion rate (β=+0.28 mm/y [95% CI, 0.02–0.53]; P =0.037). Conclusions: We show for the first time that low shear stress (<0.4 Pa) at baseline is associated with both AAA expansion and future aneurysm-related events. Aneurysms within the lowest tertile of shear stress, versus those with higher shear stress, were more likely to rupture or reach thresholds for elective repair. Larger prospective validation trials are needed to confirm these findings and translate them into clinical management.

Л.Н. Катюхин

Рассмотрены условия формирования агрегатов в сосудах. Представлена история изучения феномена обратимой агрегации эритроцитов. Дискутируется целесообразность терапевтической коррекции агрегации эритроцитов при патологии. This review contains the history of the reversible aggregation erythrocytes phenomenon study. The conditions of aggregates formation in vessels with low shear stress are discussed. The assumption is made on the feasibility of reducing еrythrocytes aggregation for correcting blood rheological behavior in the pathology.

2021 ◽  
Andreia Fernandes ◽  
Vahid Hosseini ◽  
Viola Vogel ◽  
Robert Lovchik

Shear stress is extremely important for endothelial cell (EC) function. The popularity of 6-well plates on orbital shakers to impose shear stress on ECs has increased among biologists due to their low cost and simplicity. One characteristic of such a platform is the heterogeneous flow profile within a well. While cells in the periphery are exposed to a laminar and high-velocity pulsatile flow that mimics physiological conditions, the flow in the center is disturbed and imposes low shear stress on the cells, which is characteristic of atheroprone regions. For studies where such heterogeneity is not desired, we present a simple cell-patterning technique to selectively prevent cell growth in the center of the well and facilitate the exclusive collection and analysis of cells in the periphery. This guarantees that cell phenotypes will not be influenced by secreted factors from cells exposed to other shear profiles nor that interesting results may be obscured by mixing cells from different regions. We also present a multi-staining platform that compartmentalizes each well into 5 smaller independent regions: four at the periphery and one in the center. This is ideal for studies that aim to grow cells on the whole well surface, for comparison with previous work and minimal interference in the cell culture, but require screening of markers by immunostaining afterwards. It allows to compare different regions of the well, reduces antibody-related costs, and allows the exploration of multiple markers essential for high-content screening of cell response. By increasing the versatility of the 6-well plate on an orbital shaker system, we hope that these two solutions motivate biologists to pursue studies on EC mechanobiology and beyond.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (Supplement_1) ◽  
A Khan ◽  
M Lee ◽  
A Watson ◽  
S Maxwell ◽  
M Cooper ◽  

Abstract   Atherosclerosis, as manifested clinically by myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. The lipid-laden plaque development within the arterial vessel wall is a progressive process initiated with endothelial cell activation and monocyte adhesion. These cellular events occur primarily at the regions of blood vessels exposed to turbulent blood flow (TBF) and low shear stress such as vascular bends and bifurcations. Exposure of the vascular cells to chronic hyperglycaemia and TBF induces a proatherogenic transcriptional profile. Studies have shown that shear stress regulates vascular pathophysiology via differential regulation of transcription factors (TFs) such as KLF4, EGR1 and AP-1, hence named as mechanosensitive TFs. AP-1 is a heterodimer composed of FOS, Jun and ATF family of TFs. Studies have shown that it is activated by low shear stress in cultured endothelial cells. Increasing evidence supports the vital role of AP-1 family members in inflammation and diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction. However, gene targets and the mechanisms underlying hyperglycemia-induced activation of AP-1 transcription factor cFOS in vascular regions exposed to TBF are not known.Although a novel approach not previously studied in diabetes associated atherosclerosis, we used a single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) approach to identify endothelial cells from TBF regions of aorta. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in Apoe−/− mice and followed for 10 weeks. Cells from digested aortae of control and diabetic mice were subjected to scRNA-seq using 10X Genomics system and Illumina Nova-seq 6000. Unsupervised graph based clustering grouped cells into fourteen cell clusters with similar gene expression profile. We applied a list of mechanosensitive gene markers including EGR1, cFOS, Junb and ICAM1 in scRNA-seq analysis to identify endothelial cells from TBF regions of aorta. This approach identified atheroprone endothelial cells exposed to persistent TBF that showed a distinct transcriptional profile with more than six hundred genes differentially expressed. Importantly, cFOS was the most significantly upregulated gene in endothelial cells exposed to TBF. We next generated adiabetes associated transcriptional signature unique to endothelial cells exposed to TBF as compared to all other cell types in the aorta. We identified several genes in endothelial cells exposed to TBF and hyperglycaemia uniquely dysregulated in diabetic Apoe−/− mice as compared to control mice (cut off = FDR&lt;0.05, fold change at least 2-fold). Gene set enrichment analysis identified “fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis” as most significantly dysregulated pathway in endothelial cells. These novel findings indicate that AP-1 TF subunit cFOS is a potential therapeutic target in diabetes associated atherosclerosis that warrant further experimental exploration. FUNDunding Acknowledgement Type of funding sources: Foundation. Main funding source(s): National Heart Foundation of Australia

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (19) ◽  
pp. 5467
Dorit Nötzel ◽  
Ralf Eickhoff ◽  
Christoph Pfeifer ◽  
Thomas Hanemann

In this work, a process chain for the fabrication of dense zirconia parts will be presented covering the individual steps feedstock compounding, 3D printing via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) and thermal postprocessing including debinding and sintering. A special focus was set on the comprehensive rheological characterization of the feedstock systems applying high-pressure capillary and oscillation rheometry. The latter allowed the representation of the flow situation especially in the nozzle of the print head with the occurring low-shear stress. Oscillation rheometry enabled the clarification of the surfactant’s concentration, here stearic acid, or more general, the feedstocks composition influence on the resulting feedstock flow behavior. Finally, dense ceramic parts (best values around 99 % of theory) were realized with structural details smaller than 100 µm.

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