mode shapes
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 582
Özkan Kahveci ◽  
Caner Gençoğlu ◽  
Tuncay Yalçinkaya

Fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs) are common rotation measurement devices in aerospace applications. They have a wide range of diversity in length and in the winding radius of the coil to meet system requirements. Every dimensional parameter in the coil influences the dynamic response of the system, eventually leading to measurement errors. In order to eliminate the errors and to qualify the system, after the design and production stages, a deep and comprehensive testing procedure follows. In this study, the dynamic behavior of a quadrupole wound fiber-optic coil is investigated. First, pre-wound fiber-optic coils are tested with an impact modal test, where the mode shapes and natural frequencies are determined with structural data acquisition. For the modal analysis, a finite element (FE) model is developed where a representative volume element (RVE) analysis is also included to properly consider the influence of the microstructure. The experimental and numerical results are compared and validated. Moreover, an estimation model is proposed for a type of coil with different fiber lengths. Finally, the estimated coil set is produced and tested employing the same methodology in order to illustrate the capacity of the developed framework.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 492
Karlo Petrović ◽  
Antonio Petošić ◽  
Tomislav Župan

In this work, the vibrations on the surfaces of the tank wall, stiffeners, and the cover of a 5 MVA transformer experimental model were measured during open-circuit and short-circuit transformer tests. Vibration measurements of a transformer tank side were conducted at discrete points using two different voltage sources in no-load test. Using interpolation functions, the RMS values of acceleration and vibration velocity are visualized and compared for each considered measurement configuration (no-load and load tests and two different excitation sources). Significant differences in mode shapes and amplitudes of vibrations at different frequencies are observed. The maximum RMS values of acceleration, velocity and displacement in the open-circuit test are 0.36 m/s2, 0.31 mm/s, and 0.42 µm, respectively. The maximum values in short-circuit test are 0.74 m/s2, 1.14 mm/s, and 1.8 µm, respectively. In the short-circuit test, the frequency component of 100 Hz is dominant. In the open-circuit test, the first few 100 Hz harmonics are significant (100 Hz, 200 Hz, and 300 Hz). In addition to the visualization of RMS values during the open-circuit and short-circuit tests, animations of the vibrations are created. Fourier analysis and phase comparison between frequency components are also used to show vibration animations at dominant frequencies in the spectrum (100 Hz harmonics). The visualization of the vibrations at the tank wall surfaces is transferred into 3D space in such a way that all 15 surfaces are mapped to the spatial coordinates of the surfaces so that a 3D model of the acceleration, vibration velocity, and displacement of the transformer tank is shown.

2022 ◽  
Alejandro Bernabeu Larena ◽  
Javier Gómez Mateo ◽  
Francisco Burgos Ruiz ◽  
Ginés Garrido Colmenero

<p>This paper presents the dynamic measurements performed at two pedestrian bridges in Sweden subjected to different loading scenarios. Using accelerometers, the natural frequencies, the experimental mode shapes, and damping properties were determined for each bridge. Analysis were performed using the generalized single degree of freedom theory, the finite element method and the coupled system approach taking into account the flying phase of the running load. Additionaly, a simplified sensitivity analysis is presented in terms of accelerations due to the pedestrian transient event of a running load case. Results indicate that there is an excellent agreement between the aforementioned modelling strategies and, that it is possible to have human structure interaction under running load scenarios.</p>

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 373
Haoqiang Gao ◽  
Qun Yan ◽  
Xusheng Liu ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Yongtao Sun ◽  

In order to achieve the dual needs of single-phase vibration reduction and lightweight, a square honeycomb acoustic metamaterials with local resonant Archimedean spirals (SHAMLRAS) is proposed. The independent geometry parameters of SHAMLRAS structures are acquired by changing the spiral control equation. The mechanism of low-frequency bandgap generation and the directional attenuation mechanism of in-plane elastic waves are both explored through mode shapes, dispersion surfaces, and group velocities. Meanwhile, the effect of the spiral arrangement and the adjustment of the equation parameters on the width and position of the low-frequency bandgap are discussed separately. In addition, a rational period design of the SHAMLRAS plate structure is used to analyze the filtering performance with transmission loss experiments and numerical simulations. The results show that the design of acoustic metamaterials with multiple Archimedean spirals has good local resonance properties, and forms multiple low-frequency bandgaps below 500 Hz by reasonable parameter control. The spectrograms calculated from the excitation and response data of acceleration sensors are found to be in good agreement with the band structure. The work provides effective design ideas and a low-cost solution for low-frequency noise and vibration control in the aeronautic and astronautic industries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 168781402110724
Wasiu Adeyemi Oke ◽  
Oluseyi Afolabi Adeyemi ◽  
Ayodeji Olalekan Salau

Structures dynamic characteristics and their responses can change due to variations in system parameters. With modal characteristics of the structures, their dynamic responses can be identified. Mode shape remains vital in dynamic analysis of the structures. It can be utilized in failure analysis, and the dynamic interaction between structures and their supports to circumvent abrupt failure. Conversely, unlike empty pipes, the mode shapes for pipes conveying fluid are tough to obtain due to the intricacy of the eigenvectors. Unfortunately, fluid pipes can be found in practice in various engineering applications. Thus, due to their global functions, their dynamic and failure analyses are necessary for monitoring their reliability to avert catastrophic failures. In this work, three techniques for obtaining approximate mode shapes (AMSs) of composite pipes conveying fluid, their transition velocity and relevance in failure analysis were investigated. Hamilton’s principle was employed to model the pipe and discretized using the wavelet-based finite element method. The complex modal characteristics of the composite pipe conveying fluid were obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem and the mode shapes needed for failure analysis were computed. The proposed methods were validated, applied to failure analysis, and some vital results were presented to highlight their effectiveness.

Abhyuday Parihar

Abstract: Conventional leaf spring made up of conventional materials like plain carbon steel are heavy and add weight to vehicle which reduces mileage. This necessitates new material which is light in weight and could provide adequate strength to leaf spring along with higher strain energy absorption to absorb shocks. The current research is intended to study the structural and vibrational characteristics of leaf spring made of P100/6061 Al, P100/AZ 91C Mg and structural steel materials. The investigation is carried out using ANSYS FEA software. The FEA results have shown that P100/AZ/ 91C generated lower stresses as compared to P100/6061 Al and structural steel material. The modal analysis of leaf spring aided to determine mass participation factor and mode shapes corresponding to each frequency. Keywords: Leaf Spring, Energy Absorption, Structural Steel Materials, ANSYS FEA, Frequency.

Wenbing Chen ◽  
Banfu Yan ◽  
Jingbo Liao ◽  
Lei Luo ◽  
You Dong

The mode shape-aided method provides a simple and effective way for cable force determination, which, however, requires accurate parameter identification of the cable structure. This paper proposes a phase-based video motion magnification to process the image sequences of a cable. Digital image correlations were engaged to measure the dynamic displacement–time history, through tracking the surface characteristic features of the cable. Thereafter, a frequency–domain decomposition technique was applied to extract the natural frequency and mode shape of the cable from the displacement–time history measurements. The identified cable mode shapes, along with a tensioned pinned-pinned cable model, were used to estimate the cable force. The accuracy of the proposed methodology was subsequently verified through laboratory testing on an inclined cable model and field testing on a typical hanger cable of a real-world arch bridge. Overall, the study results indicated that the proposed methodology could expediently and cost-effectively estimate the tension forces of a cable with reasonably acceptable identification accuracy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Muneerah Saad AL Nuwairan ◽  
Saira Javed

The focus of this study is to analyse the free vibration of cylindrical shells under third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT). The constitutive equations of the cylindrical shells are obtained using third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT). The surface and traverse displacements are expected to have cubic and quadratic variation. Spline approximation is used to approximate the displacements and transverse rotations. The resulting generalized eigenvalue problem is solved for the frequency parameter to get as many eigenfrequencies as required starting from the least. From the eigenvectors, the spline coefficients are computed from which the mode shapes are constructed. The frequency of cylindrical shells is analysed by varying circumferential node number, length dimension, layer number, and different materials. The authenticity of the present formulation is established by comparing with the available FEM results.

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