ameliorative effect
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
R. Yasmeen ◽  
B. Zahid ◽  
S. Alyas ◽  
R. Akhtar ◽  
N. Zahra ◽  

Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
K. Ali ◽  
A. Iqbal ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  
S. Safdar ◽  
A. Raiz ◽  

Abstract Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Saad Mohamed Asseri ◽  
Nehal M. Elsherbiny ◽  
Mohamed El-Sherbiny ◽  
Iman O. Sherif ◽  
Alsamman M. Alsamman ◽  

AbstractThe burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated complications is increasing worldwide, affecting many organ functionalities including submandibular glands (SMG). The present study aims to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on diabetes-induced SMG damage. Experimental evaluation of GA treatment was conducted on a rat model of type I diabetes. Animals were assigned to three groups; control, diabetic and GA treated diabetic groups. After 8 weeks, the SMG was processed for assessment of oxidative stress markers, autophagy related proteins; LC3, Beclin-1 and P62, vascular regulator ET-1, aquaporins (AQPs 1.4 and 5), SIRT1 protein expressions in addition to LC3 and AQP5 mRNA expressions. Also, parenchymal structures of the SMG were examined. GA alleviated the diabetes-induced SMG damage via restoring the SMG levels of oxidative stress markers and ET-1 almost near to the normal levels most probably via regulation of SIRT1, AQPs and accordingly LC-3, P62 and Beclin-1levels. GA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes-induced SMG damage via regulating oxidative stress, autophagy and angiogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-314
Edmund Chidiebere Mbegbu ◽  
Rita Ifeoma Odo ◽  
Paul Tobechukwu Ozioko ◽  
Mark Ebubechukwu Awachie ◽  
Lotanna Gilbert Nwobi ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of aqueous garlic extract (AGEx) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2-induced) alterations in the blood and testicles of rats. Methods: A total of 24 male rats (160 - 200 g), randomly assigned into 4 groups (A - D; n = 6), were used to investigate the claimed protective effect of AGEx on blood and spermatogenic tissues following CdCl2-intoxication in albino rats. The rats in Group A served as controls and were given 5 mg/mL of deionized water. Group B rats were given 300 mg/kg of AGEx. Group C rats were given 2 mg/kg of CdCl2. Rats in Group D first received 2 mg/kg of CdCl2, and 300 mg/kg of AGEx 2 h later. All treatments were done every 48 h for a period of six weeks. Results: CdCl2 administration to group C rats reduced (p < 0.05) haematocrit value (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb), red cells count (RBC), total leucocytes count (tWBC), eosinophil, neutrophil, testicular weights and sperm reserves; but elevated (p < 0.05) lymphocytes count compared with the controls. AGEx 300 mg/kg in group D rats significantly reversed (p < 0.05) the altered parameters compared with the controls. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that administration of aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract to male rats enhances spermatogenesis, and ameliorates testicular and haematological alterations induced by cadmium poisoning. Therefore, the spermatogenic principle in AGEx is a potential candidate for the clinical management of male infertility.

EMAN M. A. ◽  
SHERIF S. M. ◽  
SAHAR A. M. ◽  
AHLAM M. I. ◽  

Objective: The study aimed to investigate the structural and conformational changes induced by short-term administration of the amiodarone in the optic nerve besides validating whether vitamin E coadministration with amiodarone will improve these changes. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits from both sexes were haphazardly categorized into three groups, whereas each group contains ten rabbits (20 eyes). One of these groups served as a control that received an intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Rabbits in the second group intraperitoneally (ip) injected daily with 160 mg/kg body weight (bw) of amiodarone for two weeks. The last group orally administration 100 mg/kg bw of vitamin E with the 160 mg/kg bw of amiodarone ip daily for two weeks until the time of sacrifice. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was conducted on the optic nerve of the all groups. Results: The results obtained from the FTIR spectrum revealed that the short-term administration of amiodarone caused a significant alteration in the stretching NH-OH region. A newly detected component centered at 3739±1 cm-1 was assigned as strO-H. There was a significant decrease (p˂0.05) in the bandwidth and band position of one component of strO-H that centered at 3598±1 cm-1. Moreover, remaining vibrational bands (O-Hasym and O-Hsym) were shifted to higher frequencies. Coadministration of vitamin E with amiodarone reduced the contour to four components as a control with significant increase in the band position of O-Hasym and the bandwidth of one component of str O-H. Amiodarone administrations lead to reducing the area ratio of asymCH2 to symCH2 and elevation of the area ratio of asymCH2 to asymCH3 while the coadministration of vitamin E returned it as the control ratio. The percentage of the β-turn was significantly increased while the α-helix content was decreased due to amiodarone. The contents of both components were considered mimicking the control values when Vitamin E was co-administered with amiodarone. Conclusion: The study stated that amiodarone could change the solubility and folding of the optic nerve proteins. Finally, vitamin E intake with amiodarone turns many of these changes induced by amiodarone to normal levels, which make it a good supplement for amiodarone users.

2022 ◽  
Jialin Liu ◽  
Yichao Fang ◽  
Lixun Cui ◽  
Zhongzhao Wang ◽  
Yusha Luo ◽  

Abstract Background: Gut microbiota has emerged as a crucial target of gut-brain axis to influence brain and behavior and also has been closely connected with depression. Zhi-Zi-Chi decoctions (ZZCD), as a classic oral formula in clinic prescribed to clear heat and relieve restlessness traditionally, is widely applied in depression treatment nowadays. However, the underlying mechanism in the antidepressant activity of ZZCD remains largely unknown. Our previous study revealed that isoflavones, the bioactive constituents of Semen Sojae Praeparatum, benefited health by regulating the gut microbiota, which introduced the gut microbiota into understanding the mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Hence, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the antidepressant mechanism of ZZCD by focusing on the gut microbiota. Results: A classic depression model of chronic mild unpredictable stress (CUMS) was established in rats based on the results of behavioral tests and hippocampal histomorphology. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis indicated that ZZCD could increase short-chain fatty acid-producing and anti-inflammatory bacteria and reduce inflammatory and tryptophan-metabolizing bacteria, which reflected the changes of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), inflammation and tryptophan metabolism from the perspective of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, ZZCD reversed the alterations of BDNF, TNF-α, pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotransmitters in the gut, blood and brain along the brain-gut axis and restored the decrease of butyrate in cecal content caused by CUMS. Then, butyrate was utilized to validate its ameliorative effect on pathological characteristics of depressive rats. Conclusions: Taken together, these results show that ZZCD exhibits antidepressant effect through modulating gut microbiota to facilitate the production of butyrate, which further regulate anti-inflammation, neurotransmitters, endocrine and BDNF along the gut-brain axis. Hence, this study fills the gap of the antidepressive mechanism of ZZCD in the light of the brain-gut axis and established a multi-targets and multi-levels platform eventually for further research into the mechanism of other TCM efficacy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
R. N. Hota ◽  
B. K. Nanda ◽  
B. R. Behera ◽  
A. Bose

Abstract Background Limnophila rugosa (Scrophulariaceae) is a perennial aquatic plant used as a diuretic and digestive tonic as well as in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia and urinary ailments. Genus Limnophila has been reported as hepatoprotective. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of L. rugosa aerial part in paracetamol- and carbon tetrachloride-induced (CCl4) hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis for the estimation of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis for phytochemical analysis. The in vitro antioxidant activity was carried out by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical and hydrogen peroxide assay. Hepatoprotective potential of L. rugosa was studied in paracetamol (750 mg/mg)- and CCl4 (1.25 ml/kg)-induced liver damage in albino rats at dose 200 and 300 mg/kg using silymarin (100 mg/kg) as standard. Lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in liver tissue homogenate. Serum biochemical and histopathological examination was performed. Molecular docking analysis was performed to understand the molecular mechanism of hepatoprotective activity. Results HPLC analysis revealed predominance of rutin. GC–MS analysis revealed camphor as principal component. Ethanolic extract exhibited significant concentration-dependent scavenging efficacy. The altered biochemical chemical parameters: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, albumin, globulin and total protein, were significantly improved at 200 and 300 mg/kg in experimental rats. Extract signified hepatoprotective by decreasing lipid peroxidation and upregulating SOD, CAT and GSH. The findings were well supported by histological analysis. 2-Butyl-2, 7-octadien-1-ol (-5.8) and camphor (-4.8) gave the highest docking score on the transforming growth factor-β1. Conclusions The ameliorative effect of L. rugosa in the rat model of hepatotoxicity could be attributed to its antioxidant potential and bioactive principles such as betulin, 5-hydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (salvigenin), betulinic acid, ursolic acid, 3-octanol, acetophenone, anisylacetone, caryophyllene, cis-anethole and the compounds camphor and 2-butyl-2,7-octadien-1-ol identified from GC–MS analysis.

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