Different Dimensions
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gunjan Gupta ◽  
Amadou Ndiaye ◽  
Marie Filteau

Microorganisms are a fundamental part of virtually every ecosystem on earth. Understanding how collectively they interact, assemble, and function as communities has become a prevalent topic both in fundamental and applied research. Owing to multiple advances in technology, answering questions at the microbial system or network level is now within our grasp. To map and characterize microbial interaction networks, numerous computational approaches have been developed; however, experimentally validating microbial interactions is no trivial task. Microbial interactions are context-dependent, and their complex nature can result in an array of outcomes, not only in terms of fitness or growth, but also in other relevant functions and phenotypes. Thus, approaches to experimentally capture microbial interactions involve a combination of culture methods and phenotypic or functional characterization methods. Here, through our perspective of food microbiologists, we highlight the breadth of innovative and promising experimental strategies for their potential to capture the different dimensions of microbial interactions and their high-throughput application to answer the question; are microbial interaction patterns or network architecture similar along different contextual scales? We further discuss the experimental approaches used to build various types of networks and study their architecture in the context of cell biology and how they translate at the level of microbial ecosystem.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Igor Menezes ◽  
Ana Cristina Menezes ◽  
Elton Moraes ◽  
Pedro P. Pires

PurposeThis study investigates organizational climate under the thriving at work perspective using a network approach. The authors demonstrate how organizational climate functions as a complex system and what relationships between variables from different dimensions are the most important to characterize the construct.Design/methodology/approachBy surveying 119,266 workers from 284 companies based in Brazil, the authors estimated a Gaussian graphical model with LASSO regularization for the complete dataset and for two subsets of cases randomly drawn from the whole dataset. The walktrap algorithm was applied for community detection, and a strong model for measurement invariance was fit to test whether the organizational climate is perceived similarly across groups.FindingsResults show that the networks estimated for both groups are quite consistent, with similar number of communities and items detected. The same pattern was found for the expected influence of each item. Measurement invariance was confirmed, showing that organizational climate is perceived similarly in both groups. The most important community detected and whose items have higher levels of centrality was organizational commitment, followed by a community centered around macro-organizational aspects covering cultural integrity, organizational agility and responsible leadership.Research limitations/implicationsStudies in the field have attested to the possibility of investigating the phenomenon from four (Campbell et al., 1970) to over 80 dimensions (Koys and DeCottis, 1991). As a result, since several dimensions have been produced to investigate organizational climate, there is no consensus on the quality and number of dimensions that should be considered to measure such a vast and multifaceted construct. Built on thriving at work perspective, eight dimensions were devised to cover a wide range of characteristics that distinguish organizational climate, including those related to Industry 4.0 (Coetzee, 2019). However, one may argue that a few dimensions, namely social responsibility, diversity and inclusion, or even more items describing work-life balance could expand the depth and breadth of the instrument and potentially trigger new associations that might eventually impose a new logic to the comprehension of climate as a system. Future studies combining the dimensions investigated in this study with other dimensions are therefore highly recommended for an even more comprehensive investigation.Practical implicationsThe results of this investigation show how to apply psychological networks to gain insights into different variables and dimensions of organizational climate. These findings can be used for the development of organizational policies focused on the most relevant aspects of organizational climate. This information would allow organizations to go beyond simply describing the individual frequencies for each item and could even be used to create a weighted scoring model that could prioritize variables with higher levels of centrality.Originality/valueTo the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that investigates organizational climate using psychological networks; it provides a better understanding of the relationships established between items from different dimensions as opposed to the common cause framework whose focus is on the investigation of dimensions separately.

Antonio Fernández-Martínez ◽  
Luis Alberto Dueñas-Dorado ◽  
María Rosario Teva-Villén ◽  
Alberto Nuviala

There are two main lines of inquiry in the literature on adherence and/or loyalty to the practice of physical activity and to health services: one focuses on the impact of perceived quality of sports and health services and satisfaction with these services on user loyalty, while the other concludes that users with more self-determined motivation at more advanced stages of physical activity display higher levels of physical activity and greater intentions to continue this activity. The objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of different dimensions of sports service quality on satisfaction and loyalty among users aged 12 to 16 years old and to identify any differences between adolescent users at more and less consolidated stages of physical activity. A total of 1717 minors with a mean age of 13.83 ± 1.32 years who practise organised physical activity at public sports centres in Nuevo León (Mexico), 51.5% of whom were boys, participated in the study. The model of structural equations linking quality, satisfaction, and loyalty displayed adequate indices. The results showed that the staff, specific activity, and user satisfaction are predictors of loyalty. Significant differences were only found between minors at consolidated and non-consolidated stages of physical activity in the relationship between service personnel and loyalty. In conclusion, human resources and their deployment are predictive of loyalty towards sports and health services among adolescents.

2021 ◽  
Tim Krieger ◽  
Laura Renner

This paper proposes three theoretical mechanisms through which polygyny may be related to social unrest. The mechanisms are related to different dimensions of grievance-inducing and, partly, greed-related inequality, which may occur in polygynous societies. These dimensions include (i) economic, reproductive and social inequality resulting in relative deprivation among non-elite men; (ii) inequality within elites when it comes to the distribution of resources and inheritance, both related to the relative position of dependent family members in a clan; and (iii) gender inequality in general. Using data for 41 African countries from 1990-2014, we provide evidence for these mechanisms and their relationship to social unrest. We find that the first and third dimension of inequality are especially correlated with social unrest. Furthermore, we consider several potential counterarguments but do not find support for them.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Christopher S. Chapman ◽  
Anja Kern ◽  
Aziza Laguecir ◽  
Gerardine Doyle ◽  
Nathalie Angelé-Halgand ◽  

PurposeThe purpose is to assess the impact of clinical costing approaches on the quality of cost information in seven countries (Denmark, England, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Portugal).Design/methodology/approachCosting practices in seven countries were analysed via questionnaires, interviews and relevant published material.FindingsAlthough clinical costing is intended to support a similar range of purposes, countries display considerable diversity in their approaches to costing in terms of the level of detail contained in regulatory guidance and the percentage of providers subject to such guidance for tariff setting. Guidance in all countries involves a mix of costing methods.Research limitations/implicationsThe authors propose a two-dimensional Materiality and Quality Score (2D MAQS) of costing systems that can support the complex trade-offs in managing the quality of cost information at both policy and provider level, and between financial and clinical concerns.Originality/valueThe authors explore the trade-offs between different dimensions of the quality (accuracy, decision relevance and standardization) and the cost of collecting and analysing cost information for disparate purposes.

2021 ◽  
Paola Palao-Ocharan ◽  
Nieves Prior ◽  
Elia Pérez-Fernández ◽  
Magdalena Caminoa ◽  
Teresa Caballero

Abstract Background The generic 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36v2) has been used to assess health related quality of life in adult patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) even though it has not yet been validated for use in this specific disease. Objective This study aims to validate the SF-36v2 for use in adult patients with C1-INH-HAE. Results There was a very low item non-response rate (1-3.4%), with a high ceiling effect in 25/35 items and a low floor effect in 3/35 items. A moderate ceiling effect was observed in 5/8 dimensions of the SF-36v2, whereas no floor effect was noticed in any of the dimensions. Internal consistency was good to excellent with Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging between 0.82 and 0.93 for the different dimensions. Construct validity was good: seven out of the 8 hypotheses defined on clinical criteria were confirmed, discriminant validity assessment showed significant differences among patients with different C1-INH-HAE severity, convergent validity showed a good correlation among the physical and mental component summaries of the SF-36v2 and the HAE-QoL total score (0.45 and 0.64 respectively, P < 0.001). Test- retest reliability was high with intraclass correlation coefficient varying from 0.758 to 0.962. The minimal clinically important difference was calculated by distribution methods and small differences in the domain scores and in the component summaries scores were shown to be meaningful. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the SF-36v2 show it can be a useful tool to assess HRQoL in adult patients with C1-INH-HAE, although with some content validity limitation. Methods The psychometric properties of the SF-36v2 were evaluated in an international setting based on responses from 290 adult C1-INH-HAE patients in 11 countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Nitish P. Gokhale ◽  
Prateek Kala

Purpose This study aims to develop and demonstrate a deposition framework for the implementation of a region-based adaptive slicing strategy for the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding-based additive manufacturing system. The present study demonstrates a deposition framework for implementing a novel region-based adaptive slicing strategy termed as Fast Interior and Accurate Exterior with Constant Layer Height (FIAECLH). Design/methodology/approach The mentioned framework has been developed by performing experiments using the design of experiments and analyzing the experimental data. Analysis results have been used to obtain the mathematical function to integrate customization in the process. The paper, in the end, demonstrates the FIAECLH framework for implementing region-based adaptive slicing strategy on the hardware level. Findings The study showcase a new way of implementing the region-based adaptive slicing strategy to arc-based metal additive manufacturing. The study articulating a new strategy for its implementation in all types of wire and arc additive manufacturing processes. Originality/value Wire-arc-based technology has the potential to deliver cost-effective solutions for metal additive manufacturing. The research on arc welding-based processes is being carried out in different dimensions. To deposit parts with complex geometry and better dimensional accuracy implementation of a novel region-based adaptive slicing strategy for the arc-based additive manufacturing process is an essential task. The successful implementation of an adaptive slicing strategy would ease the fabrication of complex geometry in less time. This paper accomplishes this need of implementing a region-based adaptive slicing strategy as no experimental investigation has been reported for the TIG-based additive manufacturing process.

Hui-Peng Liew ◽  
Nathan Eidem

Abstract To our knowledge, this is one of the pioneering studies that examined the associations between changes in different dimensions of social vulnerability from 2000 to 2016 on damage levels resulting from Hurricane Harvey. The empirical work was based on data obtained from the FEMA Modeled Building Damage Assessments Harvey 20170829 and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)’s Geospatial Research, Analysis & Services Program (GRASP). Results from linear mixed effects modeling and the spatial error and CAR models suggested that damage level was determined by certain aspects of social vulnerability; the level of damage increased with inundation depth, population aging, and the proportion of minority population. Efforts to promote resilience in natural disasters should focus on individuals living in areas characterized by increases in population aging and minority population. Results also revealed that certain processes associated with economic growth and urban development might affect an area’s resilience and susceptibility to natural disasters and the processes associated with disaster response and mitigation.

Soheb Khan Sayeed Khan

Abstract: In recent time, due to exponential growth in electronic devices there is significant increase in heat dissipating element like integrated circuits(IC), graphical 2Assistant Professor, processing units (GPU) and central processing units (CPU). If there is no proper arrangement for heat removal it can permanently damage whole system. There are several methods used for this, one of which is thermoelectric cooling which works on peltier effect, thermoelectric devices with proper cooling arrangement act like heat pump which removes heat from one side and provide it to another side. The drawback of this system is low efficiency. In this project CFD analysis is done for minichannels of different dimensions along with thermoelectric. Simulation is performed by changing parameters such as hydraulic diameter of minichannel, changing type of heat transfer fluid and mass flow rate of fluid. The study reveals that by optimizing these parameters performance of thermoelectric system can be improved. The aim of this study is to optimize these parameters in order to improve overall heat transfer coefficient and coefficient of performance of the system. Keywords: Thermoelectric cooling, Peltier effect, Minichannel, Overall heat transfer, CFD

2021 ◽  
pp. 107754632110264
Cun-Fang Feng ◽  
Hai-Jun Yang ◽  
Cai Zhou

Projective-lag synchronization of complex systems has attracted much attention in the past two decades. However, the majority of previous studies concentrated on continuous-time chaotic systems or discrete-time chaotic systems with the same dimensions. In our present study, a general method for projective-lag synchronization of different discrete-time chaotic systems characterized with different dimensions is first demonstrated. On the basis of stability theory of discrete-time dynamical systems and Lyapunov stability theory, general controllers are designed by using the active control method. The method could achieve projective-lag synchronization in both cases: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by the projective-lag synchronization between two-dimensional Lorenz discrete-time system and three-dimensional Stefanski map, as well as between the three-dimensional generalized Hénon map and the two-dimensional quadratic map, respectively.

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