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Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-77
Author(s):  
B. Salisu ◽  
S.M. Anua ◽  
W.R. Wan Ishak ◽  
N. Mazlan

The warm weather and high relative humidity in Malaysia are ideal for the survival and proliferation of mycotoxigenic fungi leading to a high rate of stored product contamination. This study was conducted to enumerate and characterise the mycotoxigenic fungi associated with commonly consumed food grains in Kelantan, Malaysia. The fungal bioburden and fungal identification from forty-four composite food samples comprising 11 samples each of maize, wheat, rice, and peanuts from open markets in Kelantan, Malaysia, were determined using standard mycological techniques. A total of 115 mould fungal isolates belonging to 12 species were isolated, of which Aspergillus flavus (17.39%), A. versicolor (13.04%), A. felis (12.17%), Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (11.3%), Penicillium cheresanum (11.3%) and P. chrysogenum (8.7%), were predominant. Peanuts were the most contaminated (9.7×105 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g) followed by maize (7.5×105 ± 1.8×106 CFU/g), wheat (1.9×105 ± 2.6×105 CFU/g), and rice (9.9×104 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g). The levels of the mycotoxigenic fungi in peanut, maize, and wheat were above the permissible limit of 102 CFU/g set by the Malaysian Ministry of Health and 102 to 105 CFU/g set by the International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Foods, signifying that they are unsafe for use as food or feed ingredients. Hence, there is a need for more stringent control measures.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 78-89
Author(s):  
Nuryanto ◽  
E. Chasanah ◽  
D.N. Afifah ◽  
Y.N. Fawzya ◽  
T.D. Suryaningrum ◽  
...  

Malnutrition is still a major problem in Indonesia, particularly stunting and acute malnutrition due to protein deficiency. In contrast, Indonesia is rich in protein sources such as fish but they are poorly utilized. Biologically processed fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) has proven to be highly nutritious and digestible. Our preliminary study in developing the High Protein Complementary Food (HPCF) formula for infant enriched with FPH, showed that of 17 formulas, 3 formulas was the best. This study was aimed to analyzing sensory analysis using the hedonic test, physical analysis and absorption protein. The result shows that the hedonic test of FPH-enriched HPCF infant food revealed that the product was acceptable in term of colour, aroma and texture. In comparison to the commercial product, FPH-enriched instant HPCF infant product had higher bulk density. The highest Water Absorption Index (WAI) was F1-C, the highest Water Solubility Index (WSI) was F1-P, and the lowest rehydration was F2-P. Compared to commercial products, the instant FPH-enriched HPCF baby porridge has a bulk density that is greater than that of commercial products. The highest Water Absorption Index (WAI) was F1-C, the highest Water Solubility Index (WSI) was F1-P and the lowest time for Rehydration was at F2-P. HPCF enriched with FPH showed the best protein absorption significantly in the P2 treatment group


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-44
Author(s):  
Z. Mohd Zin ◽  
N.H. Yahaya ◽  
N. Bashah ◽  
K. Ibrahim ◽  
N.D. Rusli ◽  
...  

Water lily (Nymphaea antares) is one of the most valuable aquatic ornamental plants which has bright potential in the floriculture industry. It may be useful as an urban ecosystem and as a source of medicinal compounds. Due to its potential to become a new value-added product in the food industry, water lily (N. antares) was investigated in this study. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the nutritional content and antioxidant activity in water lily leaves and petioles with different pH extraction buffers. Water lily extract was obtained using three different pH extraction buffers, Tris buffer at pH 6.8, pH 7.1 and pH 7.8. The heat capacity of the extract was analysed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and different functional groups were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermal denaturation of the leaves sample was detected at 81.84°C. The antioxidant enzymes activities including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the leaves and petioles of water lily. In leaves, PPO activity was found to be higher in samples with pH 7.1 of the extraction buffer while there were no significant differences for activities of CAT, POX and SOD in all samples. In petioles, PPO and POX activity were found to be higher in samples with pH 7.8 and 7.1 of extraction buffer, respectively. Thus, the study found that a pH range of 7 to 9 extraction buffers did not greatly affect most of the analysis performed.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-68
Author(s):  
M.A. Ojo ◽  
B.I.O. Ade-Omowaye

Vigna racemosa is an underutilised hard-to-cook legume in Southwest Nigeria. The seed of V. racemosa was subjected to varying degrees of hydration levels (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% 75% and 100%) before treatment with four hydrothermal techniques, atmospheric boiling, atmospheric steaming, pressure boiling and pressure steaming. The highest percentage reduction of 65.56% in cooking time was achieved at a 100% hydration level when the seeds were processed by boiling at elevated pressure. All the hydrothermal techniques had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the protein content of the seeds. Hydration of the seeds to 100% followed by boiling at elevated pressure caused the least reduction in the protein and mineral element contents. The seed is a good source of important nutrients that are not degraded beyond the levels necessary to meet physiological needs after processing. Widening the scope of utilisation of this legume seed will make critically important nutrients such as protein more available for the teeming populations in developing countries at affordable prices, and thus, alleviating the problem of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM).


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-60
Author(s):  
A.A. Bahri ◽  
W.Z. Wan Abdullah ◽  
M.N. Lani ◽  
W. Salleh

Although vegetables are considered to be an essential part of a healthy diet, studies have shown that they can also represent a hazard for human health as they are usually eaten raw and receive minimal treatment. In recent years, vegetables are among the food groups associated with higher rates of recurrence and are the leading cause of enteric diseases. There is a colossal amount of data available on fresh produce worldwide; however, limited data are available regarding the microbiological quality of ulam in Malaysia. In fact, cross -contamination that occurs during minimal processing of ulam has not yet been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in ulam. A total of 32 samples of ulam were randomly collected from wet markets and supermarkets in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The samples were analysed for enumeration of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeast and moulds, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. In this study, the microbiological quality of ulam were in the range of 6.36-8.83; 4.14-7.48; 0-8.16; 3.94-6.45 log10 CFU/g for aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Salmonella and yeast and moulds, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in 3.13% and 9.4% of ulam samples, respectively. The findings from the study are intended to provide insight into the potential health risks associated with the consumption of ulam. The strong interdisciplinary approach by various agencies and development of safe agricultural systems will ensure the delivery of safe vegetables to the end-users


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-33
Author(s):  
P. Boonyanuphong ◽  
U. Tobgay

Radicals derived from exogenous and endogenous sources are considered to be the principal cause of genetic damage. Exogenous and endogenous radicals participate in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which leads to damages in the DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. However, dietary compounds, mainly from pigmented rice, are an essential source of antioxidants that help protect cells from damage. This study seeks to determine the antioxidant properties and cytoprotective effect of two Thai pigmented rice extracts namely the glutinous black rice (native name: Neaw dum moa37) and red rice (native name: Hom gradung-nga57) on H2O2-induced damage in HT-29 cells. The bioactive compound contents, as well as antioxidant activities of both rice extracts, were investigated. The protective effect of rice extracts on H2O2-induced damage was executed following the co-incubation method. HT-29 cells were exposed to H2O2 and different rice extract concentrations for 3 h and an MTT assay was used to measure the viability of the cell. The ROS level was determined using the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA). The result showed that glutinous black rice extract contained significantly higher contents of all analysed antioxidants and activities than red rice extract. Glutinous black rice showed a higher cytotoxic effect compared to red rice. At the non-toxic concentration of both rice extracts, the HT-29 cells were guarded against the H2O2 induced oxidative stress. Besides, the intracellular ROS accumulation result from H2O2 exposure was significantly reduced in the presence of rice extracts for both glutinous black rice and red rice compared to control. Hence, this study has demonstrated the potential properties of both pigmented rice extracts in alleviating H2O2-mediated damage in HT-29 cells.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-26
Author(s):  
A. Sassi ◽  
Normah H. ◽  
M.M.A.K. Khattak ◽  
Hanapi M.J.

Anacardium occidentale young leaves are consumed traditionally as part of a Southeast Asian diet. The regular consumption is believed to have beneficial effects on health in general and potentially against type 2 Diabetes mellitus due to its high content of polyphenols. This study was aimed to investigate the polyphenol content of the plant using two methanol extracts; Free Phenolic Extract (FPE) and Bound Phenolic Extract (BPE) as well as highlight the presence of six phenolic acids and flavonoids namely; gallic acid, sinapinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin and kaempferol using High performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-UV-Vis). The results for polyphenols and flavonoids content showed high amounts of total polyphenols in BPE with 8.5±0.57 mg GAE/g as well as high amounts of total flavonoids in both extracts FPE and BPE with 0.58±0.06 and 0.86±0.05 mg QE/g respectively (p<0.05). The presence of these polyphenols was further confirmed by measuring the antioxidant activity through the scavenging of the free radical DPPH which showed an IC50 value for FPE (5.17±0.64 µg/ mL, BPE (4.96±0.12 µg/mL) compared to the positive control ascorbic acid (4.91±0.43 µg/mL). The high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array confirmed the presence of all four targeted phenolic acids with the highest amount showing in gallic acid and sinapinic acid in BPE with 148.12±6.44 µg gallic acid/g dry weight and 47.02±1.94 µg sinapinic acid/g dry weight respectively. As for flavonoids, quercetin was present in both extracts with 20.38±1.22 µg/g dry weight in BPE and 5.21±0.1 µg/g dry weight in FPE while Kaempferol was not detectable in either extract. These findings confirmed the importance of A. occidentale as a rich source of polyphenols which can be further investigated to determine its effects in-vitro and in-vivo on non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 5-11
Author(s):  
A.K.O. Huq ◽  
I. Uddin ◽  
E. Ahmed ◽  
M.A.B. Siddique ◽  
M.A. Zaher ◽  
...  

Fats and oils are an essential part of everyday cooking as well as food products development and their purity are a concern since very early in human history. Adulteration of fats and oils is increased day by day throughout the world, a greater extent. Hence an attempt has been taken to review to identify different suitable rapid detection techniques for ensuring food quality and safety. The study was designed on the basis of extensive literature review for collecting relevant scientific evidence from various sources like Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline database, Science direct database, published journal, newspaper and periodicals. Various techniques have been utilized to assess the purity of edible fats and oils but yet they are costly and time-consuming. This study summarized the rapid detection techniques so that a common person can perform at the level of the household so as to have a broad picture of the status of adulteration in his food in case of doubt. Edible fats and oils are reported to be adulterated with other low-price oils. For example, mustard oil adulterated with argemone oil and butter yellow and ghee adulterated with vanaspati ghee. The leading challenges include the lack of market survey, lack of acceptance in the wholesale and retail market because of suspecting its purity, community health problem and decrease in consumer confidence.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-19
Author(s):  
M.F.A. Bakar ◽  
Y. Ranneh ◽  
N.F.M. Kamil

Sweet potato peel (SPP), which consist of various natural bioactive compounds, could play an important role in ameliorating chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and other degenerative diseases and yet remained underutilized. The current study investigated the effect of orange or purple SPP powder at different level of substitution (2, 5, 10%) in the production of biscuits on the proximate, antioxidant potentials and consumer acceptance. Dietary fibre increased significantly (P < 0.05) with an increase in SPP powder, ranging from 2 to 2.3 g/100 g. The total phenolic content of the biscuits was between 101.21 and 147.7 GAE/mL, total flavonoid ranged from 22.7 to 42.2 RU/mL, ABTS radical content ranged from 2.7 to 42.2 (µg ascorbic/mL). Acceptable biscuits were obtained by incorporating 2% SPP powder. Thus, SPP powder could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in biscuit production.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-4
Author(s):  
S. Rahmat ◽  
B.C. Chew ◽  
M.S.R. Abdul Hamid

Issues pertaining to food sustainability have long been debated in developing countries. Food sustainability practices benefit the environment, societies and economies, yet in Malaysia food production and management are still lagging in sustainability practices. The food industry needs to explore new methods in food production because of population increase, peoples’ lifestyle, demand for healthy foods, and environmental concerns. For this reason, this review paper discussed technological achievements in the food industry to help food producers improve production. It is crucial for Malaysia to ensure sustainability in food production technology in the 12th Economic Planning Unit (EPU) projection for 2021-2025. The EPU aims to restructure and empower the existing industry. This paper discussed the food technology sub-sector focusing on agriculture and livestock in Malaysia. This focus hopes to boost existing government strategies and improve food producers’ business performance following the EPU. Here, this paper highlights the government’s involvement in technology application to help farmers’ access affordable technology via research assistance from the government.


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