Objective: Medical podcasts are becoming increasingly available; however, it is unclear how these new resources are being used by trainees or whether they influence clinical practice. This study explores the preferences and experiences of otolaryngology residents with otolaryngology-specific podcasts, and the impact of these podcasts on resident education and clinical practice. Methods: An 18-question survey was distributed anonymously to a representative junior (up to post-graduate year 3) and senior (post-graduate year 4 or greater) otolaryngology residents at most programs across the US. Along with demographic information, the survey was designed to explore the preferences of educational materials, podcast listening habits and motivations, and influence of podcasts on medical practice. Descriptive statistics and student t-tests were used to analyze the results. Results: The survey was distributed to 198 current otolaryngology residents representing 94% of eligible residency programs and was completed by 73 residents (37% response rate). Nearly 3-quarters of respondents reported previous use of otolaryngology podcasts, among which 83% listen at least monthly. Over half of residents changed their overall clinical (53%) and consult (51%) practice based on podcast use. Residents rank-ordered listening to podcasts last among traditional options for asynchronous learning, including reading textbooks and watching online videos. Conclusions: While other asynchronous learning tools remain popular, most residents responding to this survey use podcasts and report that podcasts influence their clinical practice. This study reveals how podcasts are currently used as a supplement to formal otolaryngology education. Results from the survey may inform how medical podcasts could be implemented into resident education in the future.
Objective: Myringotomy and tube insertion is a commonly practiced procedure within pediatric otolaryngology. Though relatively safe, follow-up appointments are critical in preventing further complications and monitoring for improvement. This study sought to evaluate the factors associated with compliance of post-myringotomy follow-up visits in an urban safety-net tertiary care setting. Methods: This study is a retrospective chart review conducted in outpatient otolaryngology clinic at an urban, safety-net, tertiary-care, academic medical center. All patients from ages 0 to 18 who received myringotomy and tube placement between February 3, 2012, to May 30, 2018 at the aforementioned clinic were included. Results: A total of 806 patients had myringotomy tubes placed during this period; 190 patients were excluded due to no visits being scheduled within 1 and 6 month visit windows post-operatively, leaving 616 patients included for analysis. Of 616 patients, 574 patients were seen for the 1-month visit, (42 patients did not have follow-up visits within the 1-month window), and 356 patients were examined for the 6-month visit (260 patients did not schedule follow-up visits within the 6-month window). For the 1-month follow-up visits post-procedure, only race/ethnicity type “Other” was associated with lower no-show rates (OR = 0.330, 95% CI: 0.093-0.968). With the 6-month follow-up visits, having private insurance (OR = 0.446, 95% CI: 0.229-0.867) and not having a 1-month visit scheduled (OR = 0.404, 95% CI: 0.174-0.937) predicted lower no-show rates. Conclusion: No meaningful factors studied were significantly associated with compliance of short-term, 1-month visits post-myringotomy. Compliance of longer-term, 6-month post-operative visits was associated with insurance type and previous visit status.
Objective: To describe a rare presentation of laryngotracheal granulomatous disease secondary to sporotrichosis. Methods: The authors report a case of laryngeal sporotrichosis in an immunocompromised patient, with accompanying endoscopic images and pathology. Results/case: A 72-year-old immunocompromised female with a history of rose-handling presented with a year of hoarseness and breathy voice. Flexible nasolaryngoscopy showed diffuse nodularity; biopsy of the lesions demonstrated granulomatous inflammatory changes, and fungal culture grew Sporothrix schenkii. Long-term itraconazole treatment was initiated, with improvement in dysphonia and few residual granulomas on follow-up examination. Conclusion: When evaluating granulomatous disease of the airway, a broad differential including infectious or inflammatory etiologies should be considered, especially in immunocompromised patients. Adequate tissue samples should be collected to facilitate special staining. The current recommendations for laryngeal sporotrichosis include treatment with a prolonged course of itraconazole.
Importance: Vocal fold motion impairment (VFMI) due to neuronal injury is a known complication following thoracic aortic repair that can impair pulmonary toilet function and post-operative recovery. Objective: To demonstrate clinical outcomes of patients undergoing inpatient vocal fold medialization for VFMI after aortic surgery. Design: A 15-year retrospective chart review (2005-2019) of 259 patients with postoperative VFMI after thoracic aortic surgery registry was conducted. Data included demographics, surgery characteristics, laryngology exam, and postoperative clinical outcomes. Medialization procedures consisted of type 1 thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty. Setting: Tertiary care hospital Participants: Two hundred and fifty-nine patients (median age 61, 71% male) with VFMI post-thoracic aortic repair met inclusion criteria; inpatient vocal fold medialization was performed for 203 (78%) patients. One hundred and twenty-six. (49%) received type 1 thyroplasty and 77 (30%) received injection laryngoplasty procedures at a median 7 days (IQR 5-8 days) from extubation. Main Outcomes: Primary study outcome measurements consisted of median LOS, median ICU LOS, complications intra- and postoperatively, and pulmonary complications (post-medialization bronchoscopies, pneumonia, tracheostomy, etc.). Results: Post-medialization bronchoscopy rates were significantly lower in the medialization (n = 11) versus the non-medialization group (n = 8) (5% vs 14%, P = .02) and significantly higher in the injection laryngoplasty group (n = 77) versus thyroplasty group (n = 126) (10% vs 2%, P = .02). Further analysis revealed no significant difference in overall LOS and pulmonary complications between the techniques. Conclusion: Inpatient thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty are both effective vocal fold medialization techniques after extent I and II aortic repair. Thyroplasty may have a small pulmonary toilet advantage, as measured by need for post-medialization bronchoscopy, compared to injection laryngoplasty.
Objective: Manual jet ventilation is a specialized oxygenation and ventilation technique that is not available in all facilities due to lack of technical familiarity and fear of complications. The objective is to review our center’s 15 year experience with low pressure low frequency jet ventilation (LPLFJV). Methods: Retrospective review of procedures utilizing LPLFJV from 2005 to 2019 were performed collecting patient demographic, surgery type and complications. Fisher exact test, Chi square, and t-test were used to determine statistical significance. Results: Four hundred fifty-seven patients underwent a total of 891 microlaryngeal surgeries—279 cases for voice disorders, 179 for lesions, and 433 for airway stenosis. The peak jet pressure for all cases did not exceed 20 psi and average peak pressure for the last 100 procedures in this case series was 14.9 ± 4.6 psi. The average lowest oxygen saturation for all cases was 95% ± 0.6%. Brief intubation was required in 154 cases (17%). Surgical duration was significantly longer for cases requiring intubation P < .001. The need for intubation was not associated with smoking or cardiopulmonary disease, but was strongly associated with body mass index (BMI). Intubation rates were 7% for normal weight (BMI < 25, N = 216), 13% for overweight (BMI 25-30, N = 282), 24% for obese (BMI 30-40, N = 342), and 37% for morbidly obese (BMI > 40, N = 52) patients. Three patients developed respiratory distress in the recovery unit and 2 patients required intubation. Conclusion: LPLFJV assisted by intermittent endotracheal intubation is an exceedingly safe and effective intraoperative oxygenation and ventilationmodality for a broad variety of laryngeal procedure.
Objective: Residency interviews serve as an opportunity for prospective applicants to evaluate programs and to determine their potential fit within them. The 2019 SARS-CoV2 pandemic mandated programs conduct interviews virtually for the first time. The purpose of this study was to assess applicant perspectives on the virtual interview. Methods: A Qualtrics survey assessing applicant characteristics and attitudes toward the virtual interview was designed and disseminated to otorhinolaryngology applicants from 3 large academic institutions in the 2020 to 2021 application cycle. Results: A total of 33% of survey applicants responded. Most applicants were satisfied with the virtual interview process. Applicants reported relatively poor quality of interactions with residents and an inability to assess the “feel” of a geographic area. Most applicants received at least 11 interviews with over a third of applicants receiving >16 interviews. Only 5% of applicants completed >20 interviews. Most applicants believed interviews should be capped between 15 and 20 interviews. Most applicants reported saving >$5000, with over a quarter of applicants saving >$8000, and roughly one-third of applicants saving at least 2 weeks of time with virtual versus in-person interviews. Conclusions: While virtual interviews have limitations, applicants are generally satisfied with the experience. Advantages include cost and time savings for both applicants and programs, as well as easy use of technology. Continuation of the virtual interview format could be considered in future application cycles; geographical limitations may be overcome with in-person second looks, and increased emphasis should be placed on resident interactions during and prior to interview day.
Objectives: Discussions regarding the specific management and outcomes for laryngeal MEC are limited to very small, single-institution case series. To look further into the diagnosis and management of these uncommon non-squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx, we present 3 recent cases of laryngeal MEC treated at our institution. Methods: Patients at a tertiary hospital treated for MEC between October 2019 and December 2020 were retrospectively identified. Chart review, imaging analysis, and histologic slide creation were completed for all patients. Results: We identified and treated 2 patients with high-grade supraglottic and 1 patient with intermediate-grade glottic MEC. These patients presented to our clinic with a primary complaint of either gradual, worsening dysphonia, dysphagia, or both. All patients underwent laryngovideostroboscopy as well as panendoscopy with directed submucosal biopsy, which was consistent with MEC. MRI was performed in 2 of the cases further elucidating the extent of submucosal spread. PET-CT was performed in all 3 cases, and none demonstrated evidence of regional or distal metastases. Surgically, high-grade MEC lesions were treated with a total laryngectomy. The intermediate MEC lesion was managed with a supracricoid partial laryngectomy (SCPL). Surgical margins were free of tumor in all cases with no nodal metastases by modified radical neck dissection. Radiation therapy was offered to both high-grade MEC patients and declined by one. Radiation was not recommended to the patient with intermediate-grade MEC as we believed that the risk of additional treatment outweighed the benefit. Conclusion: We believe that MEC of the larynx should be considered in patients with atypical submucosal laryngeal masses. Laryngovideostroboscopy, MRI, and PET imaging may be valuable in determining the extent of the lesions and planning appropriate surgery. Postoperative radiation therapy should be considered a per tumor grade in other more studied sites, as there is no data on efficacy in laryngeal MEC.
Objective: To report a case of herpes virus-associated nasopharyngitis in an adult patient. Methods: The patient’s medical record was reviewed for demographic and clinical data. For literature review, all case reports or other publications published in English literature were identified using Pubmed with the MeSH terms “herpes,” “nasopharyngitis,” and “upper respiratory infection.” Results: A 40-year-old male presented for nasal congestion and a suspected nasal mass. Computed tomography of the sinuses revealed edematous changes in the nasopharynx which exerted a downward mass effect at the right aspect of the soft palate. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) revealed a lesion arising from the posterior aspect of the soft palate with extension into the posterior nasal cavity as well as copious mucopurulent secretions consistent with a superimposed acute sinusitis. Rigid nasal endoscopy demonstrated a friable and ulcerated lesion arising from the aforementioned anatomical location. Biopsy of this lesion and subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed a diagnosis of herpetic nasopharyngitis. Conclusions: Herpetic infection should be in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with atypical symptoms of nasopharyngitis. Early accurate diagnosis and appropriate specific management can limit the duration of disease course and prevent further complications.
Purpose: Complications related to parotidectomy can cause significant morbidity, and thus, the decision to pursue this surgery needs to be well-informed. Given that information available online plays a critical role in patient education, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and quality of online patient education materials (PEMs) regarding parotidectomy. Methods: A Google search was performed using the term “parotidectomy” and the first 10 pages of the search were analyzed. Quality and reliability of the online information was assessed using the DISCERN instrument. Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL) and Flesch-Reading Ease Score (FRE) were used to evaluate readability. Results: Thirty-five PEMs met the inclusion criteria. The average FRE score was 59.3 and 16 (46%) of the online PEMs had FRE scores below 60 indicating that they were fairly difficult to very difficult to read. The average grade level of the PEMs was above the eighth grade when evaluated with the FKGL. The average DISCERN score was 41.7, which is indicative of fair quality. There were no significant differences between PEMs originating from medical institutions and PEMs originating from other sources in terms of quality or readability. Conclusion: Online PEMs on parotidectomy may not be comprehensible to the average individual. This study highlights the need for the development of more appropriate PEMs to inform patients about parotidectomy.
Objective: Hospital admission following pediatric adenoidectomy without tonsillectomy is not well characterized. The objective of our study is to better characterize risk factors for post-operative complications in younger children undergoing inpatient adenoidectomy. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis using data derived from the Kid’s Inpatient Database (KID) was performed. Study participants included children <3 years of age who underwent an adenoidectomy and were admitted to hospitals participating in the KID for years 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. Descriptive statistical analysis and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify risk factors for post-operative complication. Results: A total of 3406 children (mean age 1.1 ± 0.7 years) were included. The overall post-operative bleeding and respiratory complication rates were 0.6% and 5.4%, respectively. Children less than 18 months of age demonstrated increased rates of post-operative respiratory complications ( P = .009), but not bleeding complications ( P = .857). Presence of cardiopulmonary congenital malformations (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.20), chronic respiratory disease of the newborn (OR 5.03, 95% CI 2.86-8.85), and neuromuscular disorders (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.57) were associated with post-operative respiratory distress. Conclusions: This analysis of a national dataset suggests that otherwise healthy children less than 18 months of age and children 18 months to 3 years of age with certain comorbidities may benefit from overnight observation following adenoidectomy.