delivery mode
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2022 ◽  
Abdullah Alzahrani ◽  
Daniyah Alfitni ◽  
Maysaa Aqeel ◽  
Ebtesam Alsulami

Abstract Aim: GDM patients were associated to develop T2DM but mostly failed to undergo screening after delivery. This study aims to examine the practice of T2DM screening and prevalence of developing T2DM among women who had GDM in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Saudi Arabia. Methods: Retrospective study involving 642 pregnant women with GDM. Medical records on screenings conducted, delivery mode, GDM and diabetes family history were collected and investigated. Statistical analysis was conducted. Frequencies and percentages were used for categorical variables while means and SD for continuous. Chi-square and t-test were used to establish relationship of categorical and comparing two group means, respectively. Results: Patients were 98.8% Saudi nationals, mean weight, height, parity and number of pregnancies were 76.96 kg, 2.74 m, 3.37 and 1.35, respectively. Majority were obese (56.9%), SVD (56.4%) mode of delivery and good lifestyle (91.4%) as management practice. OGTT was used for screening T2DM with 0 hr fasting and 2-hrs after consuming 75g of glucose, physician ordered 6 weeks after delivery. Only 20% had screening for T2DM and 3.9% developed postpartum diabetes with high number of women not returning for ordered OGTT screening (65.6%). Significant predictors identified were parity and mode of delivery for development of T2DM, while only mode of delivery for both screening for T2DM and management of GDM.Conclusion: Low prevalence of developing T2DM but high number of women failed to follow the ordered OGTT screening. Effort on the implementation of OGTT screening for T2DM needs improvement.

Jana Sakakini ◽  
Carla Irani ◽  
Rana Bikai ◽  
Gretta Sahyoun ◽  
Souheil Hallit ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Food allergy (FA) is a global health problem with an ongoing rise in prevalence, especially in developed countries. It has been reported to be most prevalent in children, although cases in adults have been increasing as well. FA may lead to life-threatening clinical manifestations. Data in Lebanon and the Middle East are limited. To our knowledge, few studies tackled its prevalence in children in this region. <b><i>Aim:</i></b> This study aims at determining self-reported prevalence of FA in schoolchildren (ages 3–17 years) in Lebanon and describes its characteristics. <b><i>Method:</i></b> Throughout this cross-sectional study, 5 schools from 3 different governorates in Lebanon (Beirut, Mt. Lebanon, and Beqaa) were contacted to participate and 5,312 questionnaires were sent out to be completed by the parents and sent back to the school during May 2019. <b><i>Results:</i></b> 2,610 questionnaires were collected (49.13%). A hundred and forty-eight (6%) children reported to have FA, 58% were males. 80% of them were breastfed, 51% were diagnosed between the ages of 2 and 14 years. Common allergens included cow’s milk and milk products (22.46%), fruits and vegetables (16.58%), eggs (8.02%), and nuts (5.88%). Allergic symptoms included skin reactions (45.08%), gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (29.53%), respiratory symptoms (14.51%), and systemic symptoms (10.88%). 82% of the population with FA has sought professional advice, out of which 54% were confirmed by a physician. Common methods of diagnosis were IgE test (35.71%), food elimination (27.92%), and skin prick test (18.83%). χ<sup>2</sup> analysis has shown that a higher percentage of children with FA had skin reactions (58.8%, <i>p</i> = 0.033) and GI symptoms (30.41%, <i>p</i> = 0.047). A higher percentage of children with allergies were breastfed. No relation between the presence of FA and delivery mode was observed. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> This study has shown that the self-reported prevalence of FA among Lebanese schoolchildren is 6%, and it was correlated with skin and GI symptoms. The most common allergen was cow’s milk. A higher proportion of children with FA were breastfed. No association between the mode of delivery and FA was found. Larger studies are needed to confirm the above findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sergio George ◽  
Ximena Aguilera ◽  
Pablo Gallardo ◽  
Mauricio Farfán ◽  
Yalda Lucero ◽  

Gut microbiota composition during the first years of life is variable, dynamic and influenced by both prenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal antibiotics administered during labor, delivery mode, maternal diet, breastfeeding, and/or antibiotic consumption during infancy. Furthermore, the microbiota displays bidirectional interactions with infectious agents, either through direct microbiota-microorganism interactions or indirectly through various stimuli of the host immune system. Here we review these interactions during childhood until 5 years of life, focusing on bacterial microbiota, the most common gastrointestinal and respiratory infections and two well characterized gastrointestinal diseases related to dysbiosis (necrotizing enterocolitis and Clostridioides difficile infection). To date, most peer-reviewed studies on the bacterial microbiota in childhood have been cross-sectional and have reported patterns of gut dysbiosis during infections as compared to healthy controls; prospective studies suggest that most children progressively return to a “healthy microbiota status” following infection. Animal models and/or studies focusing on specific preventive and therapeutic interventions, such as probiotic administration and fecal transplantation, support the role of the bacterial gut microbiota in modulating both enteric and respiratory infections. A more in depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of the early bacterial microbiota, focusing on specific components of the microbiota-immunity-infectious agent axis is necessary in order to better define potential preventive or therapeutic tools against significant infections in children.

Amelie Isabell Stritzke ◽  
Rana Ismail ◽  
Sarah Rose ◽  
Andrew Lyon ◽  
Tanis Fenton

Objectives: Guidelines recommend preterm infants be supported to maintain their serum electrolytes within “normal” ranges. In term babies, cord blood values differed in pathological pregnancies from healthy ones. Study design: We examined cord blood sodium, chloride, potassium, glucose, and creatinine to derive maturity-related reference intervals. We examined associations with gestational age, delivery mode, singleton versus multiple, and prenatal maternal adverse conditions. We compared preterm cord values to term, and to adult reference ranges. Results: There were 591 infants, 537 preterm and 54 term. Preterm cord glucose levels were steady (3.7+/-1.1mmol/l), while sodium, chloride and creatinine increased over GA by 0.17, 0.14 and 1.07 micromol/week respectively (p<0.003). Average preterm cord potassium and chloride were higher than term (p<0.05). Compared to adult reference intervals, cord preterm reference intervals were higher for chloride (100-111 vs 98-106 mmol/l), lower for creatinine (29-84 vs 62-115 micromol/l), more variable for potassium (2.7-7.9 vs. 3.5-5.0 mmol/l) and sodium (130-141 vs. 136-145 mmol/l). Cesarean section was associated with higher potassium and lower glucose; multiple births with higher chloride and creatinine and lower glucose; SGA with lower glucose. Conclusions: Cord blood values vary across the GA range with increases in sodium, chloride and creatinine while glucose remained steady. Average preterm reference values were higher than term values for potassium and chloride. Preterm reference values differed from published adults’ reference values. The varies across GA and by delivery mode, SGA, and being a multiple, which may have direct implications for neonatal care and fluid management.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Alma Sulaj ◽  
Marina Tsaousi ◽  
Eleni Karapati ◽  
Abraham Pouliakis ◽  
Zoi Iliodromiti ◽  

Background: ROTEM assay has gained increasing acceptance as a method for rapid and specific coagulation pathway assessment. However, its use in the neonatal population remains limited since reference ranges have not yet been established. Aims: (1) to determine reference ranges for healthy term neonates of ROTEM parameters using non-activated assay (NATEM) in cord blood samples; (2) to assess whether delivery mode, gender, gestational age, birth weight and blood group (ABO and Rhesus) of the neonate, coagulation disorder and anticoagulant medication of the mother have an impact on NATEM parameters. Methods: NATEM assay was conducted in cord blood samples of 189 term neonates without any medical history. Results: Reference ranges (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) are established for clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, clot amplitude at 5, 10 and 20 min (A5, A10, A20), maximum clot firmness (MCF), lysis index at 30 and 60 min (LI30, LI60, %) and maximum clot elasticity (MCE). Reference ranges for NATEM are CT 182–499 s, CFT 63–176 s, α-angle 58–78°, A5 28–52 mm, A10 37–61 mm, A20 42–66 mm, MCF 43–67 mm, LI30 97–100%, LI60 87–98% and MCE 75–203. Male neonates appear to be more hypocoagulable than females. Conclusions: We demonstrate reference ranges for healthy term neonates in NATEM assay that could be used as a reference group for future studies of neonates with an underlying pathology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-74
Shuang Zhao ◽  
Luying Zhang ◽  
Yang Chen

The outbreak of COVID-19 has induced an abrupt shift from face-to-face instruction to online delivery mode for academic continuity. This research aims to explore the ecology of the pandemic-induced online English as foreign language (EFL) classrooms in Chinese middle schools and perceptions held by the English teachers, students, and parents. By analyzing data collected from 10, 576 questionnaires and eleven interviews, this study revealed how these participants played their respective parts in online EFL classroom ecology. Also, it was found that teachers’ evaluations of students’ learning performance (learning engagement and outcomes) and teacher-student interactions (in-class interaction, after-class interaction, and teachers’ feedback about homework) and their overall satisfaction of the online EFL classrooms were lower than that of the other two groups. In addition, major concerns of the participants about online EFL teaching and learning were identified, such as students’ vision damage and inadequate self-discipline, lack of face-to-face communication, and unstable Internet connection. Through presenting and discussing the research findings, this study is expected to provide implications and insights for foreign language educators, learners, and parents worldwide in adapting to online classrooms during public crises.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S754
Lena Sagi-Dain ◽  
Inbal Marom ◽  
Ira Luria ◽  
Lelia Abu Nasra ◽  
Maya Gruber ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S489-S490
Tetsuya Kawakita ◽  
Carole Barake ◽  
Jerri A. Waller ◽  
Alfred Abuhamad

Benabbou Amina ◽  
Chama Zouaouia ◽  
Derras Hadria ◽  
Ouramdane Refka ◽  
Obeid Manel ◽  

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