Reference Values
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Antonio Carlos Lopes Câmara ◽  
Verônica Lourença de Sousa Argenta ◽  
Daniella Dianese Alves de Moraes ◽  
Eduardo Ferreira Fonseca ◽  
Tayná Cardim Moraes Fino ◽  

Determining the prognosis of poisoning by plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids is usually challenging. This study aimed to identify important prognostic parameters that can determine the severity of spontaneous poisoning by Crotalaria spectabilis in horses. Blood samples from 42 horses spontaneously poisoned by oats contaminated with C. spectabilis seeds were evaluated. Complete blood counts (CBC) and serum biochemical tests [urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and creatine kinase (CK) activities] were performed. Horses were followed up for 12 months to determine the long-term survival rate; after 12 months, they were divided into two groups: survivors (n = 30) and non-survivors (n = 12). Horses spontaneously poisoned with C. spectabilis had higher levels of urea, globulin, bilirubin (total, direct, and indirect), AST, GGT, and CK than the reference values. Non-survivor horses showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values of hemoglobin, GGT, and direct bilirubin than the survivor horses. Horses with serum GGT activity higher than 95 U/l had 14.0 times the risk of death compared to animals showing activities equal to or lower than this value, whereas horses with serum direct bilirubin concentration higher than 0.6 mg/dl (10.26 μmol/L) had 5.78 times the risk of death compared to the others. In summary, serum GGT activity and direct bilirubin concentration may be useful prognostic indicators for assessing the severity of C. spectabilis-poisoned horses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
João Jorge ◽  
Mauricio Villarroel ◽  
Hamish Tomlinson ◽  
Oliver Gibson ◽  
Julie L. Darbyshire ◽  

AbstractProlonged non-contact camera-based monitoring in critically ill patients presents unique challenges, but may facilitate safe recovery. A study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of introducing a non-contact video camera monitoring system into an acute clinical setting. We assessed the accuracy and robustness of the video camera-derived estimates of the vital signs against the electronically-recorded reference values in both day and night environments. We demonstrated non-contact monitoring of heart rate and respiratory rate for extended periods of time in 15 post-operative patients. Across day and night, heart rate was estimated for up to 53.2% (103.0 h) of the total valid camera data with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 2.5 beats/min in comparison to two reference sensors. We obtained respiratory rate estimates for 63.1% (119.8 h) of the total valid camera data with a MAE of 2.4 breaths/min against the reference value computed from the chest impedance pneumogram. Non-contact estimates detected relevant changes in the vital-sign values between routine clinical observations. Pivotal respiratory events in a post-operative patient could be identified from the analysis of video-derived respiratory information. Continuous vital-sign monitoring supported by non-contact video camera estimates could be used to track early signs of physiological deterioration during post-operative care.

2022 ◽  
Danlei Chen ◽  
Jinghui Guo ◽  
Bo Liu ◽  
Chunhua Zheng ◽  
Guimin Huang ◽  

Abstract Objective To establish age-specific and body surface area (BSA)-specific reference values of Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) for children under 15 years old in China. Study design A retrospective study was conducted in Children's Hospital Attached to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics. A total of 702 cases were included in this research to establish reference values of TAPSE. SPSS 25.0 (IBM) was used for data analysis. Lambda-mu-sigma method was used to calculate and construct the age-specific and BSA-specific percentiles and Z-score curves of TAPSE. Results The mean value of TAPSE increased with age and BSA from 0 to 15 years in a nonlinear way and reached the adult level (17mm) until 1 year old. No difference could be observed in genders. Conclusions TAPSE values increased with age and BSA in Chinese children aged between 0-15 years and there was no difference between boys and girls. A multi-center study from different parts of China is supposed to be conducted in the future to reflect the whole spectrum of TAPSE in Chinese children.

2022 ◽  
Linda Katharina Rausch ◽  
Bernhard Puchner ◽  
Jürgen Fuchshuber ◽  
Barbara Seebacher ◽  
Judith Löffler-Ragg ◽  

Abstract BackgroundPulmonary rehabilitation serves as a key component in the recovery of COVID-19 and standardized exercise therapy programs in pulmonary rehabilitation have been shown to significantly improve physical performance and lung function parameters in post-acute COVID-19 patients. However, it has not been investigated if these positive effects are equally beneficial for both sexes, especially considering a more severe physical impact of COVID-19 in men when compared to women. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze outcomes of a pulmonary rehabilitation program with respect to sex differences, in order to identify sex-specific pulmonary rehabilitation requirements.MethodsData of 233 patients (40.4% females) were analyzed before and after a three-week standardized pulmonary rehabilitation program. Patients were admitted to rehabilitation due to post-acute COVID-19 illness and staged using the COVID-19 Severity Scale by Huang et al. (2021). Lung function parameters were assessed as part of the clinical routine using spirometry (ICmax, maximal inspiratory capacity) and body plethysmography (FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in the first second) and functional exercise capacity was measured by the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). For the comparison of lung function and walking parameters by sex, Welch-ANOVA was used, as results of Levene's test suggested significant heteroscedasticity regarding the investigated parameters (p > 0.05). When comparing post-treatment 6MWT, FEV1 and FCV to corresponding reference values, paired t-tests were used.ResultsAt post-rehabilitation, ICmax, FVC, FEV1 and 6MWT has been improved in both sexes. Females showed a significantly smaller improvement in FEV1 and ICmax (F = 5.86, ω2 = .02; p < 0.05) than males. There was no statistically significant difference in FVC and 6MWT performance improvements between men and women. After the rehabilitation stay, females made greater progress towards reference values of 6MWT (T(231) = -3.04; p < 0.01) and FEV1 (T(231) = 2.83; p < 0.01) than males.ConclusionsSex differences in the improvement of lung function parameters seem to exist when completing a three-week pulmonary rehabilitation program and should be considered when personalizing standardized exercise therapies in pulmonary rehabilitation.Trial registrationthis study was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00026936) on 2021/10/19.

2022 ◽  
Victor Hu ◽  
Daniel T. Schwartz

Low C-rate charge and discharge experiments, plus complementary differential voltage or differential capacity analysis, are among the most common battery characterization methods. Here, we adapt the multi-species, multi-reaction (MSMR) half-cell thermodynamic model to low C-rate cycling of whole-cell Li-ion batteries. MSMR models for the anode and cathode are coupled through whole-cell charge balances and cell-cycling voltage constraint equations, forming the basis for model-based estimation of MSMR half-cell parameters from whole-cell experimental data. Emergent properties of the whole-cell, like slippage of the anode and cathode lithiation windows, are also computed as cells cycle and degrade. A sequential least-square optimization scheme is used for parameter estimation from low-C cycling data of Samsung 18650 NMC|C cells. Low-error fits of the open-circuit cell voltage (e.g., under 5 mV mean absolute error for charge or discharge curves) and differential voltage curves for fresh and aged cells are achieved. We explore the features (and limitations) of using literature reference values for the MSMR half-cell thermodynamic parameters (reducing our whole-cell formulation to a 1-degree-of-freedom fit) and demonstrate the benefits of expanding the degrees of freedom by letting the MSMR parameters be tailored to the cell under test, within a constrained neighborhood of the half-cell reference values. Bootstrap analysis is performed on each dataset to show the robustness of our fitting to experimental noise and data sampling over the course of 600 cell cycles. The results show which specific MSMR insertion reactions are most responsible for capacity loss in each half-cell and the collective interactions that lead to whole-cell slippage and changes in useable capacity. Open-source software is made available to easily extend this model-based analysis to other labs and battery chemistries.

João Ribeiro ◽  
Petrus Gantois ◽  
Vitor Moreira ◽  
Francisco Miranda ◽  
Nuno Romano ◽  

AbstractThe aim of the present study was to determine the creatine kinase reference limits for professional soccer players based on their own normal post-match response. The creatine kinase concentration was analyzed in response to official matches in 25 players throughout a 3-year period. Samples were obtained between 36–43 hours following 70 professional soccer matches and corresponded to 19.1±12.1 [range: 6–49] samples per player. Absolute reference limits were calculated as 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of the samples collected. Creatine kinase values were also represented as a percentage change from the individual’s season mean and represented by 90th, 95th and 97.5th percentiles. The absolute reference limits for creatine kinase concentration calculated as 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles were 1480 U.L−1 and 115.8 U.L−1, respectively. The percentage change from the individual’s season mean was 97.45±35.92% and players were in the 90th, 95th and 97.5th percentiles when the percentages of these differences were 50.01, 66.7, and 71.34% higher than player’s season mean response, respectively. The data allowed us to determine whether the creatine kinase response is typical or if it is indicative of a higher than normal creatine kinase elevation and could be used as a practical guide for detection of muscle overload, following professional soccer match-play.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 600
Serenella Russo ◽  
Silvia Bettarini ◽  
Barbara Grilli Leonulli ◽  
Marco Esposito ◽  
Paolo Alpi ◽  

High-energy small electron beams, generated by linear accelerators, are used for radiotherapy of localized superficial tumours. The aim of the present study is to assess the dosimetric performance under small radiation therapy electron beams of the novel PTW microSilicon detector compared to other available dosimeters. Relative dose measurements of circular fields with 20, 30, 40, and 50 mm aperture diameters were performed for electron beams generated by an Elekta Synergy linac, with energy between 4 and 12 MeV. Percentage depth dose, transverse profiles, and output factors, normalized to the 10 × 10 cm2 reference field, were measured. All dosimetric data were collected in a PTW MP3 motorized water phantom, at SSD of 100 cm, by using the novel PTW microSilicon detector. The PTW diode E and the PTW microDiamond were also used in all beam apertures for benchmarking. Data for the biggest field size were also measured by the PTW Advanced Markus ionization chamber. Measurements performed by the microSilicon are in good agreement with the reference values for all the tubular applicators and beam energies within the stated uncertainties. This confirms the reliability of the microSilicon detector for relative dosimetry of small radiation therapy electron beams collimated by circular applicators.

Friederike C. Schulze Lammers ◽  
Agnes Bonifacius ◽  
Sabine Tischer-Zimmermann ◽  
Lilia Goudeva ◽  
Jörg Martens ◽  

Abstract Viral infections and reactivations are major causes of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) as well as in patients with immunodeficiencies. Latent herpesviruses (e.g., cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesvirus 6), lytic viruses (e.g., adenovirus), and polyomaviruses (e.g., BK virus, JC virus) can cause severe complications. Antiviral drugs form the mainstay of treatment for viral infections and reactivations after transplantation, but they have side effects and cannot achieve complete viral clearance without prior reconstitution of functional antiviral T-cell immunity. The aim of this study was to establish normal ranges for virus-specific T-cell (VST) frequencies in healthy donors. Such data are needed for better interpretation of VST frequencies observed in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, we measured the frequencies of VSTs against 23 viral protein-derived peptide pools from 11 clinically relevant human viruses in blood from healthy donors (n = 151). Specifically, we determined the VST frequencies by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay and classified their distribution according to age and gender to allow for a more specific evaluation and prediction of antiviral immune responses. The reference values established here provide an invaluable tool for immune response evaluation, intensity of therapeutic drugs and treatment decision-making in immunosuppressed patients. This data should make an important contribution to improving the assessment of immune responses in immunocompromised patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Izza Shahid ◽  
Nadeem Shaukat ◽  
Amjad Ali ◽  
Meer Bacha ◽  
Ammar Ahmad ◽  

A typical 1100 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a second unit installed at the coastal site of Pakistan. In this paper, verification analysis of reactivity control worth by means of rod cluster control assemblies (RCCAs) for startup and operational conditions of this typical nuclear power plant (CNPP) has been performed. Neutronics analysis of fresh core is carried out at beginning of life (BOL) to determine the effect of grey and black control rod clusters on the core reactivity for startup and operating conditions. The combination of WIMS/D4 and CITATION computer codes equipped with JENDL-3.3 data library is used for the first time for core physics calculations of neutronic safety parameters. The differential and integral worth of control banks is derived from the computed results. The effect of control bank clusters on core radial power distribution is studied precisely. Radial power distribution in the core is evaluated for numerous configurations of control banks fully inserted and withdrawn. The accuracy of computed results is validated against the reference values of Nuclear Design Report (NDR) of 1100 MWe typical CNPP. It has been observed that WIMS-D4/CITATION shows its capability to effectively calculate the reactor physics parameters.

2022 ◽  
Shaoning Lv ◽  
Clemens Simmer ◽  
Yijian Zeng ◽  
Jun Wen ◽  
Yuanyuan Guo ◽  

Abstract. Knowing the Freeze-Thaw (FT) state of the land surface is essential for many aspects of weather forecasting, climate, hydrology, and agriculture. Near-surface air temperature and land surface temperature are usually used in meteorology to infer the FT-state. However, the uncertainty is large because both temperatures can hardly be distinguished from remote sensing. Microwave L-band emission contains rather direct information about the FT-state because of its impact on the soil dielectric constant, which determines microwave emissivity and the optical depth profile. However, current L band-based FT algorithms need reference values to distinguish between frozen and thawed soil, which are often not known sufficiently well. We present a new FT-state detection algorithm based on the daily variation of the H-polarized brightness temperature of the SMAP L3c FT global product for the northern hemisphere, which is available from 2015 to 2021. The exploitation of the daily variation signal allows for a more reliable state detection, particularly during the transitions periods, when the near-surface soil layer may freeze and thaw on sub-daily time scales. The new algorithm requires no reference values; its results agree with the SMAP FT state product by up to 98 % in summer and up to 75 % in winter. Compared to the FT state inferred indirectly from the 2-m air temperature of the ERA5-land reanalysis, the new FT algorithm has a similar performance as the SMAP FT product. The most significant differences occur over the midlatitudes, including the Tibetan plateau and its downstream area. Here, daytime surface heating may lead to daily FT transitions, which are not considered by the SMAP FT state product but are correctly identified by the new algorithm. The new FT algorithm suggests a 15 days earlier start of the frozen-soil period than the ERA5-land’s 2-m air temperature estimate. This study is expected to extend L-band microwave remote sensing data for improved FT detection.

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