host immune system
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Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Stephane Delbecq

Human babesiosis results from a combination of tick tropism for humans, susceptibility of a host to sustain Babesia development, and contact with infected ticks. Climate modifications and increasing diagnostics have led to an expanded number of Babesia species responsible for human babesiosis, although, to date, most cases have been attributed to B. microti and B. divergens. These two species have been extensively studied, and in this review, we mostly focus on the antigens involved in host–parasite interactions. We present features of the major antigens, so-called Bd37 in B. divergens and BmSA1/GPI12 in B. microti, and highlight the roles of these antigens in both host cell invasion and immune response. A comparison of these antigens with the major antigens found in some other Apicomplexa species emphasizes the importance of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in host–parasite relationships. GPI-anchor cleavage, which is a property of such antigens, leads to soluble and membrane-bound forms of these proteins, with potentially differential recognition by the host immune system. This mechanism is discussed as the structural basis for the protein-embedded immune escape mechanism. In conclusion, the potential consequences of such a mechanism on the management of both human and animal babesiosis is examined.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
James V. Rogers ◽  
Veronica L. Hall ◽  
Charles C. McOsker

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a concerning global threat that, if not addressed, could lead to increases in morbidity and mortality, coupled with societal and financial burdens. The emergence of AMR bacteria can be attributed, in part, to the decreased development of new antibiotics, increased misuse and overuse of existing antibiotics, and inadequate treatment options for biofilms formed during bacterial infections. Biofilms are complex microbiomes enshrouded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that is a primary defense mechanism of the resident microorganisms against antimicrobial agents and the host immune system. In addition to the physical protective EPS barrier, biofilm-resident bacteria exhibit tolerance mechanisms enabling persistence and the establishment of recurrent infections. As current antibiotics and therapeutics are becoming less effective in combating AMR, new innovative technologies are needed to address the growing AMR threat. This perspective article highlights such a product, CMTX-101, a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets a universal component of bacterial biofilms, leading to pathogen-agnostic rapid biofilm collapse and engaging three modes of action—the sensitization of bacteria to antibiotics, host immune enablement, and the suppression of site-specific tissue inflammation. CMTX-101 is a new tool used to enhance the effectiveness of existing, relatively inexpensive first-line antibiotics to fight infections while promoting antimicrobial stewardship.

Vânia Gaio ◽  
Tânia Lima ◽  
Manuel Vilanova ◽  
Nuno Cerca ◽  
Angela França

Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm cells are characterized by increased antimicrobial tolerance and improved ability to evade host immune system defenses. These features are, in part, due to the presence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. A previous study identified genes potentially involved in VBNC cells formation in S. epidermidis biofilms, among which SERP1682/1681 raised special interest due to their putative role as a toxin–antitoxin system of the mazEF family. Herein, we constructed an S. epidermidis mutant lacking the mazEF genes homologues and determined their role in (i) VBNC state induction during biofilm formation, (ii) antimicrobial susceptibility, (iii) survival in human blood and plasma, and (iv) activation of immune cells. Our results revealed that mazEF homologue did not affect the proportion of VBNC cells in S. epidermidis 1457, refuting the previous hypothesis that mazEF homologue could be linked with the emergence of VBNC cells in S. epidermidis biofilms. Additionally, mazEF homologue did not seem to influence key virulence factors on this strain, since its deletion did not significantly affect the mutant biofilm formation capacity, antimicrobial tolerance or the response by immune cells. Surprisingly, our data suggest that mazEF does not behave as a toxin–antitoxin system in S. epidermidis strain 1457, since no decrease in the viability and culturability of bacteria was found when only the mazF toxin homologue was being expressed.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Gloria Krapež ◽  
Katarina Kouter ◽  
Ivana Jovčevska ◽  
Alja Videtič Paska

Glioblastoma is simultaneously the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor in the central nervous system, with poor patient survival and scarce treatment options. Most primary glioblastomas reoccur and evolve radio- and chemoresistant properties which make them resistant to further treatments. Based on gene mutations and expression profiles, glioblastoma is relatively well classified; however, research shows that there is more to glioblastoma biology than that defined solely by its genetic component. Specifically, the overall malignancy of the tumor is also influenced by the dynamic communication to its immediate and distant environment, as important messengers to neighboring cells in the tumor microenvironment extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified. EVs and their cargo can modulate the immune microenvironment and other physiological processes, and can interact with the host immune system. They are involved in tumor cell survival and metabolism, tumor initiation, progression, and therapy resistance. However, on the other hand EVs are thought to become an effective treatment alternative, since they can cross the blood–brain barrier, are able of specific cell-targeting and can be loaded with various therapeutic molecules.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Myrna J. M. Bunte ◽  
Arjen Schots ◽  
Jan E. Kammenga ◽  
Ruud H. P. Wilbers

Helminths are parasitic worms that have successfully co-evolved with their host immune system to sustain long-term infections. Their successful parasitism is mainly facilitated by modulation of the host immune system via the release of excretory-secretory (ES) products covered with glycan motifs such as Lewis X, fucosylated LDN, phosphorylcholine and tyvelose. Evidence is accumulating that these glycans play key roles in different aspects of helminth infection including interactions with immune cells for recognition and evasion of host defences. Moreover, antigenic properties of glycans can be exploited for improving the efficacy of anti-helminthic vaccines. Here, we illustrate that glycans have the potential to open new avenues for the development of novel biopharmaceuticals and effective vaccines based on helminth glycoproteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jaeho Kim ◽  
Heung Kyu Lee

An increasing number of studies have revealed that the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) is related to gut microbiome composition. Under normal conditions, the gut microbiome acts as a barrier to other pathogens or infections in the intestine and modulates inflammation by affecting the host immune system. These gut microbiota are not only related to the intestinal inflammation associated with tumorigenesis but also modulation of the anti-cancer immune response. Thus, they are associated with tumor progression and anti-cancer treatment efficacy. Studies have shown that the gut microbiota can be used as biomarkers to predict the effect of immunotherapy and improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in treating CRC through modulation. In this review, we discuss the role of the gut microbiome as revealed by recent studies of the growth and progression of CRC along with its synergistic effect with anti-cancer treatment modalities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Giancarlo R. Valiente ◽  
Armin Munir ◽  
Marcia L. Hart ◽  
Perry Blough ◽  
Takuma T. Wada ◽  

AbstractThe gut microbiota (GM) exerts a strong influence over the host immune system and dysbiosis of this microbial community can affect the clinical phenotype in chronic inflammatory conditions. To explore the role of the GM in lupus nephritis, we colonized NZM2410 mice with Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB). Gut colonization with SFB was associated with worsening glomerulonephritis, glomerular and tubular immune complex deposition and interstitial inflammation compared to NZM2410 mice free of SFB. With SFB colonization mice experienced an increase in small intestinal lamina propria Th17 cells and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). However, although serum IL-17A expression was elevated in these mice, Th17 cells and ILC3s were not detected in the inflammatory infiltrate in the kidney. In contrast, serum and kidney tissue expression of the macrophage chemoattractants MCP-1 and CXCL1 were significantly elevated in SFB colonized mice. Furthermore, kidney infiltrating F4/80+CD206+M2-like macrophages were significantly increased in these mice. Evidence of increased gut permeability or “leakiness” was also detected in SFB colonized mice. Finally, the intestinal microbiome of SFB colonized mice at 15 and 30 weeks of age exhibited dysbiosis when compared to uncolonized mice at the same time points. Both microbial relative abundance as well as biodiversity of colonized mice was found to be altered. Collectively, SFB gut colonization in the NZM2410 mouse exacerbates kidney disease, promotes kidney M2-like macrophage infiltration and overall intestinal microbiota dysbiosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ivani Pauli ◽  
Celso de O. Rezende Jr. ◽  
Brian W. Slafer ◽  
Marco A. Dessoy ◽  
Mariana L. de Souza ◽  

Cruzain, the main cysteine protease of Trypanosoma cruzi, plays key roles in all stages of the parasite’s life cycle, including nutrition acquisition, differentiation, evasion of the host immune system, and invasion of host cells. Thus, inhibition of this validated target may lead to the development of novel drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease. In this study, a multiparameter optimization (MPO) approach, molecular modeling, and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were employed for the identification of new benzimidazole derivatives as potent competitive inhibitors of cruzain with trypanocidal activity and suitable pharmacokinetics. Extensive pharmacokinetic studies enabled the identification of metabolically stable and permeable compounds with high selectivity indices. CYP3A4 was found to be involved in the main metabolic pathway, and the identification of metabolic soft spots provided insights into molecular optimization. Compound 28, which showed a promising trade-off between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, caused no acute toxicity and reduced parasite burden both in vitro and in vivo.

Haoyu Lang ◽  
Huijuan Duan ◽  
Jieni Wang ◽  
Wenhao Zhang ◽  
Jun Guo ◽  

Honeybees are essential pollinators supporting global agricultural economies and food supplies. Recent honeybee decline has been linked to several factors, while pathogen infection is considered one of the most significant contributing factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sergio George ◽  
Ximena Aguilera ◽  
Pablo Gallardo ◽  
Mauricio Farfán ◽  
Yalda Lucero ◽  

Gut microbiota composition during the first years of life is variable, dynamic and influenced by both prenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal antibiotics administered during labor, delivery mode, maternal diet, breastfeeding, and/or antibiotic consumption during infancy. Furthermore, the microbiota displays bidirectional interactions with infectious agents, either through direct microbiota-microorganism interactions or indirectly through various stimuli of the host immune system. Here we review these interactions during childhood until 5 years of life, focusing on bacterial microbiota, the most common gastrointestinal and respiratory infections and two well characterized gastrointestinal diseases related to dysbiosis (necrotizing enterocolitis and Clostridioides difficile infection). To date, most peer-reviewed studies on the bacterial microbiota in childhood have been cross-sectional and have reported patterns of gut dysbiosis during infections as compared to healthy controls; prospective studies suggest that most children progressively return to a “healthy microbiota status” following infection. Animal models and/or studies focusing on specific preventive and therapeutic interventions, such as probiotic administration and fecal transplantation, support the role of the bacterial gut microbiota in modulating both enteric and respiratory infections. A more in depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of the early bacterial microbiota, focusing on specific components of the microbiota-immunity-infectious agent axis is necessary in order to better define potential preventive or therapeutic tools against significant infections in children.

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