rebound effect
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2022 ◽  
Vol 193 ◽  
pp. 107325
Mahboubeh Jafari ◽  
David I. Stern ◽  
Stephan B. Bruns

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Houyin Long ◽  
Hong Zeng ◽  
Xinyi Lin

The Chinese government has adopted many policies to save energy and electricity in the chemical industry by improving technology and reforming its electricity market. The improved electricity efficiency and the electricity reform may indirectly reduce expected energy and electricity savings by decreasing the effective electricity price and the marginal cost of electricity services. To analyze the above issues, this paper employs the Morishima Elasticity of Substitution of the electricity cost share equation which is estimated by the DOLS method. The results show that: 1) There exists a rebound effect in the Chinese chemical industry, but it is quite large because the electricity price is being controlled by the government; 2) the reform of the electricity market reduces the rebound effect to 73.85%, as electricity price begins to reflect cost information to some extent; 3) there is still a lot of space for the reform to improve, and the rebound effect could be reduced further once the electricity price is adjusted to transfer the market information more correctly. In order to succeed in saving electricity and decreasing the rebound effect in the chemical industry, the policy implications are provided from perspectives of the improved energy efficiency and electricity pricing mechanism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Fan Fang ◽  
Tong Wang ◽  
Suoyi Tan ◽  
Saran Chen ◽  
Tao Zhou ◽  

Background: The measurement and identification of changes in the social structure in response to an exceptional event like COVID-19 can facilitate a more informed public response to the pandemic and provide fundamental insights on how collective social processes respond to extreme events.Objective: In this study, we built a generalized framework for applying social media data to understand public behavioral and emotional changes in response to COVID-19.Methods: Utilizing a complete dataset of Sina Weibo posts published by users in Wuhan from December 2019 to March 2020, we constructed a time-varying social network of 3.5 million users. In combination with community detection, text analysis, and sentiment analysis, we comprehensively analyzed the evolution of the social network structure, as well as the behavioral and emotional changes across four main stages of Wuhan's experience with the epidemic.Results: The empirical results indicate that almost all network indicators related to the network's size and the frequency of social interactions increased during the outbreak. The number of unique recipients, average degree, and transitivity increased by 24, 23, and 19% during the severe stage than before the outbreak, respectively. Additionally, the similarity of topics discussed on Weibo increased during the local peak of the epidemic. Most people began discussing the epidemic instead of the more varied cultural topics that dominated early conversations. The number of communities focused on COVID-19 increased by nearly 40 percent of the total number of communities. Finally, we find a statistically significant “rebound effect” by exploring the emotional content of the users' posts through paired sample t-test (P = 0.003).Conclusions: Following the evolution of the network and community structure can explain how collective social processes changed during the pandemic. These results can provide data-driven insights into the development of public attention during extreme events.

2022 ◽  
Vol 306 ◽  
pp. 117961
José M. Cansino ◽  
Manuel Ordóñez ◽  
Manuela Prieto

Maria Guadalupe Hernández-Rodríguez ◽  
Laura Antonia Ortega-Chávez ◽  
Iveth Selene Caro-Escudero ◽  
Alberto Guerrero Barraza-Alvárez

This article addresses the problem that is being generated by the use of mouth covers, gloves and masks used as protection against covid 19. After more than a year in a pandemic, the demand and waste of these protective implements has increased exponentially, which is why it is necessary to dispose of these sanitary wastes safely, to guarantee community health and the integrity of the environment. On the contrary, improper handling of such a volume of these wastes can have a rebound effect, both on people's health and on the environment. The objective of the research is to properly dispose of these wastes, through the use of special containers for this type of waste, as well as the proposal with the government and companies that use ovens for the production of their products, so that with the necessary measures They could dispose of this type of waste as raw material for their furnaces, since these companies have standards that they comply with to regulate the Co2 emissions that they emit into the environment, and thus minimize the impact that these wastes bring to the environment.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 132
Zhenqiang Yao ◽  
Stephen J. Getting ◽  
Ian C. Locke

Increased osteoclast (OC) differentiation and activity is the critical event that results in bone loss and joint destruction in common pathological bone conditions, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RANKL and its decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), control OC differentiation and activity. However, there is a specific concern of a rebound effect of denosumab discontinuation in treating osteoporosis. TNFα can induce OC differentiation that is independent of the RANKL/RANK system. In this review, we discuss the factors that negatively and positively regulate TNFα induction of OC formation, and the mechanisms involved to inform the design of new anti-resorptive agents for the treatment of bone conditions with enhanced OC formation. Similar to, and being independent of, RANKL, TNFα recruits TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) to sequentially activate transcriptional factors NF-κB p50 and p52, followed by c-Fos, and then NFATc1 to induce OC differentiation. However, induction of OC formation by TNFα alone is very limited, since it also induces many inhibitory proteins, such as TRAF3, p100, IRF8, and RBP-j. TNFα induction of OC differentiation is, however, versatile, and Interleukin-1 or TGFβ1 can enhance TNFα-induced OC formation through a mechanism which is independent of RANKL, TRAF6, and/or NF-κB. However, TNFα polarized macrophages also produce anabolic factors, including insulin such as 6 peptide and Jagged1, to slow down bone loss in the pathological conditions. Thus, the development of novel approaches targeting TNFα signaling should focus on its downstream molecules that do not affect its anabolic effect.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
Domina Petric

Addiction alters the levels of all happy brain hormones. My hypothesis is that addictive stimuli cause high amplitude changes in happy brain hormones with initially very high levels followed by very low levels (rebound effect). On the other hand, non-addictive stimuli such as creative work, moderate physical activity, healthy diet, healthy relationships and socialization, cause moderate amplitude changes in happy brain hormones with stable levels of dopamine, serotonin, endorphins and oxytocin without rebound effect. Therefore, all of these non-addictive stimuli might be very helpful in the treatment of addiction.

2021 ◽  
pp. 004728752110646
Soheon Kim ◽  
Viachaslau Filimonau ◽  
Janet E. Dickinson

Technological solutions to achieve energy efficiency and carbon reduction in tourism are unlikely to be sufficient alone. This is partly because of the rebound effect (RE) where consumer behavior can absorb some of or all the energy efficiency gains. Time savings from time-efficient technologies can intensify energy consumption, leading to the time use rebound effect (TRE). Research suggests that the TRE in tourism can be high, especially in relation to tourist travel, but its understanding is limited. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of the TRE by categorizing tourist groups that are most prone to its occurrence. An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach is employed. Key factors that influence the potential TRE occurrence include socio-demographic characteristics, holiday preferences, time/money availability, time perception/attitudes, and time use patterns on holiday. The “Busy explorer” cluster of tourists is most likely to show TREs. Implications and suggestions for future research are outlined.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (37) ◽  
pp. 338-352
Marcus Zulian Teixeira

When Samuel Hahnemann systematized homeopathy and the effects of drugs on the state of human health, he described the primary action of drugs and the following secondary and opposite reaction of the organism. Seeking to apply this secondary action or vital reaction of the organism as therapeutic method, he postulated the principle of similitude, i.e. the prescription to ill individuals of drugs that cause similar symptoms in the healthy (similia similibus curentur). In modern pharmacology, secondary action (vital reaction) of drugs is known as rebound effect or paradoxical reaction of the organism. It has been observed after discontinuation of several classes of palliative (enantiopathic) drugs, namely those that act according to the principle of contraries (contraria contrariis curentur). Although in this case it is associated with severe and fatal iatrogenic events, rebound effect might awaken a healing reaction when the very same drug is employed according to the principle of similitude. The validity of the principle of similitude is proved by scientific evidence on rebound effect, whereas conventional drugs primary (therapeutic, adverse and side) effects might be equated to pathogenetic manifestations and thus be homeopathically applied. For this purpose a homeopathic materia medica and repertory comprising 1,251 modern drugs was elaborated using the monographs described in The United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information as source ( Thus, the therapeutic range of homeopathy is broadened through the addition of hundreds of new medicines that might be employed in every kind of disease including countless modern clinical syndromes.

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