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Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 45
Xia Hong ◽  
Yin Cui ◽  
Ming Li ◽  
Yifan Xia ◽  
Daolin Du ◽  

A magnetic-based immunoassay (MBI) combined with biotin-streptavidin amplification was proposed for butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) investigation and risk assessment. The values of LOD (limit of detection, IC10) and IC50 were 0.57 ng/mL and 119.61 ng/mL, with a detection range of 0.57–24977.71 ng/mL for MBI. The specificity, accuracy and precision are well demonstrated. A total of 36 environmental water samples of urban sewage from Zhenjiang, China, were collected and assessed for BBP contamination. The results show that BBP-positive levels ranged from 2.47 to 89.21 ng/mL, with a positive rate of 77.8%. The health effects of BBP in the urban sewage were within a controllable range, and the ambient severity for health (ASI) was below 1.49. The highest value of AS for ecology (ASII) was 7.43, which indicates a potential harm to ecology. The entropy value of risk quotient was below 100, the highest being 59.47, which poses a low risk to the environment and ecology, indicating that there is a need to strengthen BBP controls. The non-carcinogenic risk of BBP exposure from drinking water was higher for females than that for males, and the non-carcinogenic risk from drinking-water and bathing pathways was negligible. This study could provide an alternative method for detecting BBP and essential information for controlling BBP contamination.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Constanza L. Andaur Navarro ◽  
Johanna A. A. Damen ◽  
Toshihiko Takada ◽  
Steven W. J. Nijman ◽  
Paula Dhiman ◽  

Abstract Background While many studies have consistently found incomplete reporting of regression-based prediction model studies, evidence is lacking for machine learning-based prediction model studies. We aim to systematically review the adherence of Machine Learning (ML)-based prediction model studies to the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) Statement. Methods We included articles reporting on development or external validation of a multivariable prediction model (either diagnostic or prognostic) developed using supervised ML for individualized predictions across all medical fields. We searched PubMed from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019. Data extraction was performed using the 22-item checklist for reporting of prediction model studies ( We measured the overall adherence per article and per TRIPOD item. Results Our search identified 24,814 articles, of which 152 articles were included: 94 (61.8%) prognostic and 58 (38.2%) diagnostic prediction model studies. Overall, articles adhered to a median of 38.7% (IQR 31.0–46.4%) of TRIPOD items. No article fully adhered to complete reporting of the abstract and very few reported the flow of participants (3.9%, 95% CI 1.8 to 8.3), appropriate title (4.6%, 95% CI 2.2 to 9.2), blinding of predictors (4.6%, 95% CI 2.2 to 9.2), model specification (5.2%, 95% CI 2.4 to 10.8), and model’s predictive performance (5.9%, 95% CI 3.1 to 10.9). There was often complete reporting of source of data (98.0%, 95% CI 94.4 to 99.3) and interpretation of the results (94.7%, 95% CI 90.0 to 97.3). Conclusion Similar to prediction model studies developed using conventional regression-based techniques, the completeness of reporting is poor. Essential information to decide to use the model (i.e. model specification and its performance) is rarely reported. However, some items and sub-items of TRIPOD might be less suitable for ML-based prediction model studies and thus, TRIPOD requires extensions. Overall, there is an urgent need to improve the reporting quality and usability of research to avoid research waste. Systematic review registration PROSPERO, CRD42019161764.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261650
José Ulises Márquez Urbina ◽  
Graciela González Farías ◽  
L. Leticia Ramírez Ramírez ◽  
D. Iván Rodríguez González

The Effective Reproduction Number Rt provides essential information for the management of an epidemic/pandemic. Projecting Rt into the future could further assist in the management process. This article proposes a methodology based on exposure scenarios to perform such a procedure. The method utilizes a compartmental model and its adequate parametrization; a way to determine suitable parameters for this model in México’s case is detailed. In conjunction with the compartmental model, the projection of Rt permits estimating unobserved variables, such as the size of the asymptomatic population, and projecting into the future other relevant variables, like the active hospitalizations, using scenarios. The uses of the proposed methodologies are exemplified by analyzing the pandemic in a Mexican state; the main quantities derived from the compartmental model, such as the active and total cases, are included in the analysis. This article also presents a national summary based on the methodologies to illustrate how these procedures could be further exploited. The supporting information includes an application of the proposed methods to a metropolitan area to show that it also works well at other demographic disaggregation levels. The procedures developed in this article shed light on how to develop an effective surveillance system when information is incomplete and can be applied in cases other than México’s.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 180
Han-Mei Tseng ◽  
Tzy-Ming Lu ◽  
Lean-Teik Ng

Cynanchum taiwanianum is an important plant used in traditional medicine. The increasing demand and lack of information regarding its cultivation have become concerns for sustainability. This study examined the effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates on the growth and biosynthesis of main bioactive compounds, including cynandione A and polyphenolic compounds, in field-cultivated C. taiwanianum. Two field experiments were conducted using three levels of nitrogen (N100, N150 and N200) and three levels of potassium (K100, K150 and K200) treatments. The experimental variables were either N or K fertilizer. The results showed that, aside from N200, N and K fertilization significantly increased C. taiwanianum shoot and tuber biomass. High N fertilization resulted in low total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in shoots and tubers, but the effects of K fertilization were minimal. Cynandione A, an important bioactive compound, was only detected in tubers; its content were enhanced with the increasing K fertilization, but reduced with excess N fertilization (N200). Although N and K fertilizers are important for C. taiwanianum tuber production, the yield of cynandione A was associated with K but not N fertilization rates. These results provide some essential information for the optimal production of C. taiwanianum tubers and functional compounds. Further studies are required to examine the mechanism(s) of cynandione A biosynthesis and its compartmentation in plant tissues.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Wen Zhou ◽  
Leshui He ◽  
Xuanhua Nie ◽  
Taoketaohu Wuri ◽  
Jinhai Piao ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout China in January 2020. To contain the virus outbreak, the Chinese government took extraordinary measures in terms of public policy, wherein accurate and timely dissemination of information plays a crucial role. Despite all of the efforts toward studying this health emergency, little is known about the effectiveness of public policies that support health communication during such a crisis to disseminate knowledge for self-protection. Particularly, we focus on the accuracy and timeliness of knowledge dissemination on COVID-19 among people in remote regions—a topic largely omitted in existing research. In February 2020, at the early-stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, a questionnaire survey was carried out. In total, 8,520 participants from seven less economically developed provinces situated in the borderlands of China with large ethnic minority groups responded. We analyzed the data through poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. We found that (1) people in remote regions of China obtained accurate information on COVID-19. Further, they were able to take appropriate measures to protect themselves. (2) Result from both descriptive analysis and multivariable regression analysis revealed that there is no large difference in the accuracy of information among groups. (3) Older, less educated, and rural respondents received information with a significant delay, whereas highly educated, younger, urban residents and those who obtained information through online media were more likely to have received the news of the outbreak sooner and to be up to date on the information. This research provides evidence that disadvantage people in remote regions obtained accurate and essential information required to act in an appropriate manner in responses to the COVID-19 outbreak. However, they obtained knowledge on COVID-19 at a slower pace than other people; thus, further improvement in the timely dissemination of information among disadvantage people in remote regions is warranted.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 527
Michal Macias ◽  
Dominik Sierociuk ◽  
Wiktor Malesza

This paper is devoted to identifying parameters of fractional order noises with application to noises obtained from MEMS accelerometer. The analysis and parameters estimation will be based on the Triple Estimation algorithm, which can simultaneously estimate state, fractional order, and parameter estimates. The capability of the Triple Estimation algorithm to fractional noises estimation will be confirmed by the sets of numerical analyses for fractional constant and variable order systems with Gaussian noise input signal. For experimental data analysis, the MEMS sensor SparkFun MPU9250 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was used with data obtained from the accelerometer in x, y and z-axes. The experimental results clearly show the existence of fractional noise in this MEMS’ noise, which can be essential information in the design of filtering algorithms, for example, in inertial navigation.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 455
Bowen Zhang ◽  
Zaixin Song ◽  
Fei Zhao ◽  
Chunhua Liu

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion technology is significantly related to the flight performance of UAVs, which has become one of the most important development directions of aviation. It should be noted that UAVs have three types of propulsion systems, namely the fuel, hybrid fuel-electric, and pure electric, respectively. This paper presents and discusses the classification, working principles, characteristics, and critical technologies of these three types of propulsion systems. It is helpful to establish the development framework of the UAV propulsion system and provide the essential information on electric propulsion UAVs. Additionally, future technologies and development, including the high-power density motors, converters, power supplies, are discussed for the electric propulsion UAVs. In the near future, the electric propulsion system would be widely used in UAVs. The high-power density system would become the development trend of electric UAVs. Thus, this review article provides comprehensive views and multiple comparisons of propulsion systems for UAVs.

Psych ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 60-70
Melissa MacKay ◽  
Taylor Colangeli ◽  
Sydney Gosselin ◽  
Sophie Neumann ◽  
Andrew Papadopoulos

During the COVID-19 pandemic, key stakeholders have used social media to rapidly disseminate essential information to the public to help them make informed health-related decisions. Our research examined how the public responded to official actors’ Facebook posts during COVID-19 and examined the comment sentiment and post engagement rates. CBC News and CTV News received a greater proportion of negative comments and a lower average post engagement rate compared with Healthy Canadians. Additionally, the proportion of negative and positive comments varied over time for all sources; however, over 30% of the comments for all three actors were consistently negative. Key stakeholders should monitor the public’s response to their social media posts and adapt their messages to increase the effectiveness of their crisis communication efforts to encourage the adoption of protective measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Markus Harju ◽  
Jaakko Kultima ◽  
Valery Serov

Abstract We consider an inverse scattering problem of recovering the unknown coefficients of a quasi-linearly perturbed biharmonic operator in the three-dimensional case. These unknown complex-valued coefficients are assumed to satisfy some regularity conditions on their nonlinearity, but they can be discontinuous or singular in their space variable. We prove Saito’s formula and uniqueness theorem of recovering some essential information about the unknown coefficients from the knowledge of the high frequency scattering amplitude.

2022 ◽  
Sandro Rao ◽  
Elisa D Mallemace ◽  
Maurizio Casalino ◽  
Giuseppe Cocorullo ◽  
Lakhdar Dehimi ◽  

Abstract The temperature-dependent optical properties of silicon carbide (SiC), such as refractive index and reflectivity, have been used for a direct monitoring of the junction temperature of a power MOSFET. In particular, the optical response of a 4H-SiC MOSFET-integrated Fabry-Perot cavity to temperature changes has been investigated through parametric optical simulations at the wavelength of λ=450 nm. The reflected optical power exhibited oscillatory patterns caused by the multiple beam interference for which the MOSFET epilayer, between the gate-oxide and the doped 4H-SiC substrate, acts as a Fabry-Perot etalon. These results were used to calculate the refractive index change and, therefore, the optical phase shift of ∆φ= π/2 corresponding to a temperature variation that can be considered as a warning for the device “health”. In practical applications, the periodic monitoring of the optic spectrum at the interferometric structure output gives an essential information about the device operating temperature condition that, for high power operations, may lead to device damages or system failure.

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