hormone level
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2022 ◽  
Yiwen Qi ◽  
Yue-meng Zhu ◽  
Bin Li

Abstract IntroductionCyclophosphamide (CTX), is reported to be extensively used to establish POI animal model. But the most effective dose has not been systematically concluded yet. This systematic review and network meta-analysis is aimed to compare and rank the different doses of cyclophosphamide in the CTX-induced POI rat model.MethodsRandomized controlled trials of CTX-induced rat POI model were searched in four databases from inception to December, 2021. A network meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the data of included publications. The quality assessment was assessed by SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool. Data were analyzed with STATA 15.0 and Review Manager 5.3.Result205 records were searched and a total of 14 articles met inclusion criteria, Compared by Ovarian morphological changes, estrous cycle and hormone level (FSH, E2, AMH), the loading dose of 200mg/kg CTX with the maintenance dose of 8mg/kg CTX for consecutive 14 days showed the best efficacy in inducing rat POI model.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiming Chen ◽  
Huihui Wang ◽  
Zhiyong Dong ◽  
Junling Liu ◽  
Zhenyue Qin ◽  

BackgroundEndometriosis (EMS) is an estrogen-dependent disease, which easily recurs after operation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a), an estrogen-inhibiting drug, can effectively inhibit the secretion of gonadotropin by pituitary gland, so as to significantly decrease the ovarian hormone level and facilitate the atrophy of ectopic endometrium, playing a positive role in preventing postoperative recurrence. The application of GnRH-a can lead to the secondary low estrogen symptoms, namely the perimenopausal symptoms, and is a main reason for patients to give up further treatment. The add-back therapy based on sex hormones can well address the perimenopausal symptoms, but long-term use of hormones may cause the recurrence of EMS, as well as liver function damage, venous embolism, breast cancer and other risks, which has long been a heated topic in the industry. Therefore, it is necessary to find effective and safe anti-additive drugs soon. Studies at home and abroad show that, as a plant extract, isopropanolic extract of cimicifuga racemosa (ICR) can well relieve the perimenopausal symptoms caused by natural menopause. Some studies have preliminarily confirmed that black cohosh preparations can antagonize perimenopausal symptoms of EMS patients treated with GnRH-a after operation.ObjectiveTo establish a rat model of perimenopausal symptoms induced by GnRH-a injection, for the purposes of laying a foundation for further research and preliminarily exploring the effect of black cohosh preparations on reproductive endocrine of the rat model.MethodThe rat model of perimenopausal symptoms was established by GnRH-a injection, and normal saline (NS injection) was used as the control. The rats were randomly divided into four groups according to different modeling methods and drug intervention schemes. GnRH-a injection + normal saline intervention group (GnRH-a + NS), normal saline injection control + normal saline intervention group (NS + NS), GnRH-a injection + estradiol intervention group (GnRH-a + E2), and GnRH-a injection + black cohosh preparations intervention group (GnRH-a + ICR). After modelling was assessed to be successful with the vaginal smear method, the corresponding drugs were given for intervention for 28d. In the process of rat modeling and drug intervention, the skin temperature and anus temperature of the rat tails were measured every other day, the body weights of the rats were measured every other day, and the dosage was adjusted according to the body weight. After the intervention was over, the serum sex hormone level, the uterine weight, the uterine index, and the endometrial histomorphology changes, as well as the ovarian weight, the ovarian index, and the morphological changes of ovarian tissues of each group were measured.Results(1) The vaginal cell smears of the control group (NS + NS) showed estrous cycle changes, while other model rats had no estrous cycle of vaginal cells. (2) The body weight gains of the GnRH-a + NS, GnRH-a + E2 and GnRH-a + ICR groups were significantly higher than that of the NS + NS control group. The intervention with E2 and ICR could delay the weight gain trend of rats induced by GnRH-A. (3) After GnRH-a injection, the temperature of the tail and anus of rats showed an overall upward trend, and the intervention with E2 and ICR could effectively improve such temperature change. (4) The E2, FSH, and LH levels in the GnRH-a + NS, GnRH-a + E2, and GnRH-a + ICR groups were significantly lower than those in the NS + NS group (P < 0.01). The E2 level was significantly higher and the LH level was significantly lower in the GnRH-a + E2 group than those in the GnRH-a + NS and GnRH-a + ICR groups (P < 0.05). Compared with those of the GnRH-a + NS and GnRH-a + ICR groups, the FSH level of the GnRH-a + E2 group showed a slight downward trend, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the levels of sex hormones between the GnRH-a + NS group and GnRH-a + ICR group (P > 0.05). (5) Compared with those of the NS + NS group, the uterine weight and uterine index of the GnRH-a + NS, GnRH-a + E2 and GnRH-a + ICR groups significantly decreased (P < 0.01). In a comparison between the groups, the uterine weight and uterine index in the GnRH-a + NS and GnRH-a + ICR groups were significantly lower than those in the GnRH-a + E2 group (P < 0.01). There was a statistical difference in the uterine weight and uterine index between the GnRH-a + NS group and GnRH-a + ICR group (P > 0.05). (6) Compared with those of the NS + NS group, the ovarian weight and ovarian index of the GnRH-a + NS, GnRH-a + E2 and GnRH-a + ICR groups significantly decreased (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference in the ovarian weight and ovarian index among the GnRH-a + E2, GnRH-a + NS and GnRH-a + ICR groups (P > 0.05). (7) Compared with those in the NS + NS group, the number of primordial follicles increased significantly, while the number of growing follicles and mature follicles decreased significantly in the GnRH-a + NS, GnRH-a + E2, and GnRH-a + ICR groups (P < 0.01), but there was a statistical difference in the total number of follicles among the four groups (P > 0.05).ConclusionsThe GnRH-a injection could achieve the desired effect. The animal model successfully achieved a significant decrease in the E2, FSH, and LH levels in rats, and could cause the rats to have rising body surface temperature similar to hot flashes in the perimenopausal period. The intervention with E2 and ICR could effectively relieve such “perimenopausal symptoms”, and ICR had no obvious effect on the serum sex hormone level in rats.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3220
Ahmed Abdel-Kareem Abuoghaba ◽  
Mona A. Ragab ◽  
Soheir A. Shazly ◽  
Dariusz Kokoszyński ◽  
Mohamed Saleh

This study evaluated the impact of incubation temperature and spraying hatching eggs with curcumin during the early embryogenesis phase on chick embryo developments, hatchability, physiological body reactions, and hormonal profiles of Dokki 4 chickens. A total of 720 fertile eggs were equally distributed into two groups. In the first group, the eggs were incubated at normal incubation temperature/NIT (37.8 °C and 55–60% RH) for up to 19 days of incubation, whereas those in the second group were incubated in the same conditions except from 6 to 8 day, in which they were daily exposed to chronic incubation temperature/CIT (39.0 °C) for 3 h. Each group was classified into four curcumin treatment doses; the 1st treatment (control) was sprayed with distilled water, while the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th treatments were sprayed with 250, 500, and 1000 mg curcumin/liter distilled water. The results indicated that the lowest hatchability of fertile eggs (%) was obtained in the CIT group (p = 0.02), whereas the highest body surface temperature/BST compared in the NIT group (p = 0.01). Regarding curcumin treatments, the percentages of heart, gizzard, spleen, and T3 hormone levels in the treated group were significantly increased, while the H/L ratio was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) compared with the control. At 8 weeks of age, the testes and ovary percentages in treated groups were significantly (p = 0.05) increased compared with the control. In conclusion, exposure of hatching eggs to high thermal stress (39 °C) during the incubation phase had deleterious effects on chick performance and T3 hormone level. Moreover, spraying hatching eggs had beneficial impacts on growth, reproductive organs, T3 hormone level, and reducing H/L ratio.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 133-138
Dr. Kajal Jha ◽  
Amulya Dahal ◽  
Bijendra Shah ◽  
Pratibha Tripathi ◽  
Sabbu Thasineku ◽  

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common problems affecting approximately5% of all women.  PCOS can affect menstrual cycle, fertility, and hormone level as well as appearance including acne, facial hair growth and balding, overweight. Some women may suffer from depression. It is also a metabolic problem that affects several body systems. The condition gets its name because there are often an increased number of small painless cysts in the ovaries (polycystic ovaries). It is very difficult to cure in contemporary system and treatment is also very costly. A case of 19 years female suffering from PCOS reported was treated successfully at at Ayurveda Teaching Hospital within 1 month by various ayurveda medicine and panchakarma procedures. The improvement is evident from regularity of menstrual cycle and also from the ultrasonography (USG) reports.

2021 ◽  
Sara Hajishizari ◽  
Hossein Imani ◽  
Sanaz Mehranfar ◽  
Mir Saeed Yekaninejad ◽  
khadijeh Mirzaei

Abstract Objective: Low resting metabolic rate (RMR) as a risk factor for weight gain and obesity can be influenced by many factors. Researchers have pointed out the role of appetite and related hormones in obesity and energy intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between appetite and related hormones in the two groups with normal and impaired resting metabolic rate in overweight or obese Iranian women.Methods: In this case-control study, 42 healthy female volunteers aged 18-50 years (21 cases,and 21 controls) participated and were evaluated for RMR by indirect calorimetry. Body composition was determined by a body composition analyzer. The Filint questionnaire was used to assess appetite. We also used ELISA kits to assess appetite-related hormones. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 25.Results: The results of the study showed that there is a negative relationship between ghrelin hormone level (p-value = 0.024) and RMR, and there is a positive relationship between insulin hormone level (p-value = 0.001) and RMR. Also, result of the appetite questionnaire showed that in general, both appetite (p-value = 0.044) and hunger index (p-value = 0.043) have a positive relationship with RMR. There was no significant relationship between leptin levels and RMR. Conclusion: As the results of this study show, it seems that appetite and related hormones have a possible role in promoting RMR.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Peng Wang ◽  
Guilin Jiang ◽  
Wenjuan Ju ◽  
Yaping Cai ◽  
Jinrong Wang ◽  

Objective. To analyze the influence of Bushen Tiaochong cycle therapy on Th1/Th2 deviation, sex hormone level, and pregnancy outcome of alloimmune recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Methods. From August 2018 to April 2020, 130 patients with alloimmune RSA who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into the control group (n = 65) and the study group (n = 65). The former received lymphocyte immunotherapy (LIT), and the latter received Bushen Tiaochong cycle therapy on the basis of LIT. The treatment ended at 12 w of pregnancy. The total score of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes, Th1 cytokine (IL-2), Th2 cytokine (IL-10), and related hormones (chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone (P)) were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. The positive rate of blocking antibody (BA), pregnancy success rate, and preterm birth rate were counted. Result. After treatment, the total score of TCM syndromes, IL-2 level, and Th1/Th2 ratio in the two groups decreased significantly, while the levels of IL-10, hCG, and P increased significantly, and the study group improved significantly compared with the control group ( P < 0.05 ). The positive rate of BA and pregnancy success rate in the study group were higher than those in the control group ( P < 0.05 ). There was no significant difference in the preterm birth rate between the two groups ( P > 0.05 ). Conclusion. On the basis of routine western medicine treatment, a combined application of Bushen Tiaochong cycle therapy can significantly improve the Th1/Th2 deviation, serum sex hormone level, and pregnancy outcome in patients with alloimmune RSA.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 10082
Aleksandra E. Mrozikiewicz ◽  
Marcin Ożarowski ◽  
Piotr Jędrzejczak

Currently, infertility affects 8–12% of reproductive age couples worldwide, a problem that also affects women suffering from recurrent implantation failure (RIF). RIF is a complex condition resulting from many physiological and molecular mechanisms involving dynamic endometrium–blastocyst interaction. The most important are the endometrial receptivity process, decidualization, trophoblast invasion, and blastocyst nesting. Although the exact multifactorial pathogenesis of RIF remains unclear, many studies have suggested the association between hormone level imbalance, disturbances of angiogenic and immunomodulatory factors, certain genetic polymorphisms, and occurrence of RIF. These studies were performed in quite small groups. Additionally, the results are inconsistent between ethnicities. The present review briefly summarizes the importance of factors involved in RIF development that could also serve as diagnostic determinants. Moreover, our review could constitute part of a new platform for discovery of novel diagnostic and therapeutic solutions for RIF.

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