Different Doses
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Hussain ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
N. Arshad ◽  
U. Hanif ◽  
...  

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-46
Author(s):  
Smita Jha

Introduction: Pityriasis versicolor is superficial fungal infection. Topical drugs are often effective in treatment of limited disease while systemic drugs are more suitable in extensive cases. The systemic triazole drugs, itraconazole and fluconazole have shown promising results at different doses. Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral fluconazole combined with ketoconazole shampoo and oral itraconazole in the treatment of Pityriasis versicolor. Methods: The study was conducted at department of Dermatology at Nepalgunj Medical College from March 2019 to February 2020. Total 100 patients of both genders with Pityriasis versicolor were randomly allocated into two groups with 50 patients in each group. Patients in Group I received oral fluconazole 300mg a week for two consecutive weeks along with ketoconazole 2% shampoo twice weekly for two weeks while those in Group II received  itraconazole 200mg daily for one week. Efficacy was assessed in terms of negative fungal hyphae. The drug is considered safe if no patients were withdrawn for clinical adverse effects or laboratory abnormalities. Results: In this study age ranged from 18 to 50 years with mean age of 31.1 years in Group I and 31.92 years in Group II. Efficacy was seen in 78% of Group I patients as compared to 54% in Group II patients at two weeks and 94% in Group I and 90% in Group II at four weeks. No significant adverse effects were reported in any of the group. Conclusion: Fluconazole along with ketoconazole shampoo is more effective than itraconazole in treatment of pityriasis versicolor with minimal side effects, at lesser cost.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yiwen Qi ◽  
Yue-meng Zhu ◽  
Bin Li

Abstract IntroductionCyclophosphamide (CTX), is reported to be extensively used to establish POI animal model. But the most effective dose has not been systematically concluded yet. This systematic review and network meta-analysis is aimed to compare and rank the different doses of cyclophosphamide in the CTX-induced POI rat model.MethodsRandomized controlled trials of CTX-induced rat POI model were searched in four databases from inception to December, 2021. A network meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the data of included publications. The quality assessment was assessed by SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool. Data were analyzed with STATA 15.0 and Review Manager 5.3.Result205 records were searched and a total of 14 articles met inclusion criteria, Compared by Ovarian morphological changes, estrous cycle and hormone level (FSH, E2, AMH), the loading dose of 200mg/kg CTX with the maintenance dose of 8mg/kg CTX for consecutive 14 days showed the best efficacy in inducing rat POI model.


Author(s):  
Devi Suresh ◽  
M. Ananthan ◽  
C. Vanniarajan ◽  
P. Balasubramanian ◽  
T. Sivakumar ◽  
...  

Background: MDU-1 is a high yielding, indeterminate cluster bean variety. In order to develop determinate mutant with high yield, MDU-1 cluster bean variety was irradiated using gamma rays, electron beam and combination of gamma rays and EMS with different doses and the variability induced in M5 generations were studied. Methods: Twenty one best individual plants from M4 generation were selected based on plant height and higher yield and forwarded to M5 generation where they were evaluated in RBD with three replications. Fourteen non-segregating mutant lines with desirable traits were identified in M5 generation and were evaluated for variability along with the parent MDU1. Result: Five best mutant lines namely ACMC-020-04, ACMC-020-11, ACMC-020-08, ACMC-020-10 and ACMC-020-11 were selected from the 14 accessions based on per se performance and variability analysis. The selected mutants needs to be forwarded for stability testing in different environments.


Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 221
Author(s):  
Eva Popelářová ◽  
Eva Vlková ◽  
Roman Švejstil ◽  
Lenka Kouřimská

Microwave (MW) irradiation is a non-destructive method that can be applied as an alternative method to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The present study evaluated the effect of MW irradiation on the occurrence of moulds in nuts and almonds. Samples of unshelled natural almonds, pistachios, and in-shell peanuts were treated with different doses of MW irradiation (2400–4000 W). The effect of MW irradiation on mould counts was evaluated by cultivating immediately after irradiation and after 3 and 6 months of storage. The most represented genera in all analysed samples were Aspergillus (68%), Penicillium (21%), and a small amount of Cladosporium (3%). Mould numbers significantly decreased after MW treatment. The treatments with MW irradiations at 3000 and 4000 W significantly reduced the mould colony counts, and their effect persisted during storage; irradiation at 2400 W was partially effective. The strongest effect of MW irradiation was observed in in-shell peanuts. MW irradiation seems to be a promising method for maintaining the microbiological quality of nuts.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 174
Author(s):  
Isidoro Carricondo-Martínez ◽  
Francesca Berti ◽  
Maria del Carmen Salas-Sanjuán

The valorisation of vegetal waste as a source of crop nutrients constitutes a circular strategy to improve the sustainability of intensive horticultural production systems. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic amendments derived from vegetal residues on the yield and quality of tomato. The following fertilisation treatments were carried out: fresh vegetal residues (4 kg m−1), compost (3 kg m−1), and vermicompost at two different doses (3 and 9 kg m−1), all derived from previous tomato crop vegetal residues, an organic treatment with goat manure (3 kg m−1), and a control mineral fertigation treatment. The highest yield was obtained with conventional mineral fertigation management, followed by vermicompost treatments at two different doses (3 and 9 kg m−1), with no statistical differences. The organic treatments with fresh crop residues, compost and goat manure resulted in lower yield. Regarding quality parameters, the lycopene content was higher in the mineral fertilisation and vermicompost at 3 kg m−1 treatment, while the other antioxidants measured were more concentrated in tomatoes fertilised with vermicompost treatment at 9 kg m−1 and goat manure. The plant nutrient management with vermicompost is the best circular solution, as it allows to reintegrate the residues generated in previous crop cycles into the soil, obtaining a yield equal to chemical input management and tomatoes with high nutritional quality.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mingxia Du ◽  
Jinming Wang ◽  
Faqin Dong ◽  
Zhaojia Wang ◽  
Feihua Yang ◽  
...  

AbstractPhosphogypsum (PG) is a massive industrial solid waste. In this paper, PG was purified by flotation method, and α-hemihydrate gypsum (α-HH) was prepared by the autoclaving method. The morphology of α-HH was adjusted by adding different doses of Maleic acid and Aluminium sulfate. The results showed that after flotation purification, the impurity content in PG was significantly reduced, the soluble phosphorus content decreased from 0.48 to 0.07%, the PG purity increased from 73.12 to 94.37%, and the PG whiteness risen from 19.4 to 40.5. Then the performance of α-HH prepared from PG before and after purification was compared. Fixing the amount of aluminium sulfate at 0.2 wt%, the reaction temperature at 140 °C, and the reaction time at 120 min, the average length/diameter ratio of α-HH crystals decreased from 7.2 to 0.6 as the amount of Maleic acid increased from 0 to 0.17 wt%. When the amount of Maleic acid was 0.13 wt%, the α-hemihydrate gypsum reached the best mechanical properties. The mechanical strength of high strength gypsum prepared from PG concentrate was significantly better than that of raw PG, indicating that flotation purification can effectively improve the performance of PG. In this study, a new method of PG purification and resource utilization was proposed.


Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Author(s):  
Mayada R. Farag ◽  
Mahmoud Alagawany ◽  
Attia A. A. Moselhy ◽  
Enas N. Said ◽  
Tamer A. Ismail ◽  
...  

The present experiment was performed to investigate the toxic impact of thiacloprid (TH) on the brain of developing chicken embryos and also to measure its influence on the behavioral responses of hatchlings. The role of chicoric acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) in modulating the resulted effects was also investigated. The chicken eggs were in ovo inoculated with TH at different doses (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ug/egg). TH increased the mortality and abnormality rates and altered the neurochemical parameters of exposed embryos dose-dependently. TH also decreased the brain level of monoamines and amino acid neurotransmitters and decreased the activities of acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and Na+/K+-ATPase. The brain activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was diminished with downregulation of their mRNA expressions in the brain tissue. When TH was co-administered with CA and RA, the toxic impacts of the insecticide were markedly attenuated, and they showed a complementary effect when used in combination. Taken together, these findings suggested that TH is neurotoxic to chicken embryos and is possibly neurotoxic to embryos of other vertebrates. The findings also demonstrated the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of CA and RA. Based on the present findings, the CA and RA can be used as invaluable ameliorative of TH-induced toxicity.


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