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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 427
Nadja Meumann ◽  
Christian Schmithals ◽  
Leroy Elenschneider ◽  
Tanja Hansen ◽  
Asha Balakrishnan ◽  

Although therapeutic options are gradually improving, the overall prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still poor. Gene therapy-based strategies are developed to complement the therapeutic armamentarium, both in early and late-stage disease. For efficient delivery of transgenes with antitumor activity, vectors demonstrating preferred tumor tropism are required. Here, we report on the natural tropism of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2 vectors for HCC. When applied intravenously in transgenic HCC mouse models, similar amounts of vectors were detected in the liver and liver tumor tissue. In contrast, transduction efficiency, as indicated by the level of transgene product, was moderate in the liver but was elevated up to 19-fold in mouse tumor tissue. Preferred transduction of HCC compared to hepatocytes was confirmed in precision-cut liver slices from human patient samples. Our mechanistic studies revealed that this preference is due to the improved intracellular processing of AAV2 vectors in HCC, resulting, for example, in nearly 4-fold more AAV vector episomes that serve as templates for gene transcription. Given this background, AAV2 vectors ought to be considered to strengthen current—or develop novel—strategies for treating HCC.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 275
Cíntia Almeida ◽  
Patrícia Filipe ◽  
Catarina Rosado ◽  
Catarina Pereira-Leite

The human epidermis has a characteristic lipidic composition in the stratum corneum, where ceramides play a crucial role in the skin barrier homeostasis and in water-holding capacity. Several skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, exhibit a dysfunction in the lipid barrier with altered ceramide levels and increased loss of transepidermal water. Glucocorticoids are normally employed in the therapeutical management of these pathologies. However, they have shown a poor safety profile and reduced treatment efficiency. The main objective of this review is to, within the framework of the limitations of the currently available therapeutical approaches, establish the relevance of nanocarriers as a safe and efficient delivery strategy for glucocorticoids and ceramides in the topical treatment of skin disorders with barrier impairment.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 534
Ali Rashidinejad ◽  
Geoffrey B. Jameson ◽  
Harjinder Singh

Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of hydrophobic flavonoids such as rutin remain as substantial challenges to their oral delivery via functional foods. In this study, the effect of pH and the addition of a protein (sodium caseinate; NaCas) on the aqueous solubility and stability of rutin was studied, from which an efficient delivery system for the incorporation of rutin into functional food products was developed. The aqueous solubility, chemical stability, crystallinity, and morphology of rutin (0.1–5% w/v) under various pH (1–11) and protein concentrations (0.2–8% w/v) were studied. To manufacture the concentrated colloidally stable rutin–NaCas particles, rutin was dissolved and deprotonated in a NaCas solution at alkaline pH before its subsequent neutralisation at pH 7. The excess water was removed using ultrafiltration to improve the loading capacity. Rutin showed the highest solubility at pH 11, while the addition of NaCas resulted in the improvement of both solubility and chemical stability. Critically, to achieve particles with colloidal stability, the NaCas:rutin ratio (w/w) had to be greater than 2.5 and 40 respectively for the lowest (0.2% w/v) and highest (4 to 8% w/v) concentrations of NaCas. The rutin–NaCas particles in the concentrated formulations were physically stable, with a size in the range of 185 to 230 nm and zeta potential of −36.8 to −38.1 mV, depending on the NaCas:rutin ratio. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of rutin in different systems were 76% to 83% and 2% to 22%, respectively. The concentrated formulation containing 5% w/v NaCas and 2% w/v rutin was chosen as the most efficient delivery system due to the ideal protein:flavonoid ratio (2.5:1), which resulted in the highest loading capacity (22%). Taken together, the findings show that the delivery system developed in this study can be a promising method for the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrophobic flavonoids such as rutin into functional foods.

2022 ◽  
Jilong Qin ◽  
Yaoqin Hong ◽  
Karthik Pullela ◽  
Renato Morona ◽  
Ian R. Henderson ◽  

Abstract The study of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens relies on molecular and genetic approaches. However, the generally low transformation frequency among natural isolates poses technical hurdles to widely applying common methods in molecular biology, including transformation of large constructs, chromosomal genetic manipulation, and dense mutant library construction. Here we demonstrate that culturing clinical isolates in the presence of polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN) improves their transformation frequency via electroporation by up to 100-fold in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. The effect was observed for PMBN-binding uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Salmonella enterica strains but not naturally polymyxin resistant Proteus mirabilis. Using our PMBN electroporation method we show efficient delivery of large plasmid constructs into UPEC, which otherwise failed using a conventional electroporation protocol. Moreover, we show a 5-fold increase in the yield of engineered mutant colonies obtained in S. enterica with the widely used lambda-Red recombineering method, when cells are cultured in the presence of PMBN. Lastly, we demonstrate that PMBN treatment can enhance the delivery of DNA-transposase complexes into UPEC and increase transposon mutant yield by 8-fold when constructing Transposon Insertion Sequencing (TIS) libraries. Therefore, PMBN can be used as a powerful electropermeabilisation adjuvant to aid the delivery of DNA and DNA-protein complexes into clinically important bacteria.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Xiufang Liu ◽  
Wenjun Zhang ◽  
Yanshu Jing ◽  
Shasha Yi ◽  
Umar Farooq ◽  

Sonoporation employs ultrasound accompanied by microbubble (MB) cavitation to induce the reversible disruption of cell membranes and has been exploited as a promising intracellular macromolecular delivery strategy. Due to the damage to cells resulting from strong cavitation, it is difficult to balance efficient delivery and high survival rates. In this paper, a traveling surface acoustic wave (TSAW) device, consisting of a TSAW chip and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel, was designed to explore single-cell sonoporation using targeted microbubbles (TMBs) in a non-cavitation regime. A TSAW was applied to precisely manipulate the movement of the TMBs attached to MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to sonoporation at a single-cell level. The impact of input voltage and the number of TMBs on cell sonoporation was investigated. In addition, the physical mechanisms of bubble cavitation or the acoustic radiation force (ARF) for cell sonoporation were analyzed. The TMBs excited by an ARF directly propelled cell membrane deformation, leading to reversible perforation in the cell membrane. When two TMBs adhered to the cell surface and the input voltage was 350 mVpp, the cell sonoporation efficiency went up to 83%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bharti Mangla ◽  
Shamama Javed ◽  
Muhammad H. Sultan ◽  
Waquar Ahsan ◽  
Geeta Aggarwal ◽  

Drug delivery using oral route is the most popular, convenient, safest and least expensive approach. It includes oral transmucosal delivery of bioactive compounds as the mucosal cavity offers an intriguing approach for systemic drug distribution. Owing to the dense vascular architecture and high blood flow, oral mucosal layers are easily permeable and can be an ideal site for drug administration. Recently, the transmucosal route is being investigated for other therapeutic candidates such as vaccines for their efficient delivery. Vaccines have the potential to trigger immune reactions and can act as both prophylactic and therapeutic conduit to a variety of diseases. Administration of vaccines using transmucosal route offers multiple advantages, the most important one being the needle-free (non-invasive) delivery. Development of needle-free devices are the most recent and pioneering breakthrough in the delivery of drugs and vaccines, enabling patients to avoid needles, reducing anxiety, pain and fear as well as improving compliance. Oral, nasal and aerosol vaccination is a novel immunization approach that utilizes a nanocarrier to administer the vaccine. Nanocarriers improve the bioavailability and serve as adjuvants to elicit a stronger immune response, resulting in increased effectiveness of vaccination. Drugs and vaccines with lower penetration abilities can also be delivered transmucosally while maintaining their biological function. The development of micro/nanocarriers for transmucosal delivery of macromolecules, vaccines and other substances is currently drawing much attention and a number of studies were performed recently. This comprehensive review is aimed to summarize the most recent investigations on needle-free and non-invasive approaches for the delivery of vaccines using oral transmucosal route, their strengths and associated challenges. The oral transmucosal vaccine delivery by nanocarriers is the most upcoming advancement in efficient vaccine delivery and this review would help further research and trials in this field.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Evgeny Apartsin ◽  
Alya Venyaminova ◽  
Jean-Pierre Majoral ◽  
Anne-Marie Caminade

Hydrogels are biocompatible matrices for local delivery of nucleic acids; however, functional dopants are required to provide efficient delivery into cells. In particular, dendrimers, known as robust nucleic acid carriers, can be used as dopants. Herein, we report the first example of impregnating neutral hydrogels with siRNA–dendrimer complexes. The surface chemistry of dendrimers allows adjusting the release rate of siRNA-containing complexes. This methodology can bring new materials for biomedical applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Tao He ◽  
Kunxin Zhu ◽  
Zhipeng Chen ◽  
Ruomei Wang ◽  
Fan Zhou

Live streaming service usually delivers the content in mobile edge computing (MEC) to reduce the network latency and save the backhaul capacity. Considering the limited resources, it is necessary that MEC servers collaborate with each other and form an overlay to realize more efficient delivery. The critical challenge is how to optimize the topology among the servers and allocate the link capacity so that the cost will be lower with delay constraints. Previous approaches rarely consider server collaborations for live streaming service, and the scheduling delay is usually ignored in MEC, leading to suboptimal performances. In this paper, we propose a popularity-guided overlay model which takes the scheduling delay into consideration and utilizes MEC collaboration to achieve efficient live streaming service. The links and servers are shared among all channel streams and each stream is pushed from cloud servers to MEC servers via the trees. Considering the optimization problem is NP-hard, we propose an effective optimization framework called cost optimization for live streaming (COLS) to predict the channel popularity by a LSTM model with multiscale input data. Finally, we compute topology graph by greedy scheme and allocate the capacity with convex programming. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves higher prediction accuracy, reducing the capacity cost by more than 40% with an acceptable delay compared with state-of-the-art schemes.

Nanoscale ◽  
2022 ◽  
Shengran Li ◽  
Xintao Xie ◽  
Wenliang Wang ◽  
Sangni Jiang ◽  
Weikang Mei ◽  

Liposomes are used to deliver therapeutics in vivo because of their good biocompatibility, efficient delivery, and ability to protect the therapeutics from degradation. However, the instability of liposomes will cause...

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

India is a country of growing population and agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58 per cent of Indians population. The Indian food industry is poised for huge growth, increasing its contribution to world food trade every year due to its immense potential for value addition, particularly within the food processing industry. Government of India is giving more priority for welfare of the farmers. In this regard it is implementing several welfare schemes to provide financial support to farmers. Various schemes were introduced by the government, but the benefits of these schemes do not reach to the common people in our case farmers due to corruption happening at the middleware. Hence there is need of a reliable, authorized and secured system to maintain and manage these transactional records. This is where blockchain comes into picture. One of the aims of our system is to ensure that the amount transferred by the authority to a particular farmer, reaches to him/her without any corruption and system manipulation using the features of blockchain and cryptography.

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