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2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (41) ◽  
Author(s):  
Guillaume André Durand ◽  
Franck de Laval ◽  
Albane de Bonet d’Oléon ◽  
François Xavier Le Flem ◽  
Yann Morin ◽  
...  

We investigated a COVID-19 outbreak at a fire station in Marseille, France. Confirmed cases were defined as individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and/or neutralising antibodies. All 85 firefighters at work during the outbreak period were included after questioning and sampled for RT-PCR and viral neutralisation assay. Twenty-three firefighters were confirmed positive, 19 of them were symptomatic, and four asymptomatic cases were confirmed by virus neutralisation. A total of 22 firefighters had specific neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Neutralising antibodies were found in four asymptomatic and 18 symptomatic cases. Eleven symptomatic cases had high titres (≥ 1:80). The earliest detection of neutralising antibodies was 7 days after symptom onset, and 80% had neutralising antibodies 15 days after onset. One viral culture was positive 13 days after onset. The attack rate was 27%. We identified two introductions of the virus in this outbreak, through a presymptomatic and a paucisymptomatic case. Asymptomatic cases were not the source of a third generation of cases, although they worked without wearing a mask, indicating that asymptomatic cases did not play a significant role in this outbreak. Management and strategy based on early research of clinical signs associated with self-quarantine was effective.


Author(s):  
Виктория Владимировна Власова

Образы «других» являются неотъемлемой частью фольклорной картины мира, играя значимую роль в (само) идентификации этнических и конфессиональных групп. В ходе непосредственного общения формируются народные представления о конфессиональных особенностях «других», выделяется набор признаков, маркирующих их в качестве таковых. В статье рассматривается формирование и трансформация представлений о конфессиональном «другом» в моноэтничной поликонфессиональной среде на примере староверов-странников, проживавших в Удорском и Троицко-Печорском районах Республики Коми. Источниковой базой исследования послужили архивные данные и полевые материалы фольклорно-этнографических экспедиций, проходивших в начале 2000-х гг. Появление староверов-странников, позиционировавших себя как хранителей «истинной веры» и стремившихся максимально ограничить контакты с иноверцами, стало толчком для выделения этой группы в качестве конфессиональных «других». На верхней Печоре, на момент проведения исследований, страннические общины существовали; здесь сохранялась идеологическая конфронтация между разными группами верующих, что нашло отражение в различных локальных номинациях странников. На Удоре, где последователи странников исчезли в 1970-е гг., повсеместно использовался экзоконфессионим, не имевший оценочных коннотаций. Определяющее влияние на формирование представлений о странниках как о «других» оказали их религиозные практики. Ключевым показателем, характеризующим суть вероучения в глазах конфессиональных соседей, равно как и самих странников, стало «бегство от мира» — полный отказ от участия в государственной и общественной жизни, от любого взаимодействия с иноверцами. Не менее значимыми для системы представлений о данной группе были особенности погребальной обрядности (тайные похороны удорских странников) и крещения (крещение в пожилом возрасте). Закрытость повседневной и ритуальной жизни странников способствовала распространению слухов, компенсировавших отсутствие информации. Изменение исторических реалий (исчезновение удорских странников, изменение возрастного состава общин) вело к изменениям и коррективам существовавших представлений. The images of the Others are an integral part of the folklore worldview, also they play a significant role in the (self) identification of ethnic and confessional groups. Folk ideas about the confessional characteristics of the Others, as well as a set of features that allowed to mark them as the Others are formed in the course of direct communication. The article examines the formation and transformation of ideas about a confessional Other in a mono-ethnic and poly-confessional environment, using the example of Old-Believers Wanderers who lived in the Udorskii and Troitsko-Pechorskii districts of the Komi Republic. The article based on the archival data and field materials of folklore and ethno-graphic’ expeditions that took place in the early 2000s. The emergence of Wanderers, who were positioning themselves as keepers of the «true faith», and striving to limit contacts with non-Wanderers as much as possible, became the impetus for singling out this group as confessional Others. On the upper Pechora, where at the time of our research Wanderer’s communities existed, the ideological confrontation between different groups of believers were still persisted, that was reflected in various local nomination of Wanderers. On Udora, where the followers of the Wanderers disappeared in the 1970s, an outer nomination of this confessional group was widely used, which had no evaluative connotations. Their religious practices had a decisive influence on the formation of perceptions of the Wanderers as Others. The key indicator that characterizes the essence of the religion of the Wanderers in the eyes of their confessional neighbors, as for Wanderers themselves, was «flight from the world» – a complete refusal to participate in state and social life, and to have any interaction with representatives of the other faith. No less significant for the system of ideas about this group were the features of the funeral rituals (secret funerals of Udora’ Wanderers) and ritual of baptism (baptism in old age). The closedness of the daily and ritual life of the Wanderers contributed to the spread of rumors, which compensated the lack of information. Objective changes of the reality (the disappearance of Wanderers communities of Udora, the change in the age structure of the communities) led to changes and adjustments of the existing ideas.


2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (2) ◽  
pp. 271-279
Author(s):  
Joanna Orzechowska

The article presents the issue of non-verbal communication from the perspective of translation and teaching a foreign language. The research is based on an experiment conducted among Russian students at the University of Warmia and Mazury, whose task it was to analyze data from Krystyna Jarząbek’s Dictionary of the Body Language of Polish People, from which about 30 unknown or unintelligible units of non-verbal communication were selected. The data show that body language, including gestures, is culture-rooted, and confirm that non-verbal means play a significant role in communication. This is why the author of the article believes it to be justified to introduce elements of non-verbal communication into teaching foreign languages and to compile bilingual dictionaries of body language.


2021 ◽  
Vol 33 ◽  
pp. 117
Author(s):  
Agnieszka Maria Gasz

The article makes an attempt to characterise the act of eating as a communicative event and a cultural text: the analysis is based on the model of communication, theory of information and the general theory of signs. The main objective of the analysis is focused on reconstruction of the linguistic and cultural picture of eating in communication. In the description of the data, references are made to selected research methods and tools of linguistic semantics, particularly in its cultural variant. The data under consideration were initially limited to Polish linguaculture but in the course of analysis examples from other cultures were incorporated. While constructing a communicative model of eating, a basic distinction is made between the performer of an action (the eater) and the object of this action (the food). The analysis of the data reveals that apart from the verbally expressed information about who eats, what they eat, and how they do it. Another significant role in coding meaning is played by the accompanying non-verbal communication (eating-related sounds or the eater’s body language), as well as conventional signals replacing verbal formulas (communication through an arrangement of the cutlery, the dish itself or a specific manner of consumption).


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3571
Author(s):  
Jessica Cusato ◽  
Massimo Tempestilli ◽  
Andrea Calcagno ◽  
Alessandra Vergori ◽  
Pierluca Piselli ◽  
...  

To date, vitamin D seems to have a significant role in affecting the prevention and immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that this pro-hormone has other several activities, such as affecting drug concentrations, since it regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics is influenced by CYPs, but no data are available in the literature concerning the association among vitamin D levels, seasonality (which affects vitamin D concentrations) and EFV plasma levels. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels on EFV plasma concentrations in different seasons. We quantified 25(OH)D3 by using chemiluminescence immunoassay, whereas EFV plasma concentrations were quantified with the HPLC–PDA method. A total of 316 patients were enrolled in Turin and Rome. Overall, 25(OH)D3levels resulted in being inversely correlated with EFV concentrations. Some patients with EFV levels higher than 4000 ng/mL showed a deficient 25(OH)D3 concentration in Turin and Rome cohorts and together. EFV concentrations were different in patients without vitamin D supplementation, whereas, for vitamin D-administered individuals, no difference in EFV exposure was present. Concerning seasonality, EFV concentrations were associated with 25(OH)D3 deficiency only in winter and in spring, whereas a significant influence was highlighted for 25(OH)D3 stratification for deficient, insufficient and sufficient values in winter, spring and summer. A strong and inverse association between 25(OH)D3and EFV plasma concentrations was suggested. These data suggest that vitamin D is able to affect drug exposure in different seasons; thus, the achievement of the clinical outcome could be improved by also considering this pro-hormone.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
debasis samanta ◽  
P Ramar ◽  
V Raghavendra

Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymers are generally immobilized to various surfaces for device fabrications and sensor applications. preparative methods as well as Immobilization processes play a significant role for device efficacy. In this paper, we demonstrated that while "click" polymerization can be conveniently used for the preparation of diketopyrrolopyrrole DPP-based polymer, self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation technique is convenient for efficient Immobilization to surfaces. Computational models have been used to theoretically calculate various energy parameters. Finally, some of those surfaces have been used as reusable photocatalytic chips, in line with mechanistically similar photovoltaic chips


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jian Gao ◽  
Bo Liu ◽  
Shuang Li ◽  
Ruiying Mu ◽  
Naisheng Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Laminitis- an inflammation of lamella, could cause great economic loss to dairy industry, which has attracted wide attention around the world. In recent years, microbiota is considered as one of the vital parts that played significant role in various diseases processes. However, current studies are far from sufficient. Aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of ruminal microbiota in laminitis cows. Methods: The serum of bovines with or without laminitis was collected to detect concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactic acid, and histamine, and the ruminal fluid was collected for 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Results: The results showed that a significant increase in LPS and lactic acid levels in laminitis group comparing to control group cows. In addition, the higher abundance of bacteria that -riches acid-enhancing metabolites, namely, Candidatus Saccharimonas, Saccharofermentans, Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-009, Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-008, Clostridium papyrosolvens and Ruminococcaceae bacterium AE2021 were detected in the rumen fluid from laminitis bovines. Conclusions: This article confirmed that difference of rumen microbiota were occurred in rumen between health and laminitis bovines. The elevated abundance of bacteria that riches acid- enhancing metabolites, as well as increased the concentration of lactic acid and LPS could be harmful factors to bovines and increase risks of laminitis.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2725
Author(s):  
Mai Thi Nguyen ◽  
Wan Lee

Skeletal myogenesis is required to maintain muscle mass and integrity, and impaired myogenesis is causally linked to the etiology of muscle wasting. Recently, it was shown that excessive uptake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting. Although microRNA (miRNA) is implicated in the regulation of myogenesis, the molecular mechanism whereby SFA-induced miRNAs impair myogenic differentiation remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the regulatory roles of miR-325-3p on CFL2 expression and myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. PA impeded myogenic differentiation, concomitantly suppressed CFL2 and induced miR-325-3p. Dual-luciferase analysis revealed that miR-325-3p directly targets the 3′UTR of CFL2, thereby suppressing the expression of CFL2, a crucial factor for actin dynamics. Transfection with miR-325-3p mimic resulted in the accumulation of actin filaments (F-actin) and nuclear Yes-associated protein (YAP) in myoblasts and promoted myoblast proliferation and cell cycle progression. Consequently, miR-325-3p mimic significantly attenuated the expressions of myogenic factors and thereby impaired the myogenic differentiation of myoblasts. The roles of miR-325-3p on CFL2 expression, F-actin modulation, and myogenic differentiation suggest a novel miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanism of myogenesis and PA-inducible miR-325-3p may be a critical mediator between obesity and muscle wasting.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (10) ◽  
pp. 266
Author(s):  
Yoshimichi Ohki ◽  
Naoshi Hirai ◽  
Takahiro Umemoto ◽  
Hirotaka Muto

We prepared six kinds of epoxy resin nanocomposites with silica and an epoxy resin with no silica. The nanocomposites contain silica with different diameters (10, 50, and 100 nm) while their silica contents are 1, 5, 10, and 20 vol%. At 25 and 100 °C, the thermal conductivity has a nearly proportional dependence on the silica content and exhibits an almost reciprocal proportionality to the diameter of the silica. The latter result indicates that the interaction at filler-resin interfaces plays a significant role in heat transfer. However, this view contradicts an easy-to-understand thought that the filler-resin interfaces should work as a barrier for heat transfer. This in turn indicates that the interaction at filler-resin interfaces controls the bulk properties of the resin when the filler is in a nm size. Although the dielectric constant increases with the addition of the silica filler, its increment from the resin with no silica is the smallest in the resin with the 10-nm silica. Therefore, the addition of the 10-nm silica is adequate for electrical insulation purposes.


Sarcoma ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Alexander L. Lazarides ◽  
Harrison R. Ferlauto ◽  
Zachary D. C. Burke ◽  
Anthony M. Griffin ◽  
Bruce D. Leckey ◽  
...  

Synopsis. For ALTs, the utility of chest surveillance has not been well defined. This study suggests that chest imaging does not have a significant role in the surveillance of ALTs. Advanced local imaging and more intensive chest surveillance may be considered in cases of local recurrence. Background. Unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, atypical lipomatous tumors (ALTs) are thought to have a low propensity for metastasis. Despite this, a standard of care for pulmonary metastasis (PM) surveillance has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of chest imaging for PM surveillance following ALT excision. Methods. This was a multi-institution, retrospective review of all patients with primary ALTs of the extremities or superficial torso who underwent excision between 2006 and 2018. Minimum follow-up was two years. Long-term survival was evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results. 190 patients with ALT were included. Average age was 61.7 years and average follow-up was 58.6 months (24 to 180 months). MDM2 testing was positive in 88 patients (46.3%), and 102 (53.7%) did not receive MDM2 testing. 188 patients (98.9%) had marginal excision, and 127 (66.8%) had marginal or positive margins. Patients received an average of 0.9 CT scans and 1.3 chest radiographs over the surveillance period. 10-year metastasis-free survival was 100%, with no documented deaths from disease. Conclusions. This study suggests that chest imaging does not have a significant role in PM surveillance following ALT excision, but advanced local imaging and chest surveillance may be considered in cases of local recurrence or concern for dedifferentiation.


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