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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Joëlle L. Sobngwi-Tambekou ◽  
Marthe Tsague-Agnoux ◽  
Léopold K. Fezeu ◽  
Flavien Ndonko

Abstract Background Adolescent childbearing increases the risk of adverse health and social consequences including school dropout (SDO). However, it remains unclear why some teenage mothers drop out of school and others do not, especially in sub-Saharan Africa settings. We aimed to investigate the background and behavioral characteristics of single mothers, associated with school dropout in a sample of 18,791 Cameroonian girls, who had their first child during adolescence. Methods We used data from a national registry of single mothers, collected during the years 2005–2008 and 2010–2011. Both bivariate analysis and logistic binary regression models were used to explore the relationship between adolescence motherhood and SDO controlling for a range of socio-economic, family, sexual and health seeking behavior characteristics. Results Among the 18,791 single mothers, 41.6% had dropped out of school because of pregnancy. The multivariable regression model showed that SDO was more common in those who were evicted from their parental home (aOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.69–2.04), those who declared having other single mothers in their family (aOR: 1.16; 95% CI 1.08–1.25) and in mothers who had their first child before 15. Using modern contraceptive methods, having declared no sexual partner during the last year and having less than 2 children were associated with a reduced likelihood of school dropout. Conclusions Strong social support is essential to ensure school continuity in this vulnerable population. Dropping out of school may put the teenage mother more at risk of unsafe health behaviour and new pregnancies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 51-56
Nur Cahyani Ari Lestari

Anxiety before labor in pregnant women is a physiological matter, but in facing labor process in which there are a series of physical and psychological changes that starting with uterine contractions, dilatation of the birth canal, and spending baby and placenta which ended with first punding between mother and baby. Anxiety and depression are two types of interference that related each other. The objectives of this study is to explore mother’s anxiety facing labor primigravid 20-35 years old in BPM Sulityowati Cengkalsewu Village Sub Kayen Pati Regency. This study used a qualitative method with phenomenological approach. Technique of data collection with in depth interview and purposive sampling. The results of in-depth interview in participant obtained information mother’s anxiety resolve labor primigravid 20-35 years old about definition, causes, family support, factors of anxiet. and how to prevent and resolve anxiety. All mothers who are facing labor already know about the content of the anxiety in the face of first child labor. As well as how to prevent and resolve that anxiety.Mother’s anxiety facing labor primigravid 20-35 years old is good.

2022 ◽  
Chenfeng Zhu ◽  
Li Yan ◽  
Chuqing He ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  
Jiahao Wu ◽  

Abstract Background: With the implementation of the two-child policy in China, more couples expressed their desire to have a child. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of infertility in couples intending to have a first child and second child.Methods: Couples who presented to the pre-pregnancy clinical centers were enrolled from 2013 to 2017. Participants were categorized into “first child intention” and “second child intention” groups based on the number of children they already had. Couples were followed up every three months until pregnancy or 12 months. Data regarding the sociodemographic characteristics, history of reproduction and gynecology, history of male disease, and laboratory and imaging examination results were collected. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and adjusted for potential confounding factors.Results: The overall infertility incidence was 16.95% (369/2177). The infertility incidence of “first child intention” and “second child intention” was 19.30% (355/1839) and 4.14% (14/338). The study showed great differences in infertility risk factors between two groups. Risk factors for “first child intention” infertility included advanced age (>35 years), abnormal body mass index (BMI), longer menstrual durations, endometrial polyps, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), salpingostomy, and history of mycoplasma. However, in “second child intention” group, clinical risk factor was slightly different, such as leiomyoma, higher age (>40 years).Conclusion: The incidence and risk factors of infertility are significantly different between “first child intention” group and “second child intention” group. Early and targeted intervention for couples in different groups at high risk can help reduce infertility and social burden.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-29
Amy Burton ◽  
Jennifer Taylor ◽  
Sophie Swain ◽  
Joanna Heyes ◽  
Fiona Cust ◽  

Background Breastfeeding intention can predict breastfeeding behaviour and is influenced by theory of planned behaviour constructs. Despite associations with reduced breastfeeding duration, there is a lack of research to explore the intention to mixed feed infants. Aims This study aimed to explore the factors that influence pregnant women's intentions to mixed feed their first child. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four women pregnant with their first child who intended to mixed feed. An in-depth idiographic multiple case study approach grounded in a ‘subtle realist’ epistemology was used. Results The interviews highlighted the importance of flexibility in feeding decisions, a perception of breastfeeding as restrictive and obstructive to normality and the presence of misinformation and unrealistic expectations about breastfeeding. Conclusions Women need to be informed and supported by professionals, peers, families and broader communities. Cultural narratives must be challenged to enable mothers to feel in control of feeding decisions and without the need to justify feeding activities to protect themselves from anticipated negative emotions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 122-125
Federica Buzzi ◽  
Nizar Bakir Yahya ◽  
Khalaf Hussein Gargary ◽  
Adel Hevan Al-Atroushy ◽  
Maiandi Stefano

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 128-136
Seo Hye Chung ◽  
Shin Ae Yoon ◽  
Seung Eun Chung

Silva Mirela Cristina da ◽  
Rozatto Juliana Rodrigues ◽  
Silva Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da ◽  
Silva Marco Antônio Moreira Rodrigues da ◽  
Magri Laís Valencise

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 170-180
Fitri Nuraisyah ◽  
Hudaidah Hudaidah

This article discusses the Javanese tradition in the form of mitoni, the writing of this article aims to analyze the mitoni tradition carried out by people in Java, starting from the preparation before carrying out the mitoni tradition ceremony to the stage of implementing the mitoni tradition. The method used in writing this article is a literature study which is used as a source of data taken from journals and digital books, besides that the data collection technique also uses interview techniques conducted to actors who have carried out the mitoni tradition. The result of writing an article is in the form of a tradition which means that it is a habit that is carried out from the ancestors and then passed on from generation to generation from one generation to the next. In this article, we discuss the mitoni tradition. Mitoni is a tradition carried out by the Javanese people when a mother is pregnant with her first child at the age of seven months. This mitoni tradition usually includes the preparation of tools and materials before carrying out the mitoni tradition ritual, then doing the mitoni tradition starting from the bathing stage, splitting coconut ivory, changing seven kinds of cloth, selling dawet ice and rujak. Then when bathing, the dipper used is made of coconut shell. Furthermore, this article also discusses the meaning of the mitoni tradition which is also called tingkeban.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 360-370
Isaac Owino Okoth ◽  
Albert Oloo Nyariaro ◽  

In this paper, we prove some new formulas in the enumeration of labelled \(t\)-ary trees by path lengths. We treat trees having their edges oriented from a vertex of lower label towards a vertex of higher label. Among other results, we obtain counting formulas for the number of \(t\)-ary trees on \(n\) vertices in which there are paths of length \(\ell\) starting at a root with label \(i\) and ending at a vertex, sink, leaf sink, first child, non-first child and non-leaf. For each statistic, the average number of these reachable vertices is obtained for any random \(t\)-ary tree.

Roshan Koul ◽  
Arjun Maria ◽  
Seema Alam

AbstractInvolvement of tongue is uncommon in Wilson's disease (WD) in early stages. This is usually seen late when the patient has an established neurological WD associated with dyskinesia, dystonia, and tremors. In this article, we presented two children with tongue involvement in which there were slow laterotrusion (side to side) and protrusion and retraction movements. In the first child this was the early and only manifestation without any other neurological features while in the second child this was seen in a previously diagnosed WD. Slow tongue movements in any child with or without extrapyramidal features should be investigated to rule out a treatable condition like WD. Tongue involvement is common in children with different neurological/neuromuscular diseases, drugs, and other unknown conditions.

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