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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
Lan Jin ◽  
Lalatendu Acharya

The purpose of the study was to develop tailored messages improving mental health and adjustment of Asian international students (AIS) in the US. The PEN-3 cultural model was used to contextualize the role of culture in mental health needs of AIS. Messages were developed through a multi-step participatory process with consisting of three focus groups (n=15), thirteen individual interviews, one expert consultation, and finally an online survey (n=85). The study led to the development of seven broad themes with seven tailored messages under each theme (total 49). Seven broad themes were: increasing the awareness of mental health and reducing stigma; motivational quotes; available and accessible resources for AIS to improve mental health; seeking help from social network and developing interpersonal skills; adjusting to American culture and college life; coping strategies to reduce stress and improve mental health and adjustment; and safety issues. The implications for culturally responsive programs are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Joëlle L. Sobngwi-Tambekou ◽  
Marthe Tsague-Agnoux ◽  
Léopold K. Fezeu ◽  
Flavien Ndonko

Abstract Background Adolescent childbearing increases the risk of adverse health and social consequences including school dropout (SDO). However, it remains unclear why some teenage mothers drop out of school and others do not, especially in sub-Saharan Africa settings. We aimed to investigate the background and behavioral characteristics of single mothers, associated with school dropout in a sample of 18,791 Cameroonian girls, who had their first child during adolescence. Methods We used data from a national registry of single mothers, collected during the years 2005–2008 and 2010–2011. Both bivariate analysis and logistic binary regression models were used to explore the relationship between adolescence motherhood and SDO controlling for a range of socio-economic, family, sexual and health seeking behavior characteristics. Results Among the 18,791 single mothers, 41.6% had dropped out of school because of pregnancy. The multivariable regression model showed that SDO was more common in those who were evicted from their parental home (aOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.69–2.04), those who declared having other single mothers in their family (aOR: 1.16; 95% CI 1.08–1.25) and in mothers who had their first child before 15. Using modern contraceptive methods, having declared no sexual partner during the last year and having less than 2 children were associated with a reduced likelihood of school dropout. Conclusions Strong social support is essential to ensure school continuity in this vulnerable population. Dropping out of school may put the teenage mother more at risk of unsafe health behaviour and new pregnancies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 731-735
Preethi B ◽  
Preeti Mittal ◽  
Kiran Kumar K ◽  
Sriya Sridhar ◽  
Suresh Babu G

To study the prevalence, types and demographic profile of traditional eye medicine (TEM) use among corneal ulcer patients presenting to a tertiary eye care centre in South India.A cross-sectional study conducted on 432 new corneal ulcer patients at a tertiary eye care centre in South India from September 2018 to July 2019. Data collected included demographic profile such as name, age, sex, occupation, income, rural/urban residence, type of TEM use. Of the 432 new corneal ulcer cases, 32 used TEM. Most TEM users belonged to the age group 40- 60 years (n= 20; 62.5%). There was no difference in sex distribution. Majority of TEM users in our study resided in rural areas (n= 30; 93.75%), were involved in agriculture as occupation (n=28, 87.5%) and belonged to the lower socioeconomic status n=31(96.88%) as per Kuppuswamy classification. Profile of TEM used ranged from plant extract (n= 14; 43.75%), tongue cleaning (n= 5; 15.63%), oil (n= 7; 21.87%), breast milk (n= 4; 12.5%) and ash (n= 2; 6.25%). Use of traditional medicine is a prevalent practice in the study population. These findings offer a better understanding of health seeking behaviour of the study population which will lead to better planning, implementation and targeting of preventive and promotive eye services and awareness programmes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Hamid Ali Kalwar ◽  
Lubna Kamani

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic undermined the health service delivery and utilization of essential health care services globally. The current study therefore aimed to explore the health-seeking behaviors and challenges faced by patients for the management of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient department of Gastroenterology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi from March 2020 to July 2020 during the COVID-19 lockdown phase to explore patient experiences. Data was collected using a survey questionnaire. All patients of either gender were included after informed consent. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted using SPSS 21.0. Results: A total of 184 patients were included who visited the hospital to seek medical services during the COVID-19 lockdown phase. The mean age of the population was 42.7 years (±16.13). Of these, n=94 (51.1%) were males All patients had gastrointestinal issues with different comorbid conditions. One forty-seven n=147 (79.9%) presented with active complaints whereas, n=37 (20.1%) patients visited the hospital for their follow-up checkup. Out of 184 patients, n=33 (17.9%) patients reported of having fear of visiting hospital due to COVID-19 outbreak. A statistically significant difference p<0.001 was noted between the history of comorbidities and patient delaying a visit to the healthcare due to the fear of COVID-19. Additionally, 61 (73.5%) patients with co-morbidity faced difficulty in finding public transport (p=0.01). Nevertheless, n=171 (93.0%) patients expressed satisfaction with the services provided by the hospital during the lockdown phase. Conclusion: Patients with gastrointestinal conditions were largely affected by lockdown largely due to fear of contacting COVID-19 disease and inaccessibility to the public transportation. Widely available telemedicine service might overcome these shortcomings and ensure continuity of quality care. doi: How to cite this:Kalwar HA, Kamani L. Problems faced by patients and health service utilization experiences of gastrointestinal patients during lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------.  doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262202
Weiqin Liu ◽  
Qifen Yang ◽  
Zhen-e Xu ◽  
Ya Hu ◽  
Yongming Wang ◽  

Background The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused millions of infections worldwide and represents a significant challenge facing modern health care systems. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of lockdown measures in a tertiary Children’s Hospital in southwest China, which might be used to predict long-term effects related to health-seeking behavior of parents/caregivers. Methods This study included newborns enrolled over a span of 86 weeks between January 4, 2019, and August 27, 2020. We designated two time periods for analysis purposes: a stable pre-COVID period(55 weeks between January 4, 2019, and January 23, 2020) and a COVID-impacted period (31 weeks between January 24, 2020, and August 27, 2020). An interrupted time-series analysis was employed to compare changes and trends in hospital admissions and disease spectra before and after the period of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Furthermore, this study was conducted to evaluate whether the health-seeking behavior of parents/caregivers was influenced by pandemic factors. Results Overall, 16,640 infants were admitted to the neonatology department during the pre-COVID period (n = 12,082) and the COVID-impacted period (n = 4,558). The per week neonatal admissions consistently decreased following the first days of NPIs (January 24, 2020). The average weekly admission rates of 220/week pre-COVID period and 147/week COVID-impacted period. There was an evident decrease in the volume of admissions for all disease spectra after the intervention, whereas the decrease of patients complaining about pathological jaundice-related conditions was statistically significant (p<0.05). In the COVID-impacted period, the percentage of patients who suffered from respiratory system diseases, neonatal encephalopathy, and infectious diseases decreased, while the percentage of pathological jaundice-related conditions and gastrointestinal system diseases increased. The neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) increased by 8.7% during the COVID-impacted period compared with the pre-COVID period. Conclusions In summary, there was a significant decline in neonatal admissions in a tertiary care hospital during the COVID-19 Pandemic and the associated NPIs. Additionally, this situation had a remarkable impact on disease spectra and health-seeking behavior of parents/caregivers. We, therefore, advise continuing follow-ups and monitoring the main health indicators in vulnerable populations affected by this Pandemic over time.

2022 ◽  
Binod Shrestha ◽  
Dan Green ◽  
Manish Baidya ◽  
Tim Chater ◽  
Jiban Karki ◽  

Abstract Background: Large inequalities in child health remain in Nepal, with caste, ethnicity and sex being major determinants of deprivation and negative outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore whether key demographics on under 5s were associated with health seeking behaviours, utilisation of health care, and treatment received.Methods: Data came from Integrated Management of Neonatal & Childhood Illness (IMNCI) records of 23 health centres across five districts. After digitising the paper records, district, ethnicity, sex, age and temperature of the child were used to predict the number of days taken to seek medical care for Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), diarrhoea and fever. In addition to this, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment of pneumonia was assessed against IMNCI guidelines, again using the demographic factors of interest to predict these outcomes.Results: From 116 register books spanning 23 health centres, 33,860 child patient records were considered for analysis. The median age of attendance was 16 months (Inter-Quartile Range= 9, 30), while there were more male children that attended (55.8% vs. 44.2% for females). There were statistically significant differences for the time taken to attend a health centre between different districts for ARI, diarrhoea and fever, with children in the remote Humla and Mugu districts taking significantly longer to present at a health facility after the onset of symptoms (all p<0.012). Children from underprivileged ethnic groups, Madhesi and Dalit, were less likely to be given a correct diagnosis of pneumonia (p=0.001), while males were more likely to receive a correct diagnosis than females (73% vs. 67%, p=0.001). This sex difference remained in the adjusted regression models for diagnosis of pneumonia (p=0.011) but not for treatment of pneumonia (p=0.202).Conclusions: Significant demographic differences were found based on ethnicity, sex, and district when examining health seeking behaviours for ARI, diarrhoea, and fever. Significant associations were seen for these same factors when exploring accuracy of diagnoses of pneumonia, but not for treatment. This study has emphasised the importance of a digitalised healthcare system, where inequalities can be identified without the reliance on anecdotal evidence.

2022 ◽  
Jacob Waxman ◽  
Maya Makov-Assif ◽  
Ben Reis ◽  
Doron Nezer ◽  
Ran Balicer ◽  

Abstract Introduction: With the COVID-19 pandemic ongoing, accurate assessment of population immunity and the effectiveness of booster and enhancer vaccines is critical. Methods We compare COVID-19-related hospitalization incidence rate ratios, adjusted for potential demographic, clinical and health-seeking-behavior confounders, in 2,412,755 individuals (235,552,274 person-days), across four exposures: 2 BNT162b2 doses, 5 or more months prior ("non-recent vaccine immunity"); 3 BNT162b2 doses (“boosted vaccine immunity”); previous COVID-19, with or without a subsequent BNT162b2 dose (“natural immunity” and “enhanced natural immunity” respectively). Results Compared with non-recent vaccine immunity, COVID-19-related hospitalization incidence rate ratios are 11% (9%-13%) for boosted vaccine immunity, 34% (23%-50%) for natural immunity and 25% (17%-39%) for enhanced natural immunity. Conclusion We demonstrate that natural immunity (enhanced or not) provides better protection against COVID-19-related hospitalization than non-recent vaccine immunity, but less protection than that attained from booster vaccination. Additionally, our results suggest that vaccinating individuals with natural immunity further enhances their protection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Lakshmi K. Josyula ◽  
Shrutika Murthy ◽  
Himabindu Karampudi ◽  
Surekha Garimella

This paper describes the lived experiences of health seeking, health care recourse, and well-being of women waste pickers, a highly marginalized sub-population in urban areas in India, highlighting the intersectionality of gender, socioeconomic and cultural contexts, and occupational hazards that they face, as studied by a research team engaged in participatory action research with waste workers in urban India. We note the impact of the superimposition of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the restrictions on movement and access to livelihoods, social support, and health care, and policies made and enforced in a fragmented manner, on the already deprived conditions of the waste pickers. We reflect on the women waste pickers' practices of health seeking, their access to health care, the provisions made for them and made use of by them, and the support they could tap in protecting and restoring their health. A range of these experiences is illustrated through three case studies. Finally, recommendations are made for better provision for women's health and well-being, and improved preparedness for emergency situations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. e007544
Megan Norris ◽  
Gonnie Klabbers ◽  
Andrea B Pembe ◽  
Claudia Hanson ◽  
Ulrika Baker ◽  

IntroductionNeonatal mortality rate (NMR) has been declining in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, where historically rural areas had higher NMR compared with urban. The 2015–2016 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Tanzania showed an exacerbation of an existing pattern with significantly higher NMR in urban areas. The objective of this study is to understand this disparity in SSA countries and examine the specific factors potentially underlying this association in Tanzania.MethodsWe assessed urban–rural NMR disparities among 21 SSA countries with four or more DHS, at least one of which was before 2000, using the DHS StatCompiler. For Tanzania DHS 2015–2016, descriptive statistics were carried out disaggregated by urban and rural areas, followed by bivariate and multivariable logistic regression modelling the association between urban/rural residence and neonatal mortality, adjusting for other risk factors.ResultsAmong 21 countries analysed, Tanzania was the only SSA country where urban NMR (38 per 1000 live births) was significantly higher than rural (20 per 1,000), with largest difference during first week of life. We analysed NMR on the 2015–2016 Tanzania DHS, including live births to 9736 women aged between 15 and 49 years. Several factors were significantly associated with higher NMR, including multiplicity of pregnancy, being the first child, higher maternal education, and male child sex. However, their inclusion did not attenuate the effect of urban–rural differences in NMR. In multivariable models, urban residence remained associated with double the odds of neonatal mortality compared with rural.ConclusionThere is an urgent need to understand the role of quality of facility-based care, including role of infections, and health-seeking behaviour in case of neonatal illness at home. However, additional factors might also be implicated and higher NMR within urban areas of Tanzania may signal a shift in the pattern of neonatal mortality across several other SSA countries.

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e054142

ObjectivesTo survey on the availability and use of primary care services in slum populations.DesignRetrospective, cross-sectional, household, individual and healthcare provider surveys.SettingSeven slum sites in four countries (Nigeria, Kenya, Pakistan and Bangladesh).ParticipantsResidents of slums and informal settlements.Primary and secondary outcome measuresPrimary care consultation rates by type of provider and facility.ResultsWe completed 7692 household, 7451 individual adult and 2633 individual child surveys across seven sites. The majority of consultations were to doctors/nurses (in clinics or hospitals) and pharmacies rather than single-handed providers or traditional healers. Consultation rates with a doctor or nurse varied from 0.2 to 1.5 visits per person-year, which was higher than visit rates to any other type of provider in all sites except Bangladesh, where pharmacies predominated. Approximately half the doctor/nurse visits were in hospital outpatient departments and most of the remainder were to clinics. Over 90% of visits across all sites were for acute symptoms rather than chronic disease. Median travel times were between 15 and 45 min and the median cost per visit was between 2% and 10% of a household’s monthly total expenditure. Medicines comprised most of the cost. More respondents reported proximity (54%–78%) and service quality (31%–95%) being a reason for choosing a provider than fees (23%–43%). Demand was relatively inelastic with respect to both price of consultation and travel time.ConclusionsPeople in slums tend to live sufficiently close to formal doctor/nurse facilities for their health-seeking behaviour to be influenced by preference for provider type over distance and cost. However, costs, especially for medicines are high in relation to income and use rates remain significantly below those of high-income countries.

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