glioma stem cells
Recently Published Documents





Oncotarget ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (26) ◽  
pp. 2546-2547
Shlomit Brodie ◽  
Hae Kyung Lee ◽  
Wei Jiang ◽  
Simona Cazacu ◽  
Cunli Xiang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Borja Sese ◽  
Sandra Iniguez ◽  
Miquel Arash Ensenat ◽  
Pere Llinas ◽  
Guillem Ramis ◽  

Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are a subset of cells with self-renewal and tumor-initiating capacities that are thought to participate in drug resistance and immune evasion mechanisms in glioblastoma (GBM). Given GBM heterogeneity, we hypothesized that GSCs might also display cellular hierarchies associated with different degrees of stemness. We evaluated a single-cell RNA-seq glioblastoma dataset (n = 28) and identified a stem cell population co-expressing high levels of embryonic pluripotency markers, named core glioma stem cells (c-GSCs). This embryonic-like population represents 4.22% of the tumor cell mass, and pathway analysis revealed an upregulation of stemness and downregulation of immune-associated pathways. Using induced pluripotent stem cell technology, we generated an in vitro model of c-GSCs by reprogramming glioblastoma patient-derived cells into induced c-GSCs (ic-GSCs). Immunostaining of ic-GSCs showed high expression of embryonic pluripotency markers and downregulation of antigen presentation HLA proteins, mimicking its tumoral counterpart. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a strong agreement of enriched biological pathways between tumor c-GSCs and in vitro ic-GSCs (k = 0.71). Integration of ic-GSC DNA methylation and gene expression with chromatin state analysis of epigenomic maps (n = 833) indicated that polycomb repressive marks downregulate HLA genes in stem-like phenotype. Together, we identified c-GSCs as a GBM cell population with embryonic signatures and poor immunogenicity. Genome-scale transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling provide a valuable resource for studying immune evasion mechanisms governing c-GSCs and identifying potential therapeutic targets for GBM immunotherapy.

EBioMedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 103752
Sara G. Pelaz ◽  
Myriam Jaraíz-Rodríguez ◽  
Andrea Álvarez-Vázquez ◽  
Rocío Talaverón ◽  
Laura García-Vicente ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi3-vi3
Satoru Osuka ◽  
Dan Zhu ◽  
Zhaobin Zhang ◽  
Chaoxi Li ◽  
Christian T Stackhouse ◽  

Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is composed of a variety of tumor cell populations including those with stem cell properties, known as glioma stem cells (GSCs). GSCs are innately less sensitive to radiation than the tumor bulk and are believed to drive GBM formation and recurrence following repeated irradiation. However, it is unclear how GSCs adapt to avoid the toxicity of repeated irradiation used in clinical practice. We established radioresistant human and mouse GSCs by exposing them to repeated rounds of irradiation in order to uncover critical mediators of adaptive radioresistance. Surviving subpopulations acquired strong radioresistance in vivo, which was accompanied by increased cell-cell adhesion, slower proliferation, an elevation of stemness properties and N-cadherin expression. Increasing N-cadherin expression rendered parental GSCs radioresistant, reduced their proliferation, and increased their stemness and intercellular adhesive properties. Conversely, radioresistant GSCs reduced their acquired phenotypes upon CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of N-cadherin. Mechanistically, elevated N-cadherin expression resulted in the accumulation of β-catenin at the cell surface, which decreased Wnt/ β-catenin proliferative signaling, reduced neural differentiation, and protected against apoptosis through Clusterin secretion. Restoration of wild type N-cadherin, but not mutant N-cad lacking β-catenin binding region, led to increased radioresistance in N-cadherin knockout GSCs, indicating the importance of the binding between N-cadherin and β-catenin. We also demonstrated that N-cadherin upregulation was induced by radiation-induced IGF1 secretion, and the radiation resistance phenotype can be reversed with picropodophyllin (PPP), a clinically applicable blood-brain-barrier permeable IGF1 receptor inhibitor, supporting clinical translation. Moreover, the elevation of N-cad and Clusterin are related to prognosis of GBM in the TCGA dataset. In conclusion, our data indicate that IGF1R inhibitor can block the N-cadherin-mediated resistance pathway. Our research provides a deeper understanding of adaptive radioresistance after repeated irradiation, and validates the IGF1/N-cadherin/β-catenin/Clusterin signaling axis as a novel target for radio-sensitization, which has direct therapeutic applicability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Jianfeng Li ◽  
Silvia Garavaglia ◽  
Zhaofeng Ye ◽  
Andrea Moretti ◽  
Olga V. Belyaeva ◽  

AbstractElevated aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity correlates with poor outcome for many solid tumors as ALDHs may regulate cell proliferation and chemoresistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Accordingly, potent, and selective inhibitors of key ALDH enzymes may represent a novel CSC-directed treatment paradigm for ALDH+ cancer types. Of the many ALDH isoforms, we and others have implicated the elevated expression of ALDH1A3 in mesenchymal glioma stem cells (MES GSCs) as a target for the development of novel therapeutics. To this end, our structure of human ALDH1A3 combined with in silico modeling identifies a selective, active-site inhibitor of ALDH1A3. The lead compound, MCI-INI-3, is a selective competitive inhibitor of human ALDH1A3 and shows poor inhibitory effect on the structurally related isoform ALDH1A1. Mass spectrometry-based cellular thermal shift analysis reveals that ALDH1A3 is the primary binding protein for MCI-INI-3 in MES GSC lysates. The inhibitory effect of MCI-INI-3 on retinoic acid biosynthesis is comparable with that of ALDH1A3 knockout, suggesting that effective inhibition of ALDH1A3 is achieved with MCI-INI-3. Further development is warranted to characterize the role of ALDH1A3 and retinoic acid biosynthesis in glioma stem cell growth and differentiation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi25-vi25
Costanza Lo Cascio ◽  
James McNamara ◽  
Ernesto Luna Melendez ◽  
Erika Lewis ◽  
Matthew Dufault ◽  

Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by an aberrant yet druggable epigenetic landscape. One major family of epigenetic regulators, the Histone Deacetylases (HDACs), are considered promising therapeutic targets for GBM due to their repressive influences on transcription. Although HDACs share redundant functions and common substrates, the unique isoform-specific roles of different HDACs in GBM remain unclear. There is a temporal and cell-type specific requirement of HDAC1 and 2 during normal brain development, with HDAC2 being indispensable in neural stem cells. Here, we specifically investigated the functional importance of HDAC1 in glioma stem cells, an HDAC isoform whose expression increases with brain tumor grade and is correlated with decreased survival. Using cell-based and biochemical assays, transcriptomic analyses and patient-derived xenograft models, we report that knockdown of HDAC1 alone has profound effects on the glioma stem cell (GSC) phenotype and survival in a p53-dependent manner. HDAC1 is the essential class I deacetylase in glioma stem cells, and its loss is not compensated for by its paralogue HDAC2 or other HDACs. Loss of HDAC1 expression significantly suppresses viability of GSCs harboring functional p53, and that HDAC2 expression is completely dispensable in GSCs. In addition, HDAC1 silencing but not HDAC2, stabilizes and acetylates p53 in GSCs, resulting in upregulation of key p53 target genes and induction of programmed cell death. Furthermore, ablation of HDAC1 function alone results in histone hyperacetylation and a collapse of the stemness state in GSCs. We demonstrate significant suppression in tumor growth upon targeting of HDAC1 and identify compensatory pathways that provide insights into combination therapies for GBM. Our study highlights the importance of HDAC1 in GBM and the need to develop isoform-specific HDAC inhibitor drugs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi37-vi37
Amber Kerstetter-Fogle ◽  
Peggy Harris ◽  
Harry Hoffman ◽  
Anthony Sloan ◽  
Theresa Elder ◽  

Abstract INTRODUCTION Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors. Their rapid growth and invasion into neuronal parenchyma is devastating, with limited treatment options. Genomic alterations have been extensively studied in gliomas tumors, including aberrations of the Slit-Robo pathway genes. The Slit family of secreted proteins modulates migration of somatic cells during development and mediate their effect by binding to its receptor Roundabout (Robo). Genes in the Slit-Robo pathways have been shown to be inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in a number of human cancers. We hypothesize that Slit-Robo signaling pathways are modulated via promotor methylation, controlling GBM malignancy and regulating the invasive capacity of glioma stem cells (GSCs). METHODS We characterized expression of mRNA and protein via real-time PCR and Western blots in primary GBM tissue. We then assessed whether epigenetic alterations correlate with Slit-Robo expression by conducting in vitro demethylation assays in patient derived GSCs followed by real-time PCR. We conducted invasion assays to elucidate the role of Slit in GSC invasion. RESULTS The Cancer Genome Atlas indicates a negative correlation between Robo2 expression and glioma patient survival (17.1 months versus 37.4 months; p < 1.4E-4). We discovered differential expression of the Slit (1-3) and Robo (2, 3) genes and protein of up to 8-fold between grades 3 and 4 astrocytomas (8.34 versus 4.73 density). Treating patient derived glioma stem cells with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine results in induction in Slit-Robo gene expression ranging from 5 – 40-fold (p < 0.01). Addition of Slit 2 and 3 in an invasion assay induced migration of GSCs in a differential and concentration dependent manner of 10 - 25% (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that promoter methylation and gene expression of the Slit-Robo genes correlates with protein expression, tumor invasiveness, and prognosis and a potential therapeutic target.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Xinning Li ◽  
Zheng Zou ◽  
Enlong Ma ◽  
Sizhe Feng ◽  
Song Han

The glioma stem cells (GSCs) performed the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation characteristics; their drug resistance has become the main reason for glioma clinical treatment failure. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an important inducer of cell differentiation, applied in the treatment of hematologic diseases and other solid tumors. ATRA is a fat-soluble compound, which can easily go through the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, in this study, ATRA was used to induce the differentiation of glioma cells and glioma stem cells, reducing the degree of malignancy and improving its chemotherapy resistance. Methods and Treatment. The results of IF and PCR showed that the expression of CD133 was significantly lower than those of undifferentiated cells. Furthermore, temozolomide (TMZ) and cisplatin (CDDP), the first-line drugs, were used for the treatment of GCs and GSCs. The MTT assay results showed that the effect of the combination of the two drugs was significantly stronger than that of one of them alone. Results. Moreover, the MTT assay also demonstrated that TMZ single, CDDP single, and the combination of TMZ and CDDP can inhibit the proliferation of GCs, ATRA-GCs, GSCs, and ATRA-GSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner; and ATRA-induced differentiation could promote those drugs inhibition effect and increased the chemotherapy sensitivity. Conclusion. Therefore, we successfully purified the suspension spherical glioma stem cells. Moreover, ATRA was demonstrated to induce the differentiation of GCs and GSCs. Furthermore, ATRA-induced differentiation promotes the inhibitive effect of TMZ and CCDP treatment on the proliferation of primary human glioma cells and glioma stem cells, suggesting that ATRA could increase the chemotherapy sensitivity of TMZ and CCDP through inducing cell differentiation. The combination of TMZ and CCDP performed a synergistic role in inhibiting the proliferation of GCs and GSCs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11633
Masashi Okada ◽  
Shuhei Suzuki ◽  
Keita Togashi ◽  
Asuka Sugai ◽  
Masahiro Yamamoto ◽  

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the deadliest of all human cancers. Developing therapies targeting GBM cancer stem cells or glioma stem cells (GSCs), which are deemed responsible for the malignancy of GBM due to their therapy resistance and tumor-initiating capacity, is considered key to improving the dismal prognosis of GBM patients. In this study, we found that folate antagonists, such as methotrexate (MTX) and pemetrexed, are selectively cytotoxic to GSCs, but not to their differentiated counterparts, normal fibroblasts, or neural stem cells in vitro, and that the high sensitivity of GCSs to anti-folates may be due to the increased expression of RFC-1/SLC19A1, the reduced folate carrier that transports MTX into cells, in GSCs. Of note, in an in vivo serial transplantation model, MTX alone failed to exhibit anti-GSC effects but promoted the anti-GSC effects of CEP1347, an inducer of GSC differentiation. This suggests that folate metabolism, which plays an essential role specifically in GSCs, is a promising target of anti-GSC therapy, and that the combination of cytotoxic and differentiation therapies may be a novel and promising approach to effectively eliminate cancer stem cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 1417-1445
Milena Stevanovic ◽  
Natasa Kovacevic-Grujicic ◽  
Marija Mojsin ◽  
Milena Milivojevic ◽  
Danijela Drakulic

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document