retinoic acid
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261675
Afroza Ferdouse ◽  
Rishi R. Agrawal ◽  
Madeleine A. Gao ◽  
Hongfeng Jiang ◽  
William S. Blaner ◽  

Chronic alcohol consumption leads to a spectrum of liver disease that is associated with significant global mortality and morbidity. Alcohol is known to deplete hepatic vitamin A content, which has been linked to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. It has been suggested that induction of Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) contributes to alcohol-induced hepatic vitamin A depletion, but the possible contributions of other retinoid-catabolizing CYPs have not been well studied. The main objective of this study was to better understand alcohol-induced hepatic vitamin A depletion and test the hypothesis that alcohol-induced depletion of hepatic vitamin A is due to CYP-mediated oxidative catabolism. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, including wild type and Cyp2e1 -/- mice. Our results show that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with decreased levels of hepatic retinol, retinyl esters, and retinoic acid. Moreover, the depletion of hepatic retinoid is associated with the induction of multiple retinoid catabolizing CYPs, including CYP26A1, and CYP26B1 in alcohol fed wild type mice. In Cyp2e1 -/- mice, alcohol-induced retinol decline is blunted but retinyl esters undergo a change in their acyl composition and decline upon alcohol exposure like WT mice. In conclusion, the alcohol induced decline in hepatic vitamin A content is associated with increased expression of multiple retinoid-catabolizing CYPs, including the retinoic acid specific hydroxylases CYP26A1 and CYP26B1.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 480
Ziad Omran

Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1a1 (ALDH1a1), the enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinal into retinoic acid, represents a key therapeutic target for the treatment of debilitating disorders such as cancer, obesity, and inflammation. Drugs that can inhibit ALDH1a1 include disulfiram, an FDA-approved drug to treat chronic alcoholism. Disulfiram, by carbamylation of the catalytic cysteines, irreversibly inhibits ALDH1a1 and ALDH2. The latter is the isozyme responsible for important physiological processes such as the second stage of alcohol metabolism. Given the fact that ALDH1a1 has a larger substrate tunnel than that in ALDH2, replacing disulfiram ethyl groups with larger motifs will yield selective ALDH1a1 inhibitors. We report herein the synthesis of new inhibitors of ALDH1a1 where (hetero)aromatic rings were introduced into the structure of disulfiram. Most of the developed compounds retained the anti-ALDH1a1 activity of disulfiram; however, they were completely devoid of inhibitory activity against ALDH2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (716) ◽  
Annalisa M. VanHook

Commensal-derived retinoic acid protects mice against infection by priming the innate defenses of intestinal epithelial cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Gabriel M. Hauswirth ◽  
Victoria C. Garside ◽  
Lisa S. F. Wong ◽  
Heidi Bildsoe ◽  
Jan Manent ◽  

AbstractThe vertebral column of individual mammalian species often exhibits remarkable robustness in the number and identity of vertebral elements that form (known as axial formulae). The genetic mechanism(s) underlying this constraint however remain ill-defined. Here, we reveal the interplay of three regulatory pathways (Gdf11, miR-196 and Retinoic acid) is essential in constraining total vertebral number and regional axial identity in the mouse, from cervical through to tail vertebrae. All three pathways have differing control over Hox cluster expression, with heterochronic and quantitative changes found to parallel changes in axial identity. However, our work reveals an additional role for Hox genes in supporting axial elongation within the tail region, providing important support for an emerging view that mammalian Hox function is not limited to imparting positional identity as the mammalian body plan is laid down. More broadly, this work provides a molecular framework to interrogate mechanisms of evolutionary change and congenital anomalies of the vertebral column.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002203452110620
Y. Wu ◽  
H. Kurosaka ◽  
Q. Wang ◽  
T. Inubushi ◽  
K. Nakatsugawa ◽  

Embryonic craniofacial development depends on the coordinated outgrowth and fusion of multiple facial primordia, which are populated with cranial neural crest cells and covered by the facial ectoderm. Any disturbance in these developmental events, their progenitor tissues, or signaling pathways can result in craniofacial deformities such as orofacial clefts, which are among the most common birth defects in humans. In the present study, we show that Rdh10 loss of function leads to a substantial reduction in retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the developing frontonasal process during early embryogenesis, which results in a variety of craniofacial anomalies, including midfacial cleft and ectopic chondrogenic nodules. Elevated apoptosis and perturbed cell proliferation in postmigratory cranial neural crest cells and a substantial reduction in Alx1 and Alx3 transcription in the developing frontonasal process were associated with midfacial cleft in Rdh10-deficient mice. More important, expanded Shh signaling in the ventral forebrain, as well as partial abrogation of midfacial defects in Rdh10 mutants via inhibition of Hh signaling, indicates that misregulation of Shh signaling underlies the pathogenesis of reduced RA signaling-associated midfacial defects. Taken together, these data illustrate the precise spatiotemporal function of Rdh10 and RA signaling during early embryogenesis and their importance in orchestrating molecular and cellular events essential for normal midfacial development.

2022 ◽  
Anna A. Brozyna ◽  
Michał A. Żmijewski ◽  
Kinga Linowiecka ◽  
Tae‐Kang Kim ◽  
Radomir M. Slominski ◽  

2022 ◽  
Rosevalentine Bosire ◽  
Lina Fadel ◽  
Gábor Mocsár ◽  
Péter Nánási ◽  
Pialy Sen ◽  

Abstract Doxorubicin (Dox), a widely used anticancer DNA-binding drug, affects chromatin in multiple ways, and these effects contribute to both its efficacy and dose-limiting side-effects, especially cardiotoxicity. Here we studied the Dox effects on the chromatin binding of the architectural proteins high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) and the linker histone H1, and the transcription factor retinoic acid receptor (RARα) by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), in live cells. At lower drug concentrations, Dox increased the binding of HMGB1 to DNA while decreasing the binding of the linker histone H1. At higher doses that correspond to the peak plasma concentrations reached in chemotherapy, Dox reduced the binding of HMGB1 as well. This biphasic effect is interpreted in terms of a hierarchy of competition between the ligands involved and Dox-induced local conformational changes of nucleosome-free DNA. When combined, FRAP and FCS mobility data suggest that Dox decreases the overall binding of RARα to DNA, an effect that was only partially overcome by agonist binding. The intertwined interactions described likely contribute to the effects as well as side-effects of Dox.

2022 ◽  
Mathilde Poplineau ◽  
Nadine Platet ◽  
Adrien Mazuel ◽  
Leonard Herault ◽  
Shuhei Koide ◽  

Cancer relapse is caused by a subset of malignant cells that are resistant to treatment. To characterize resistant cells and their vulnerabilities, we studied the retinoic acid (RA)-resistant PLZF-RARA acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) using single-cell multi-omics. We uncovered transcriptional and chromatin heterogeneity in leukemia cells and identified a subset of cells resistant to RA that depend on a fine-tuned transcriptional network targeting the epigenetic regulator Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2). Epigenomic and functional analyses validated EZH2 selective dependency of PLZF-RARA leukemia and its driver role in RA resistance. Targeting pan-EZH2 activities (canonical/non-canonical) was necessary to eliminate leukemia relapse initiating cells, which underlies a dependency of resistant cells on an EZH2 non-canonical activity and the necessity to degrade EZH2 to overcome resistance. Our study provides critical insights into the mechanisms of RA resistance that allow us to eliminate treatment-resistant leukemia cells by targeting EZH2, thus highlighting a potential targeted therapy approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xiaopeng Hu ◽  
Hu Wang ◽  
Geng. G. Tian ◽  
Changliang Hou ◽  
Bo Xu ◽  

Abstract Background During male meiosis, the Y chromosome can form perfect pairing with the X chromosome. However, it is unclear whether mammalian Female germline stem cells (FGSCs) without a Y chromosome can transdifferentiate into functional haploid spermatid-like cells (SLCs). Results We found that spermatogenesis was restarted by transplanting FGSCs into Kitw/wv mutant testes. Complete meiosis and formation of SLCs was induced in vitro by testicular cells of Kitw/wv mutant mice, cytokines and retinoic acid. Healthy offspring were produced by sperm and SLCs derived from the in vivo and in vitro transdifferentiation of FGSCs, respectively. Furthermore, high-throughput chromosome conformation capture sequencing(Hi-C-seq) and “bivalent” (H3K4me3-H3K27me3) micro chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (μChIP-seq) experiments showed that stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (STRA8)/protamine 1 (PRM1)-positive transdifferentiated germ cells (tGCs) and male germ cells (mGCs) display similar chromatin dynamics and chromatin condensation during in vitro spermatogenesis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that sperm can be produced from FGSCs without a Y chromosome. This suggests a strategy for dairy cattle breeding to produce only female offspring with a high-quality genetic background.

2022 ◽  
Tali Abbou ◽  
Liat Bendelac-Kapon ◽  
Audeliah Sebag ◽  
Abraham Fainsod

Retinoic acid (RA) is a major regulatory signal during embryogenesis produced from vitamin A (retinol) by an extensive, autoregulating metabolic and signaling network to prevent fluctuations that result in developmental malformations. Xenopus laevis is an allotetraploid hybrid frog species whose genome includes L (long) and S (short) chromosomes from the originating species. Evolutionarily, the X. laevis subgenomes have been losing either L or S homoeologs in about 43% of genes to generate singletons. In the RA network, out of the 47 genes, about 46% have lost one of the homoeologs, like the genome average. In contrast, RA metabolism genes from storage (retinyl esters) to retinaldehyde production exhibit enhanced gene loss with 75% singletons out of 28 genes. The effect of this gene loss on RA signaling autoregulation was studied. Employing transient RA manipulations, homoeolog gene pairs were identified in which one homeolog exhibits enhanced responses or looser regulation than the other, while in other pairs both homoeologs exhibit similar RA responses. CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of individual homoeologs to reduce their activity supports the hypothesis where the RA metabolic network gene loss results in tighter network regulation and more efficient RA robustness responses to overcome complex regulation conditions.

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