Hydrological cycle is sensitively affected by climatic variation and human activity. Taking the upper- and middle-stream of the Weihe River in western China as an example, using multiple meteorological and hydrological elements, as well as land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) data, we constructed a sensitivity model of runoff to climatic elements and human activities based on the hydro-thermal coupling equilibrium equation, while a cumulative slope was used to establish a comprehensive estimation model for the contributions of climatic variation and human activities to the changes of runoff. The results showed that the above function model established could be well applied to quantitatively study the elasticity of runoff’s response to climatic variation and human activities. It was found that the annual average precipitation, evaporation, wind velocity, sunshine hours, relative humidity and runoff showed decreasing trends and that temperature increased. While in the hydrological cycle, precipitation and relative humidity had a non-linear positive driving effect on runoff, while temperature, evaporation, sunshine hours, wind velocity, and land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) have non-linearly negatively driven the variation of runoff. Moreover, runoff has a strong sensitive response to precipitation, evaporation and LUCC. In areas with strong human activities, the sensitivity of runoff to climatic change was decreasing, and runoff has a greater elastic response to underlying surface parameters. In addition, the analysis showed that the abrupt years of climate and runoff changes in the Weihe River Basin were 1970, 1985 and 1993. Before 1985, the contribution rate of climatic variation to runoff was 68.3%, being greater than that of human activities to runoff, and then the contribution rates of human activities to runoff reached 75.1%. The impact of natural climate on runoff was weakened, and the effect of human activities on runoff reduction increased. Under 30 hypothetical climatic scenarios, the evaluation of runoff in the future showed that the runoff in the Weihe River Basin will be greatly reduced, and the reduction will be more significant during the flood season. Comparing the geographically fragile environments and intense human activities, it was believed that climatic variation had a dramatic effect on driving the water cycle of precipitation and evaporation and affected regional water balance and water distribution, while human activities had driven the hydrological processes of the underlying surface, thus becoming the main factors in the reduction of runoff. This study provided scientific tools for regional climate change and water resources assessment.
A major challenge of prospective cohort studies is attrition in follow-up surveys. This study investigated attrition in a prospective cohort comprised of medical graduates in China. We described status of attrition, identified participants with higher possibility of attrition, and examined if attrition affect the estimation of the key outcome measures.
The cohort study recruited 3,620 new medical graduates from four medical universities in central and western China between 2015 and 2019. Online follow-up surveys were conducted on an annual basis. Follow-up status was defined as complete (meaning that the participant completed all the follow-up surveys) and incomplete, while incomplete follow-up was further divided into ‘always-out’, ‘rejoin’ and ‘other’. Multivariable logistic and linear regressions were used to examine factors predicting attrition and the influence on the outcome measures of career development.
2364 (65.3%) participants completed all follow-up surveys. For those with incomplete follow-up, 520 (14.4%) were ‘always-out’, 276 (7.6%) rejoined in the 2020 survey. Willingness to participate in residency training (OR=0.80, 95%CI[0.66 - 0.98]) and willingness to provide sensitive information in the baseline survey predicted a lower rate of attrition (providing scores for university entrance exam OR=0.82, 95%CI[0.69 - 0.97]]; providing contact information (OR=0.46, 95%CI[0.32 - 0.66]); providing household income (OR=0.60, 95%CI[0.43 - 0.84]). Participants with compulsory rural service (OR=1.52, 95%CI[1.05 - 2.19]) and those providing university entrance scores (OR=1.64, 95%CI[1.15-2.33)) were more likely to rejoin in the follow-up survey. These factors associated with follow-up status did not have significant impact on key outcome measures of career development.
Graduates who were unwilling to participate in residency training or not providing sensitive information should be targeted early in the cohort study to reduce attrition. More information about the study should be provided to those graduates early to facilitate their understanding of the meaning in participation. On the contrary, medical graduates with compulsory rural service and those who provided university entrance scores were more likely to rejoin in the cohort. The research team should invest more effort in contacting those graduates and returned them to the cohort.
Kunteyi Salt Lake (KSL), located in the northwest of the Qaidam Basin (QB), is rich in polyhalite resources. However, there is no relevant research on the ore-formed temperature of polyhalite in nature, such as KSL. The homogenization temperature (
) of salt mineral inclusions can directly reveal the form temperature of minerals. In view of the poor diagenesis of polyhalite in KSL, almost no polyhalite crystals are formed. Therefore, the ore-formed temperature of polyhalite in KSL is revealed by using the
of fluid inclusions in halite associated with polyhalite as a substitute index. A total of 472
data from 34 halite samples and 34 maximum homogenization temperature (
) data ranged from 17.1°C to 35.5°C, among which 24 data were concentrated at 17-23°C and the average value is 22.1°C. Brine temperature of other salt lakes in QB and paleoclimate characteristics of the study area were combined. It suggests that the temperature conditions of polyhalite mineralization in the study area are generally low. However, under the overall low-temperature background, polyhalite seems to be easily enriched at relatively high temperature; for example, the content of polyhalite is generally high in the first relatively dry and hot salt-forming period, and the brine temperature at the peak stage of polyhalite at 45 m is relatively high, which indicates that the high temperature conditions promote the formation of polyhalite in KSL. As far as the overall relationship between temperature and polyhalite is concerned, polyhalite is deposited at both low temperature and relatively high temperature, which verifies the previous understanding that polyhalite is a mineral with wide temperature phase, and also shows that temperature has a limited effect on polyhalite formation under natural conditions. In addition, combined with the chemical composition of halite fluid inclusions, it is found that the concentration of Mg2+ in nature has an influence on the temperature measurement process. According to the previous experimental research, speculate that the actual temperature of ancient brine and ore-formed temperature of polyhalite in KSL are lower than the measured
. The confirmation of the influence of Mg2+ on temperature measurement is convenient for more accurate reconstruction of the metallogenic temperature of evaporite such as polyhalite. The research on the ore-formed temperature of KSL polyhalite enriches and perfects the polyhalite mineralization theory and provides theoretical basis for the basic and applied research of polyhalite.
Background: Lung cancer is the leading source of cancer-caused disability-adjusted life years. Medical cost burden impacts the well-being of patients through reducing income, cutting daily expenses, curtailing leisure activities, and depleting exhausting savings. The COmprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (COST) was created and validated by De Souza and colleagues. Our study intends to measure the financial burdens of cancer therapy and investigate the link between financial toxicity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in an advanced lung cancer population.Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with confirmed stage III to IV lung cancer were eligible. The COST questionnaire verified by de Souza et al. was used to identify financial toxicity. Multivariable linear regression analysis with log transformation univariate analysis and Pearson correlations were used to perform the analysis.Results: The majority of the patients (90.8%, n = 138/152) had an annual income of $50,000 ($7,775). The cohort's insurance situation was as follows: 64.5% of the cohort had social insurance, 20.4% had commercial insurance, and 22.0% had both. Patients who were younger age (50–59, P < 0.001), employed but on sick leave, and had lower income reported increased levels of financial toxicity (P < 0.05). The risk factors for high financial toxicity: (i) younger age (50–59), (ii) <1 month of savings, and (iii) being employed but on sick leave. Increased financial toxicity is moderately correlated with a decrease in QoL.Conclusion: Poorer psychological status and specific demographics are linked to increased financial toxicity (lower COST). Financial toxicity has a modest relationship with HRQoL and may have a clear link with HRQoL measurements.
The shifts in dry-wet climate regions are a natural response to climate change and have a profound impact on the regional agriculture and ecosystems. In this paper, we divided China into four dry-wet climate regions, i.e., arid, semi-arid, semi-humid, and humid regions, based on the humidity index (HI). A comparison of the two 30-year periods, i.e., 1960–1989 and 1990–2019, revealed that there was a shift in climate type in each dry-wet climate region, with six newly formed transitions, and the total area of the shifts to wetter conditions was more than two times larger than that of the shifts to drier conditions. Interestingly, the shifts to drier types were basically distributed in the monsoon region (east of 100∘ E) and especially concentrated in the North China Plain where agricultural development relies heavily on irrigation, which would increase the challenges in dealing with water shortage and food production security under a warming climate. The transitions to wetter types were mainly distributed in western China (west of 100∘ E), and most areas of the Junggar Basin have changed from arid to semi-arid region, which should benefit the local agricultural production and ecological environment to some extent. Based on a contribution analysis method, we further quantified the impacts of each climate factor on HI changes. Our results demonstrated that the dominant factor controlling HI changes in the six newly formed transition regions was P, followed by air temperature (Ta). In the non-transition zones of the arid and semi-arid regions, an increase in P dominated the increase of HI. However, in the non-transition zones of the semi-humid and humid region with a more humid background climate, the thermal factors (e.g., Ta, and net radiation (Rn)) contributed more than or equivalent to the contribution of P to HI change. These findings can provide scientific reference for water resources management and sustainable agricultural development in the context of climate change.
This paper investigates the relationship between technological finance, high-quality economic growth, and financial stability. Based on data of 30 provinces (including autonomous regions and municipalities) collected between 2004 and 2017, this paper adopts the method of factor analysis to construct comprehensive indexes of technological finance and financial stability before calculating green total factor productivity as the index of high-quality development, using the CRS Multiplicative Model. Then it constructs the spatial SAC model and PVAR model for analyses of the just-mentioned relationship based on the total sample of the nation and regional samples in eastern, middle, and western China, respectively. The results reveal that (1) All samples, whether the total national samples or regional samples of eastern, middle, and western China demonstrate the positive influence of technological finance on high-quality economic development, with an obvious spatial spillover effect. The impact factor is the highest in the eastern region, while the western region holds the lowest factor among the three. (2) Judging by the general national sample, technological finance has an obvious negative shock effect on financial stability within a short period, but the effect gradually dwindles as time goes by. This rule applies to the sample of the eastern region, as its technological finance poses a short-time negative shock effect on financial stability, before gradually diminishing to 0. Neither western nor middle regions have displayed an obvious shock impact on financial stability.
As an essential load of the concrete dam, the abnormal change of uplift pressure directly threatens the safety and stability of the concrete dam. Therefore, it is of great significance to accurately and efficiently excavate the hidden information of the uplift pressure monitoring data to clarify the safety state of the concrete dam. Therefore, in this paper, density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) method is used to intelligently identify the abnormal occurrence point and abnormal stable stage in the monitoring data. Then, an application method of measured uplift pressure is put forward to accurately reflect the spatial distribution and abnormal position of uplift pressure in the dam foundation. It is easy to calculate and connect with the finite element method through self-written software. Finally, the measured uplift pressure is applied to the finite element model of the concrete dam. By comparing the structural behavior of the concrete dam under the design and measured uplift pressure, the influence of abnormal uplift pressure on the safety state of the concrete dam is clarified, which can guide the project operation. Taking a 98.5 m concrete arch dam in western China as an example, the above analysis ideas and calculation methods have been verified. The abnormal identification method and uplift pressure applying method can provide ideas and tools for the structural diagnosis of a concrete dam.
Our field surveys and specimen examination of Carex from southern to south-western regions in China resulted in the discovery of five new species and one new variety, which are here named as Carex brevihispida X.F.Jin & Y.F.Lu (in sect. Surculosae), C. puberuliutriculata Y.F.Lu & X.F.Jin (sect. Clandestinae), C. paratatsiensis Y.F.Lu & X.F.Jin (sect. Aulocystis), C. huanjiangensis S.Yun Liang ex Y.F.Lu & X.F.Jin (sect. Decorae), C. liangiana X.F.Jin & Y.F.Lu and C. thibetica Franch. var. angustifolia X.F.Jin & Y.F.Lu (sect. Rhomboidales).
The genus Andropromachus (Lonchodidae: Necrosciinae: Necrosciini) is a small genus of stick insects including four species with a distribution in northern Vietnam and south-western China.
A new species of stick insects Andropromachus gulinqingensis sp. n. is described from Yunnan Province of China. Diagnostic characters of the new species are illustrated and an identification key to male and female Andropromachus is provided along with a checklist for all described species.