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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 1041-1049
Mao-Guang Yang ◽  
Han-Qing Cai ◽  
Si-Si Wang ◽  
Lin Liu ◽  
Chun-Mei Wang

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Kona Chowdhury ◽  
Mainul Haque ◽  
Nadia Nusrat ◽  
Nihad Adnan ◽  
Salequl Islam ◽  

There is an increasing focus on researching children admitted to hospital with new variants of COVID-19, combined with concerns with hyperinflammatory syndromes and the overuse of antimicrobials. Paediatric guidelines have been produced in Bangladesh to improve their care. Consequently, the objective is to document the management of children with COVID-19 among 24 hospitals in Bangladesh. Key outcome measures included the percentage prescribed different antimicrobials, adherence to paediatric guidelines and mortality rates using purposely developed report forms. The majority of 146 admitted children were aged 5 years or under (62.3%) and were boys (58.9%). Reasons for admission included fever, respiratory distress and coughing; 86.3% were prescribed antibiotics, typically parenterally, on the WHO ‘Watch’ list, and empirically (98.4%). There were no differences in antibiotic use whether hospitals followed paediatric guidance or not. There was no prescribing of antimalarials and limited prescribing of antivirals (5.5% of children) and antiparasitic medicines (0.7%). The majority of children (92.5%) made a full recovery. It was encouraging to see the low hospitalisation rates and limited use of antimalarials, antivirals and antiparasitic medicines. However, the high empiric use of antibiotics, alongside limited switching to oral formulations, is a concern that can be addressed by instigating the appropriate programmes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Brittany Miles ◽  
Muhammad Mujtaba ◽  
Shehzad Merwat ◽  
Rupak Kulkarni ◽  
Jeffrey Fair ◽  

Seizures after liver transplantation were previously thought to be a reliable harbinger of catastrophe, but more recent studies have found seizure activity to be relatively common, and most cases do not result in a poor outcome. Generalized seizures are the most common, and they typically occur de novo within the first two weeks after transplantation. The underlying cause for seizure activity in these patients may be complex, with potential etiologies including metabolic, infectious, cerebrovascular, and medication-induced causes. Identification of the underlying cause and the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is crucial for minimizing risk to the patient’s neurologic and overall health. In this report, we present the case of a patient with refractory seizures unresponsive to conventional treatment, requiring prolonged barbiturate burst suppression with ventilator support. Seizure activity eventually ceased, and the patient made a full recovery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 63-67
A. V. Klimkin ◽  
M. R. Mamatkhanov ◽  
N. V. Marchenko ◽  
E. Yu. Gorelik ◽  
M. A. Bedova

This article presents an observation of an intraneural cyst of the peroneal nerve in a 16-year-old boy after a knee injury. Surgical treatment of an intraneural cyst of the peroneal nerve was performed 9 months after the appearance of peroneal nerve neuropathy. One month after the operation, the peroneal muscle strength increased from 2 to 4 points on the MRC scale; positive dynamics after the operation was also noted according to the data of electroneuromyography and ultrasound examination. Children often observed intraneural cyst of the peroneal nerve at the knee (90% of cases among all sites intraneural cysts). For diff erential diagnosis with compression-ischemic neuropathy and nerve cysts, clinical and neurophysiological data should be supplemented by ultrasound and/or MRI examination. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment are critical to the full recovery of motor and sensory function.

Sima Vazquez ◽  
Gillian Graifman ◽  
Eris Spirollari ◽  
Christina Ng ◽  
Anaz Uddin ◽  

BACKGROUND After MR CLEAN (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands) demonstrated that endovascular therapy improved outcomes in patients with stroke, the number of endovascular procedures has risen sharply. We describe acute transient contrast‐induced neurological deficit (ATCIND), a group of neurological syndromes associated with arterial contrast administration during angiography. Our goal is to elucidate the incidence, risk factors, outcomes, pathogenesis, and diagnostic characteristics of ATCIND. Our primary objective is to elucidate the incidence of ATCIND in the setting of coronary or cerebral angiography. Secondary outcomes include potential risk factors, demographics, treatment modalities, and patient recovery. METHODS The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. The databases of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase were queried, yielding studies from 1974 to 2021. Inclusion criteria for articles were the following: (1) contrast‐induced encephalopathy, contrast‐induced neurotoxicity, or cortical blindness after contrast administration during angiography were the focus of the article; (2) incidence was reported; (3) studies included ≥3 cases; and (4) follow‐up tests were described to rule out other causes. Exclusion criteria included the following: (1) incidence was not reported; (2) unavailable in the English language; (3) abstracts and unpublished studies; and (4) did not exclude other possible causes, or findings suggested other possible causes, such as worsening ischemic injury. Of 627 articles, 7 were retained. This systematic review with meta‐analysis was performed in accordance with guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) and the Meta‐Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) checklists. Independent extraction by multiple reviewers was performed. Data were pooled using a random‐effects model. RESULTS The primary study outcome was incidence of ATCIND, which was formulated before data collection began. We hypothesized that the pooled incidence of ATCIND would be similar to that of individual studies. A total of 70 of 21007 patients had the diagnosis of contrast‐induced encephalopathy, contrast‐induced neurotoxicity or angiography‐associated cortical blindness, and ATCIND. The incidence rate of ATCIND is estimated to be 0.51% (CI, 0.3%–1.0%; P <0.001 [ I 2 =29.3]), or 51 per 10 000 patients. Pooled data for risk factors for contrast‐induced encephalopathy were higher contrast dose (odds ratio [OR], 1.072; 95% CI, 0.952–1.192 [ P <0.001]; I 2 =0), and prior stroke (OR, 5.153; CI 1.726–8.581 [ P =0.003]; I 2 =0). Contrast dose >150 mL was a positive, significant predictor of visual disturbance (OR, 7.083; CI, 1.1742–42.793 [ P =0.033]). Full recovery is estimated at 89.5% (95% CI, 76.9%–95.6%; P <0.001 [ I 2 =0]). CONCLUSIONS This study confirms the rare incidence of ATCIND, although it shows moderate heterogeneity, likely reflecting the type of angiography performed. Risk factors include larger contrast dose and prior stroke. Full recovery occurs in the majority of patients. It should remain in the differential diagnosis in patients with certain risk factors for blood–brain barrier compromise.

Hand ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 155894472110643
Daniel E. Pereira ◽  
Mihir J. Desai

Background: Understanding the clinical presentation of nontransected nerve injuries in acute hand trauma/wrist trauma will help in early intervention, which is vital for maximizing return of function in patients. This retrospective study evaluated patients who experienced traumatic hand injuries with nerve in continuity within the zone of injury. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective chart review of 20 patients with hand or wrist trauma resulting in damage to bone, tendon, or soft tissues within Zones II to V. Patients were 18 to 70 years of age and had documented visualization of at least one nerve within the zone of injury at the time of surgery but no documented full or partial nerve transection. The cohort was characterized using descriptive statistics including mechanism of injury, extent of strength and sensation deficits, and outcomes. Resolution of symptoms was defined as full, partial, or none. Results: Of the 20 patients included in the study, 15 patients (75%) showed symptoms of impaired nerve function either prior to surgery or at the first post-surgical follow-up visit. Without direct nerve treatment, only 23% (3/13) of patients experienced full recovery based on qualitative sensory assessment. However, patients reporting pain after surgery (57%; 8/14) showed full recovery from pain despite no direct nerve treatment. Conclusions: In our retrospective cohort of patients with hand/wrist trauma that presented with an intact nerve in continuity, we found that a majority showed symptoms of nerve injury. Further, these patients showed slow recovery over time with a minority achieving partial or full recovery or improvement in pain.

Domenico Intiso ◽  
Antonello Marco Centra ◽  
Antonio Giordano ◽  
Andrea Santamato ◽  
Luigi Amoruso ◽  

Patients with COVID-19 may develop a range of neurological disorders. We report here 4 COVID-19 subjects with intensive care unit-acquired weakness and their functional outcome. In addition, a scoping review of COVID-19 literature was performed to investigate this issue. Of the post-COVID-19 patients admitted to our Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit, 4 (3 males, 1 female; mean age 59.2±8.62 years) had intensive care unit-acquired weakness, diagnosed with electromyography. Muscle strength and functional evaluation were performed on all patients with Medical Research Council, Disability Rating Scale and Functional Independence Measure, respectively, at admission, discharge and 6-month follow-up. Electromyography revealed that 3 subjects had critical illness polyneuropathy and 1 had critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy. At follow-up, the 3 subjects with critical illness polyneuropathy reached full recovery. The patient with critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy showed moderate disability requiring bilateral ankle foot-orthosis and support for ambulation. The scoping review retrieved 11 studies of COVID-19 patients with intensive care unit-acquired weakness, concerning a total of 80 patients: 23 with critical illness myopathy (7 probable), 21 with critical illness polyneuropathy (8 possible), 15 with critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) and 21 with intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Of 35 patients who survived, only 3 (8.5%) reached full recovery. All 3 had critical illness myopathy, but 2 subjects had a diagnosis of probable critical illness myopathy. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness commonly occurred in subjects with COVID-19. Recovery was variable and a low percentage reached full recovery. However, the heterogeneity of studies did not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn.

Shiwani Padmakarrao Dandade ◽  
Vaishali Taksande

Background: Over the last few decades, the covid 19 has increased all over the world. More issues are likely to be observed as covid 19 rate increases. The major cause of morbidity and mortality is infection. Oral Candidiasis With Subcutaneaous Emphyema and SARI are very rare complications in Covid 19 patient. The final cause is infection, but sometimes it causes due to allergic or inflammatory reaction of the drugs. If it occurs after post covid 19 then creates very serious issues with the peoples health. Case Presentation: Here we are mentioning a very rare case of Oral Candidiasis With Subcutaneaous Emphyema and SARI after Covid 19 positive patient. In this case, on physical examination and investigation, it was found that, after covid 19 patient has developed Oral Candidiasis, Subcutaneous Emphysema , severe breathlessness, cough, fever, nausea, vomiting, throat infection and loss of appetide. To overcome this sudden issue, emergency exploratory medical and surgical treatment was done. During Covid 19 treament her HRCT Score was 21/25 and the infection was severe. There was no any sign of oral candidiasis, subcutaneous emphysema, or tissue or organ damage or no any other abnormality was detected during Covid 19 tratment. No bacterial growth or fungal growth observed on investigation. After some days and treatment of covid 19 the patient was developed a Oral Candidiasis and Subcutaneous Emphysema and SARI. The working diagnosis was finalized by doctors i.e. Oral Candidiasis With Subcutaneaous Emphyema and SARI. After expert medical management and excellent nursing care patient was discharged with full recovery. Conclusion: In this study, we mainly focus on expert medical management and excellent nursing care helped in managing the complicated case very nicely. All the patient response was positive for conservative and nursing management and after treatment the patient was discharged without any complications and satisfaction with full recovery.

Rachael Andrea Evans ◽  
Olivia C Leavy ◽  
Matthew Richardson ◽  
Omer Elneima ◽  
Hamish J C McAuley ◽  

Background There are currently no effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for Long-COVID. To identify potential therapeutic targets, we focussed on previously described four recovery clusters five months after hospital discharge, their underlying inflammatory profiles and relationship with clinical outcomes at one year. Methods PHOSP-COVID is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, recruiting adults hospitalised with COVID-19 across the UK. Recovery was assessed using patient reported outcomes measures (PROMs), physical performance, and organ function at five-months and one-year after hospital discharge. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling was performed for patient-perceived recovery at one-year. Cluster analysis was performed using clustering large applications (CLARA) k-medoids approach using clinical outcomes at five-months. Inflammatory protein profiling from plasma at the five-month visit was performed. Findings 2320 participants have been assessed at five months after discharge and 807 participants have completed both five-month and one-year visits. Of these, 35.6% were female, mean age 58.7 (SD 12.5) years, and 27.8% received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The proportion of patients reporting full recovery was unchanged between five months 501/165 (25.6%) and one year 232/804 (28.9%). Factors associated with being less likely to report full recovery at one year were: female sex OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.46-0.99), obesity OR 0.50 (95%CI 0.34-0.74) and IMV OR 0.42 (95%CI 0.23-0.76). Cluster analysis (n=1636) corroborated the previously reported four clusters: very severe, severe, moderate/cognitive, mild relating to the severity of physical, mental health and cognitive impairments at five months in a larger sample. There was elevation of inflammatory mediators of tissue damage and repair in both the very severe and the moderate/cognitive clusters compared to the mild cluster including interleukin-6 which was elevated in both comparisons. Overall, there was a substantial deficit in median (IQR) EQ5D-5L utility index from pre-COVID (retrospective assessment) 0.88 (0.74-1.00), five months 0.74 (0.60-0.88) to one year: 0.74 (0.59-0.88), with minimal improvements across all outcome measures at one-year after discharge in the whole cohort and within each of the four clusters. Interpretation The sequelae of a hospital admission with COVID-19 remain substantial one year after discharge across a range of health domains with the minority in our cohort feeling fully recovered. Patient perceived health-related quality of life remains reduced at one year compared to pre-hospital admission. Systematic inflammation and obesity are potential treatable traits that warrant further investigation in clinical trials.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 329
Nuria Sanchez Clemente ◽  
Juanita Pang ◽  
Charlene Rodrigues ◽  
Paul Aurora ◽  
Judith Breuer

Paediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection rarely results in a critical respiratory presentation. It is not yet known which children are at particular risk of adverse outcomes. We describe a paediatric case of critical SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), who made a full recovery after receiving a dual antiviral therapy of remdesivir and nitazoxanide.

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