energy efficient routing
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-42
Zainab Alansari ◽  
Mohammed Siddique ◽  
Mohammed Waleed Ashour

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are set of sensor nodes to monitor and detect transmitted data to the sink. WSNs face significant challenges in terms of node energy availability, which may impact network sustainability. As a result, developing protocols and algorithms that make the best use of limited resources, particularly energy resources, is critical issues for designing WSNs. Routing algorithms, for example, are unique algorithms as they have a direct and effective relationship with lifetime of network and energy. The available routing protocols employ single-hop data transmission to the sink and clustering per round. In this paper, a Fuzzy Clustering and Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (FCERP) that lower the WSNs energy consuming and increase the lifetime of network is proposed. FCERP introduces a new cluster-based fuzzy routing protocol capable of utilizing clustering and multiple hop routing features concurrently using a threshold limit. A novel aspect of this research is that it avoids clustering per round while considering using fixed threshold and adapts multi-hop routing by predicting the best intermediary node for clustering and the sink. Some Fuzzy factors such as residual energy, neighbors amount, and distance to sink considered when deciding which intermediary node to use.

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 (3) ◽  
pp. 1071-1082
Abolfazl Mehbodniya ◽  
Surbhi Bhatia ◽  
Arwa Mashat ◽  
Mohanraj Elangovan ◽  
Sudhakar Sengan

Prachi Kori

Abstract: Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, TEEN protocol, isolated node

Telecom ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 574-599
Andreas Peter Weiss ◽  
Franz Peter Wenzl

Making the Internet of Things “green” has become a major research focus in recent years. The anticipated massive increase in the numbers of sensor and communication devices makes this endeavor even more important, resulting in various solution approaches ranging from energy harvesting to energy efficient routing schemes. In this work, we propose a system that can perform some of the main tasks of the Internet of Things, namely identification and sensing of an indoor moving object, by the means of visible light sensing in combination with off-the-shelf retroreflective foils, without the necessity to place any actively powered components on the object itself. By utilizing the supervised machine learning approach of random forest, we show that these two tasks can be fulfilled with up to 99.96% accuracy. Based on our previous findings in this regard, we propose some advancements and improvements of the overall system, yielding better results in parallel with an increased complexity of the system. Furthermore, we expand the number of performable tasks toward additional movement direction determination. The achieved results demonstrate the applicability of visible light sensing and its potentials for a “green” Internet of Things.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 421-434
Dániel Pásztor ◽  
Péter Ekler ◽  
János Levendovszky

Efficient data collection is the core concept of implementing Industry4.0 on IoT platforms. This requires energy aware communication protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) where different functions, like sensing and processing on the IoT nodes must be supported by local battery power. Thus, energy aware network protocols, such as routing, became one of fundamental challenges in IoT data collection schemes.In our research, we have developed novel routing algorithms which guarantee minimum energy consumption data transfer which is achieved subject to pre-defined reliability constraints. We assume that data is transmitted in the form of packets and the routing algorithm identifies the paths over which the packets can reach the Base Station (BS) with minimum transmission energy, while the probability of successful packet transmission still exceeds a pre-defined reliability parameter. In this way, the longevity and the information throughput of the network is maximized and the low energy transmissions will considerably extend the lifetime of the IoT nodes. In this paper we propose a solution that maximizes the lifetime of the nodes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
Inci Saricicek ◽  
Sinem Bozkurt Keser ◽  
Azmi Cibi ◽  
Tahir Ozdemir ◽  

Autonomous Transfer Vehicles (ATVs) are becoming increasingly prevalent in intra logistics. Industry 4.0 is bringing us closer to the efficient routing and scheduling of autonomous multi robot systems which perform transportation tasks. In this study, an energy efficient routing and scheduling system is proposed to minimize the total energy that the vehicles spend. Not only travelled distance but also the load of the vehicle is considered between two points. The routes of vehicles are obtained by using the proposed Hybrid Simulated Annealing Algorithm. An algorithm for the initial solution is also proposed for determining of the minimum number of vehicles for pickup and delivery requests. The performance of the algorithm is compared with the best solutions of the test problems in the literature. Besides, the proposed energy efficient routing and task scheduling model is compared with the classical distance model for routing and scheduling with backhauls. An analysis of trade-offs between energy and distance is proposed for intra logistics.

Djilali Moussaoui ◽  
Mourad Hadjila ◽  
Sidi Mohammed Hadj Irid ◽  
Sihem Souiki

One challenge in under-water wireless sensor networks (UWSN) is to find ways to improve the life duration of networks, since it is difficult to replace or recharge batteries in sensors by the solar energy. Thus, designing an energy-efficient protocol remains as a critical task. Many cluster-based routing protocols have been suggested with the goal of reducing overall energy consumption through data aggregation and balancing energy through cluster-head rotation. However, the majority of current protocols are concerned with load balancing within each cluster. In this paper we propose a clustered chain-based energy efficient routing algorithm called CCRA that can combine fuzzy c-means (FCM) and ant colony optimization (ACO) create and manage the data transmission in the network. Our analysis and results of simulations show a better energy management in the network.

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