Calcium Phosphate
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Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Amira K. Nasrallah ◽  
Ahmed A. Kheder ◽  
Maimona A. Kord ◽  
Ahmed S. Fouad ◽  
Mohamed M. El-Mogy ◽  

Water salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses, and the use of saline water for the agricultural sector will incur greater demand in the coming decades. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for developing numerous plant fertilizers as a smart and powerful form of material with dual action that can alleviate the adverse effects of salinity and provide the plant with more efficient nutrient forms. This study evaluated the influence of calcium phosphate NPs (CaP-NPs) as a soil fertilizer application on the production and bioactive compounds of broad bean plants under salinity stress. Results showed that salinity had deleterious effects on plant yield with 55.9% reduction compared to control. On the other hand, CaP-NPs dramatically improved plant yield by 30% compared to conventional fertilizer under salinity stress. This improvement could be attributed to significantly higher enhancement in total soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes, proline content, and total phenolics recorded use of nano-fertilizer compared to conventional use under salt stress. Additionally, nano-fertilizer reflected better mitigatory effects on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, and oxidative stress indicators (MDA and H2O2). Therefore, our results support the replacement of traditional fertilizers comprising Ca2+ or P with CaP-nano-fertilizers for higher plant productivity and sustainability under salt stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 309-316
Vaibhav Vashishta ◽  
Rakesh Kaul ◽  
Ankita Singh ◽  
Sudhir Kapoor ◽  
Sulabh Grover ◽  

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the white spot lesions around orthodontic bracket macroscopically using two different bonding agents – one with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) (Aegis Ortho) and one without ACP (Transbond XT). Materials and Methods: The study comprises 10 patients from 14 to 23 years of age. Patients were divided into control and study groups. Forty premolar teeth were then observed (20 teeth in each group). Bonding procedure was done and brackets were positioned on all four 1st pre-molars teeth and pre-treatment photographs were taken. The experimental material used was Aegis Ortho composite (study group) and Transbond XT (control group). Debonding procedure (by Wing deformation technique) was performed after 16 weeks which led to adhesive fracture at composite resin adhesive bracket interface leaving essentially all adhesive on the enamel. Then, follow-up photographs were taken to evaluate each. Results: Aegis Ortho containing ACP used for bonding purpose, provided lesser enamel demineralization than Transbond XT. Conclusion: Aegis Ortho for orthodontic bonding is significantly more beneficial and reliable, however, further investigations are also required to understand its clinical performance better.

Aditya Wisnu Putranto ◽  
Endang Suprastiwi ◽  
Ratna Meidyawati ◽  
Harry Agusnar

Abstract Objective This study aimed to analyze, evaluate, and characterize novel cement-based carboxymethyl chitosan/amorphous calcium phosphate (CMC/ACP). Materials and Methods The three cement groups studied were gypsum (Gyp), and CMC/ACP—gypsum cement-based 5% (5% CAG) and 10% (10% CAG). The groups were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), setting time, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data. The characterization results were analyzed qualitatively, but the data for setting time were analyzed using SPSS (p < 0.05). Statistical Analysis Data were statistically analyzed. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare numerical (parametric) data between more than two separate groups followed by post hoc Tukey. Results FTIR showed phosphate groups indicate the presence of calcium phosphate in the form of amorphous (ACP) in the CMC/ACP, CMC/ACP post-milled powder, and CMC/ACP cement-based (5% CAG and 10% CAG). XRD showed no difference in the diffraction spectra among the Gyp, 5% CAG, and 10% CAG groups. SEM images revealed that the CMC/ACP cement-based groups (5% CAG and 10% CAG) showed CMC/ACP cluster filled with hollow spaces between the gypsum crystals and aggregations surrounding the gypsum crystals. The CMC/ACP showed envelopes and attached to the crystalline structures of the gypsum. Setting times of 5% CAG and 10% CAG showed significant differences compared with Gyp (p < 0.05). Conclusion The result of our study showed that CMC/ACP cement-based (5% CAG and 10% CAG) demonstrated amorphous characteristic, which can stabilize calcium ions and phosphate group (ACP). In addition, the modification of gypsum using CMC/ACP as cement-based extended the time of setting.

Jun Wu ◽  
Feihong Liu ◽  
Zejin Wang ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Xiaoli Zhao ◽  

Bone grafts are commonly used for the treatment of critical sized bone defects. Since the supply of autologous bone is insufficient, allogeneic bone grafts have been used most of the time. However, the poor osteogenic property of allogeneic bone grafts after pretreatment results in delayed union, non-union, or even occasional deformity. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is one of the most promising bone filling materials due to its good biocompatibility and similar chemical components as natural bone. However, clinical applications of CPC were hampered by limited osteogenic effects, undesired immune response which results in resorption, and poor mechanical stability in vivo. Magnesium (Mg) has been proven to trigger bone regeneration through modulating cell behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages significantly. Unfortunately, the degradation raters of pure Mg and Mg oxide are extremely fast, resulting in early collapse of Mg contained CPC. In this study, we developed a novel magnesium contained calcium phosphate bone cement (Mg-CPC), possessing long-term mechanical stability and osteogenic effects through sustained release of Mg. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that Mg-CPC had no cytotoxic effects on hBMMSCs and macrophage RAW 264.7, and could enhance the osteogenic differentiation as determined by alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and calcium nodule staining, as well as suppress the inflammatory as determined by expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1RA. We also found that Mg-CPC promoted new bone formation and bone maturation in vivo. These results suggest that Mg-CPC should be a good substitute material for bone grafts in clinical use.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Dong Hyuk Jung ◽  
Byoungjin Park ◽  
Yong Jae Lee

Serum calcium and phosphate levels are controlled by a regulatory system, but their individual concentration tendencies and interactions may affect long-term vascular health. This study aimed to assess the effects of serum calcium and phosphate levels on incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a large-scale community-dwelling Korean cohort. We evaluated 15,259 non-diabetic individuals (median age, 45 years; range, 30–85) without previous IHD or ischemic stroke using the Korean National Health Insurance data. The study population was classified based on the calcium, phosphate, and calcium/phosphate ratios. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IHD over 50 months after baseline enrolment. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of IHD gradually increased with serum calcium and phosphate quartiles and decreased with calcium/phosphate ratio quartiles, with an overall crude rate of 2.1% (315/15,259). After setting the lowest calcium, phosphate, and calcium/phosphate ratio quartiles as a reference group, the HRs (95% CIs) of the highest calcium, phosphate, and calcium/phosphate ratio quartiles for IHD were 1.77 (1.15–2.72), 1.73 (1.18–2.55), and 0.58 (0.39–0.87), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Serum calcium and phosphate levels were positively associated with IHD incidence, while the serum calcium/phosphate ratio exhibited an inverse relationship. Serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis may merit serious consideration to understand the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis as a risk modifier for IHD.

Ramesh T ◽  
A. Shilpa ◽  
Sarjeev Singh Yadav ◽  
Kavitha. A ◽  
P. Prathibha ◽  

Tooth bleaching is one of the most popular cosmetic dental procedures opted by the patients who desire pleasing smile. It is the simplest, least invasive means available to lighten discolored vital teeth. A number of desensitizing agents have been tried in an attempt to counteract bleaching-related sensitivity. This study was done to compare the effect of two different desensitizing agents for controlling post operative sensitivity after power bleach procedure. Sixty volunteers with mild to moderate dental fluorosis in maxillary anterior teeth, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were randomly selected for this study. After the bleaching procedurea demo was given to the patient while application of desensitising gel and was instructed to use the gel for 14 days.All the patients were recalled at an interval of 1st day, 3rdday, 5th day, 7th day, and on 14th day to record the post operative sensitivity after power bleach procedure. The observations were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukeys post hoc test. On the basis of VAS results, all the groups showed post operative sensitivity of varied intensity at different intervals. NCCP showed less sensitivity followed by CPP-ACP and Control group. Keywords: Power Bleaching, Post operative sensitivity, Nano Crystallized Calcium Phosphate, Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate

Odontology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Souzy Kamal Anwar ◽  
Hend Mohamed Abdel Hamid

AbstractOur research aimed to investigate the effect of combining biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) alloplast with mineralized plasmatic matrix (MPM) as compared with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the quality and quantity of bone formation and maturation at surgically created horizontal critical-sized ridge defects (HRDs) in a canine model. We used a split-mouth design using the third and fourth mandibular premolars of the mongrel dogs. Twelve defects on the left side (experimental group, I) were managed with MPM composite mixed with BCP alloplast, MPM compact layer. On the right side (control group, II), another 12 defects were managed with PRF mixed with BCP alloplast, followed by the application of PRF compact strips. Finally, both were covered by a collagen membrane. Dogs were euthanized at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and the studied defects were processed to evaluate treatment outcome, including mean percentage of bone surface area, collagen percentage, and osteopontin (OPN) immunoreaction. Our results revealed that the mean percentage of bone surface area was significantly increased in the experimental group treated with MPM at all time intervals as compared with the PRF group. Decreased collagen percentage and increased OPN immunoreactivity showed significant results in the MPM group as compared with PRF at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, respectively. In conclusion, MPM accelerates the formation of superior new bone quality when used in the treatment of HRDs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 905 ◽  
pp. 277-281
Lan Lei Wang ◽  
Jian Xin Zhang ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Sai Nan Zhao

The research is to analyse the immunohistochemical reaction of orthodontic force on the periodontium reformed by nanobiphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (nBCP). Two third incisors were selected randomly and operated as experimental groups in 2 Beagle dogs. In the labial aspects of the third incisors, alveolar bone defects were surgically made and implanted with NBCP. The contralateral teeth in the same jaw did not receive any treatment as control. After 24 weeks, all the third incisors were moved labially. The dogs were euthanized 4 weeks later. The expression levels of osteocalcin were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Positive osteocalcin expressions in regenerated periodontium were observed and compared with the normal periodontium in the control groups. There were no significant differences within and between them. It means the periodontium regenerated by nBCP can bear orthodontic forces with a normal function. Based on these findings, we concluded that nBCP may offer a new bone graft choice for periodontic disease patients who have demands for orthodontic treatment.

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