Lymphocyte Infiltration
Recently Published Documents





2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Edgar Carnero Contentti ◽  
Jorge Correale

AbstractNeuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by acute optic neuritis (ON) and transverse myelitis (TM). NMO is caused by a pathogenic serum IgG antibody against the water channel aquoporin 4 (AQP4) in the majority of patients. AQP4-antibody (AQP4-ab) presence is highly specific, and differentiates NMO from multiple sclerosis. It binds to AQP4 channels on astrocytes, triggering activation of the classical complement cascade, causing granulocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte infiltration, culminating in injury first to astrocyte, then oligodendrocytes followed by demyelination and neuronal loss. NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has recently been defined and stratified based on AQP4-ab serology status. Most NMOSD patients experience severe relapses leading to permanent neurologic disability, making suppression of relapse frequency and severity, the primary objective in disease management. The most common treatments used for relapses are steroids and plasma exchange.Currently, long-term NMOSD relapse prevention includes off-label use of immunosuppressants, particularly rituximab. In the last 2 years however, three pivotal clinical trials have expanded the spectrum of drugs available for NMOSD patients. Phase III studies have shown significant relapse reduction compared to placebo in AQP4-ab-positive patients treated with satralizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) inhibitor, inebilizumab, an antibody against CD19+ B cells; and eculizumab, an antibody blocking the C5 component of complement. In light of the new evidence on NMOSD pathophysiology and of preliminary results from ongoing trials with new drugs, we present this descriptive review, highlighting promising treatment modalities as well as auspicious preclinical and clinical studies.

2021 ◽  
Aochen Wang ◽  
Jie Liu ◽  
Si Yu ◽  
Xuemei Liu ◽  
Xueying Zhuang ◽  

Abstract Background: Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by progressive lymphocyte infiltration and a decrease in the secretory function of the salivary glands. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplantation has shown great potential in the treatment of SS. Exosomes are one of the key paracrine factors that allow MSCs to perform their functions, and are more stable and safer than MSCs. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), a kind of dental stem cells that are derived from the neural crest, have a wide range of immunoregulatory properties. However, the roles of exosomes derived from SCAP (SCAP-Exo) in the treatment of SS are not clear. This study investigated the effects of SCAP-Exo on ameliorating SS and the underlying mechanisms.Methods: SCAP-Exo were isolated and characterized by western blotting, transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. SCAP-Exo were systemically infused into SS mice via the tail vein. H&E staining, saliva flow rate tests, flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to verify the therapeutic effects of SCAP-Exo. PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) array analysis was conducted to determine the piRNA expression profiles of SCAP-Exo, and the key pathways were analysed. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to reveal the molecular role of the exosomal hsa-piR-15254 target interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). Furthermore, the molecular mechanism by which hsa-piR-15254 regulated T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation in vitro was tested by flow cytometry, ELISA, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Results: We found that SCAP-Exo transplantation successfully improved saliva secretion, alleviated lymphocyte infiltration in the submandibular glands and reduced the proportion of Th17 cells in SS mice. Mechanistically, hsa-piR-15254 was enriched in SCAP-Exo; a luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that hsa-piR-15254 directly targeted the IL-6R mRNA 3’ untranslated region. Furthermore, we revealed that hsa-piR-15254 inhibited Th17 differentiation and downregulated the level of IL-17A in the supernatant and the expression levels of Th17-related genes in vitro.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that SCAP-Exo had a superior therapeutic effect on SS by inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation. These data suggested that SCAP-Exo could be used in a cell-free approach for the clinical treatment of autoimmune disease.

2021 ◽  
Jia-Ning Zhang ◽  
Qi fei TAO ◽  
Dong yang Ding ◽  
Wei-Ping Zhou

Abstract Background: CBX3 is a key gene that is involved in immune cell regulation, however, its prognostic values and its correlation with infiltrating lymphocytes in various cancers have not been clearly established. This study aims to investigate the role CBX3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods: We first reviewed the expression of CBX3 in different cancers and adjacent tissues using oncomine database. Next, the authors focus on the expression of CBX3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the expression of CBX3 in hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed through UALCAN online analysis website and the Human Protein Atlas ( website. In addition, we further found that CBX3 can be identified as an effective marker for the prognostic guidance of hepatocellular carcinoma according to the Kaplan-Meier plotter database and the Bioinformatics analysis online websites ( Next, we used the Bioinformatics analysis online websites to explore whether the expression level of CBX3 in liver cancer is related to the infiltration of certain immune cells. In addition, we also predicted the correlation between immune checkpoint and CBX3 in liver cancer.Results: The analysis results preliminarily show that CBX3 be expressed abnormally in many cancers, and CBX3 was significantly up-regulated in HCC. The high expression of CBX3 indicated survival outcomes and it showed a huge potential as a effective marker for the prognostic guidance of hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, we found that CBX3 in liver cancer is related to the infiltration of certain immune cells, including CD4+ T cells, macrophages and B cells. In addition, the results showed HAVCR2 is most likely to become an effective immune checkpoint for HCC patients immunotherapy with high CBX3 expression.Conclusions: CBX3 is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in HCC and related to the infiltration of certain immune cells. It is expected to become a breakthrough point in immunotherapy in the future.

Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 599
Vanna Denti ◽  
Allia Mahajneh ◽  
Giulia Capitoli ◽  
Francesca Clerici ◽  
Isabella Piga ◽  

Predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients remains challenging and a characterisation of the tumour immune environment represents one of the most crucial avenues when attempting to do so. For this reason, molecular approaches which are capable of classifying the immune environments associated with tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are being readily investigated. In this proof of concept study, we aim to explore the feasibility of using spatial lipidomics by MALDI-MSI to distinguish CRC tissue based upon their TIL content. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from human thymus and tonsil was first analysed by MALDI-MSI to obtain a curated mass list from a pool of single positive T lymphocytes, whose putative identities were annotated using an LC-MS-based lipidomic approach. A CRC tissue microarray (TMA, n = 30) was then investigated to determine whether these cases could be distinguished based upon their TIL content in the tumour and its microenvironment. MALDI-MSI from the pool of mature T lymphocytes resulted in the generation of a curated mass list containing 18 annotated m/z features. Initially, subsets of T lymphocytes were then distinguished based on their state of maturation and differentiation in the human thymus and tonsil tissue. Then, when applied to a CRC TMA containing differing amounts of T lymphocyte infiltration, those cases with a high TIL content were distinguishable from those with a lower TIL content, especially within the tumour microenvironment, with three lipid signals being shown to have the greatest impact on this separation (p < 0.05). On the whole, this preliminary study represents a promising starting point and suggests that a lipidomics MALDI-MSI approach could be a promising tool for subtyping the diverse immune environments in CRC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. ii15-ii15
F Strassheimer ◽  
M I Strecker ◽  
T Alekseeva ◽  
J Macas ◽  
M C Demes ◽  

Abstract INTRODUCTION Checkpoint inhibitors as well as adoptive cell therapy hold promise for cancer therapy and encouraging treatment responses have already been demonstrated in different cancer indications. Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. Standard therapy has very limited efficacy in the majority of patients. Analysis of the GB microenvironment (TME) has shown prominent immunosuppressive features, including expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells and increased frequency of FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells. While the surrounding brain is HER2-negative, GB are frequently HER2-positive, suggesting HER2 as a promising target for adoptive immunotherapy. Previous results from mouse glioma models showed efficacy of CAR-NK cells (NK-92/5.28.z) targeted against HER2 as monotherapy with early stage but not with advanced-stage tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS The murine glioma cell line GL261 was transfected with human HER2. Tumor cells were implanted either subcutaneously or orthotopically into C57BL/6 mice and treated either with HER2-specific NK-92/5.28.z cells alone or in combination with an anti-PD-1 antibody. Effects on tumor growth and survival were determined. Lymphocyte infiltration and immunosuppressive TME were characterized via highplex multi-color flow cytometry (FACS Symphony) and IHC (Phenoptics). Furthermore, gene expression profiles of tumor-infiltrating cells were determined via bulk RNAseq (NanoString). RESULTS Combined treatment with NK-92/5.28.z cells and anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade resulted in synergistic effects, with tumor regression and long-term survival observed even in advanced-stage tumor bearing mice. Analysis of the TME showed changes in lymphocyte infiltration and increased expression of exhaustion markers in tumor and immune upon combined treatment with NK-92/5.28.z cells and anti-PD-1 antibody resulting in an altered TME. Both, PD-1 and Lag-3 expression are highly upregulated on tumor infiltrating T cells. Total infiltrating lymphocytes show a rather cytotoxic phenotype up combination treatment with NK-92/5.28.z cells and anti-PD-1 antibody CONCLUSION Our data demonstrate that efficacy of NK-92/5.28.z cells can be enhanced by combination with checkpoint blockade, resulting in successful treatment of advanced tumors refractory to NK-92/5.28.z monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination therapy induced a cytotoxic rather than immunosuppressive TME, leading to a primed immune system. To translate the concept of CAR-NK-cell therapy plus checkpoint inhibition to a clinical setting, we are adding a combination therapy cohort to our ongoing phase I clinical study (CAR2BRAIN; NCT03383978).

2021 ◽  
Duneesha Fonseka ◽  
David T Arnold ◽  
Anna J Morley ◽  
Mary Brett ◽  
Nidhi Bhatt ◽  

Abstract Background As promising novel treatments develop for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), early prognostication has become increasingly important. Circulating and local inflammatory cells are known to play a significant role in other tumour types. We assessed the proportion of lymphocyte populations within blood, pleural fluid and tumour stroma to prognosticate patients with MPM at diagnosis. Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven MPM were prospectively recruited to an observational cohort study and followed up for a minimum of 7.5 years. Blood and pleural fluid results at presentation were extracted from the medical records. Biopsy specimens were independently reviewed by 2 pathologists who scored the degree of lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltration. Results Baseline results were available for 184 patients. The predominant pleural fluid cell type was calculable for 84 patients and 118 patients had biopsy specimens available for review. A low blood neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR < 4) inferred a better prognosis with a median survival of 420 days versus 301 days (p < 0.01). Survival was better for patients with a lymphocyte-predominant pleural effusion (430 vs 306 days, p < 0.01). Lymphocyte infiltration of tumour stroma was also associated with improved survival (n = 92, survival 430 days) compared with neutrophilic or acellular samples (n = 26, survival 342 days p < 0.01). In multivariable modelling lymphocyte predominance in blood, pleural fluid and tumour stroma were all associated with a better prognosis. Conclusions Lymphocyte predominance within tumour stroma, pleural fluid or blood infers a better prognosis in patients with MPM.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Zhiguo Liu ◽  
Hongyan Liu ◽  
Qian Dong ◽  
Hongyu Li ◽  
Bin Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background The gasdermin E gene (GSDME, also known as DFNA5) is mutated in familial aging-related hearing loss. Recent studies have also revealed that the expression of DFNA5 is suppressed in many cancer types; however, little is known about the function of DFNA5 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of DFNA5 and explore its prognostic value in HNSCC. Result We used a set of bioinformatics tools, including Oncomine, TIMER, TISIDB, cBioPortal, and GEPIA, to analyze the expression of DFNA5 in patients with HNSCC from public databases. Kaplan-Meier plotter was used to evaluate the potential prognostic significance of DFNA5. DFNA5 mRNA levels were significantly higher in HNSCC tissues than in normal tissues, and high DFNA5 expression was correlated with worse survival. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses showed that DFNA5 expression has a strong positive correlation with cell adhesion and the integrin signaling pathway, whereas its expression was negatively correlated with the levels of infiltrating B cells (cor = − 0.223, P = 8.57e-07) and CD8 T cells (cor = − 0.223, P = 2.99e-07). Conclusion This study demonstrates that DFNA5 expression has prognostic value for HNSCC patients. Moreover, these results suggest that regulation of lymphocyte infiltration is the mechanism underlying the function of DFNA5 in HNSCC.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 4059
Elie Marcheteau ◽  
Thomas Farge ◽  
Michaël Pérès ◽  
Guillaume Labrousse ◽  
Julie Tenet ◽  

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is notoriously aggressive with a high metastatic potential, and targeted therapies are lacking. Using transcriptomic and histologic analysis of TNBC samples, we found that a high expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and an activator of latent transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), is associated with (i) gene signatures of epithelial–mesenchymal transition and TGF-β signaling, (ii) metastasis and (iii) a reduced survival in TNBC patients. In contrast, in tumors expressing low levels of TSP1, gene signatures of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) signaling and lymphocyte activation were enriched. In TNBC biopsies, TSP1 expression inversely correlated with the CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) content. In the 4T1 metastatic mouse model of TNBC, TSP1 silencing did not affect primary tumor development but, strikingly, impaired metastasis in immunocompetent but not in immunodeficient nude mice. Moreover, TSP1 knockdown increased tumor vascularization and T lymphocyte infiltration and decreased TGF-β activation in immunocompetent mice. Noteworthy was the finding that TSP1 knockdown increased CD8+ TILs and their programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression and sensitized 4T1 tumors to anti-PD-1 therapy. TSP1 inhibition might thus represent an innovative targeted approach to impair TGF-β activation and breast cancer cell metastasis and improve lymphocyte infiltration in tumors, and immunotherapy efficacy in TNBC.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 1002
Tiziano Balzano ◽  
Paola Leone ◽  
Gergana Ivaylova ◽  
M. Carmen Castro ◽  
Lestteriel Reyes ◽  

In patients with liver cirrhosis, minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is triggered by a shift in peripheral inflammation, promoting lymphocyte infiltration into the brain. Rifaximin improves neurological function in MHE by normalizing peripheral inflammation. Patients who died with steatohepatitis showed T-lymphocyte infiltration and neuroinflammation in the cerebellum, suggesting that MHE may already occur in these patients. The aims of this work were to assess, in a rat model of mild liver damage similar to steatohepatitis, whether: (1) the rats show impaired motor coordination in the early phases of liver damage; (2) this is associated with changes in the immune system and infiltration of immune cells into the brain; and (3) rifaximin improves motor incoordination, associated with improved peripheral inflammation, reduced infiltration of immune cells and neuroinflammation in the cerebellum, and restoration of the alterations in neurotransmission. Liver damage was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection over four weeks. Peripheral inflammation, immune cell infiltration, neuroinflammation, and neurotransmission in the cerebellum and motor coordination were assessed. Mild liver damage induces neuroinflammation and altered neurotransmission in the cerebellum and motor incoordination. These alterations are associated with increased TNFa, CCL20, and CX3CL1 in plasma and cerebellum, IL-17 and IL-15 in plasma, and CCL2 in cerebellum. This promotes T-lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration in the cerebellum. Early treatment with rifaximin prevents the shift in peripheral inflammation, immune cell infiltration, neuroinflammation, and motor incoordination. This report provides new clues regarding the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of rifaximin, suggesting that early rifaximin treatment could prevent neurological impairment in patients with steatohepatitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
Pengfei Xu ◽  
Wei Xiong ◽  
Yun Lin ◽  
Liping Fan ◽  
Hongchao Pan ◽  

AbstractThe PD-L1 overexpression is an important event of immune escape and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but the molecular mechanism remains to be determined. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) represents a major driving force behind PD-L1 expression in tumor microenvironment, and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is required for IFN signaling. Here, we investigated the regulation of HDAC2 on the IFNγ-induced PD-L1 expression in TNBC cells. We found the HDAC2 and PD-L1 expression in TNBC was significantly higher than that in non-TNBC, and HDAC2 was positively correlated with PD-L1 expression. HDAC2 promoted PD-L1 induction by upregulating the phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2, and STAT1, as well as the translocation of STAT1 to the nucleus and the recruitment of STAT1 to the PD-L1 promoter. Meanwhile, HDAC2 was recruited to the PD-L1 promoter by STAT1, and HDAC2 knockout compromised IFNγ-induced upregulation of H3K27, H3K9 acetylation, and the BRD4 recruitment in PD-L1 promoter. In addition, significant inhibition of proliferation, colony formation, migration, and cell cycle of TNBC cells were observed following knockout of HDAC2 in vitro. Furthermore, HDAC2 knockout reduced IFNγ-induced PD-L1 expression, lymphocyte infiltration, and retarded tumor growth and metastasis in the breast cancer mouse models. This study may provide evidence that HDAC2 promotes IFNγ-induced PD-L1 expression, suggesting a way for enhanced antitumor immunity when targeting the HDAC2 in TNBC.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document