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Author(s):  
И. В. Покатилова ◽  
А. Ф. Лукина

Актуальность темы связана с новыми методологическими подходами в исследовании современной культуры Якутии начала 21 века. Авторы попытались применить метод междисциплинарного подхода в исследовании образной географии Якутии начала 21 века на примере проекта «Образная карта - маршрут Таттинского улуса». Город и село в 20 веке являются разными средами обитания современного человека. В первой среде зарождается креативная культура, а во второй - дольше сохраняется традиционная культура. Трансформация традиционной культуры в начале 20 века в городе Якутске привело к зарождению нового креативного типа культуры, а в конце 20 века в постсоветском пространстве формируется образная география конкретного региона или улуса, стянув пространство ландшафта и памятников культурного наследия, что ярко прослеживается на материале Таттинского улуса. The relevance of the topic is related to new methodological approaches in the study of modern culture of Yakutia in the early 21st century. The authors tried to apply the method of an interdisciplinary approach in the study of the figurative geography of Yakutia of the early 20th century by the example of the project "Figurative map - the route of Tatta ulus". City and village in the 20th century are different environments of a modern man. In the first environment, creative culture is born, and in the second, traditional culture is preserved longer. Transformation of traditional culture at the beginning of the 20th century in Yakutsk city led to the birth of a new creative type of culture, and at the end of the 20th century, in the post-Soviet space, a figurative geography of a specific region is formed, pulling together the space of the landscape and cultural heritage monuments, which is clearly seen in the material of Tatta ulus.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 7-42
Author(s):  
S. A. Pritchin

In 2021 the countries of Central Asia and the South Caucasus celebrate the 30th anniversary of independence. According to the paradigm of transitology, the political development of a state since the departure from the authoritarian regime entails progressive liberalization and democratization of political processes. And, in accordance with the predominant theoretical approaches, the post-Soviet states were expected to follow this path. However, a closer look at the specifi c scenarios of power alternation in the Central Asia and the South Caucasus provides a much more mixed picture: here the change of ruling elites took very diff erent forms and shapes. The choice of scenario for the transfer of power was always determined by a complex combination of internal and external factors, including the nature and characteristics of the political system of a particular state, its ethnic com-position, the socio-economic situation and external environment. Nevertheless, it is possible to discern several key scenarios: a ‘revolutionary’ scenario, which implies a violent change of power; an intra-elite consensus; transition of power to a successor; a hereditary transmission of power; democratic elections; a resigna-tion of a president. A comparative analysis of the political processes unfolding in the region over the past 30 years shows that even institutionally the countries of Central Asia and the South Caucasus are not ready yet for a competition policy. Moreover, the latter is generally viewed by their leaders as a threat to both the stability of the state and to the interests of the ruling elites. To this may be added the expansion of diff erent informal, archaic political practices across the post-Soviet space. The latter include the sacralization of power, when national interests are equated with the interests of the ruling clan and the whole national identity is built up around this nexus. All this shows the limits of classical transitology theory when it comes to political transformations in the post-Soviet space, which it is unable to explain, yet alone to predict their possible future development. Thus, there is a strong need to develop new theoretical frameworks that would better accommodate particularities of the regional political systems.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Author(s):  
Uluğ Kuzuoğlu

Abstract This article rethinks the history of Chinese script reforms and proposes a new genealogy for the Chinese Latin Alphabet (CLA), invented in 1931 by Chinese and Russian revolutionaries in the Soviet Union. Situating script reforms within a global information age that emerged out of the nineteenth-century communications revolution, the article historicizes the CLA within a technologically and ideologically contrived Sino-Soviet space. In particular, it shows the intimate links between the CLA and the Unified New Turkic Alphabet (UNTA), which grew out of a latinization movement based in Baku, Azerbaijan. The primary purpose of the UNTA was to latinize the Arabic script of the Turkic people living in Soviet Central Asia, but it was immediately exported to the non-Turkic world as well in an effort to latinize languages across Eurasia and ignite revolutionary internationalism. This article investigates the forgotten figures involved in carrying the Latin alphabet from Baku to Shanghai and offers a new framework to scrutinize the history of language, scripts, and knowledge production across Eurasia.


2022 ◽  
pp. 8-11
Author(s):  
Диана Сергеевна Свидерская ◽  
Анастасия Александровна Карабекова

Длительное время мы наблюдали снижение численности населения, происходящее во многих странах постсоветского пространства, которое говорит о кризисе в состоянии здоровья человека и населения страны в целом. К сожалению, это является причиной высокой смертности среди населения разного возраста, низкой продолжительности жизни, высокого порога заболеваемости. Все это одна из составляющих качества жизни населения страны, а именно общественного здоровья, которое напрямую характеризует национальную безопасность. Одной из первопричин наблюдаемой проблемы является дефицит пищевого белка, что находит отражение не только в экономической, но и в социальной составляющей нашей страны и всего мира в целом. Результаты проведенных многочисленных исследований сходятся в том, что в сутки человек должен потреблять 1-2 г белка на 1 кг веса тела, в зависимости от деятельности. Значение белка в рационе питания современного человека невозможно переоценить. Ведь развитие и сохранение мышц зависят от количества белка в потребляемых продуктах, так как он является так называемым строительным материалом для формирования клеток, что в свою очередь влияет на обмен веществ в организме. Достаточное содержание белка позволяет сократить процесс восстановления организма после болезней. Большое количество белка в продуктах позволяет повысить эффективность применяемых диет для похудения. Кроме того, белок является одним из основных источников незаменимых аминокислот. Белоксодержащие продукты включаются в рацион человека как носители белка и как продукты функционального назначения, которые придают пище привлекательность и характеризуются высокой пищевой ценностью и органолептическими показателями качества. For a long time, we have seen a decline in the population occurring in many countries of the post-Soviet space, which speaks of a crisis in the state of health of the person and the population of the country as a whole. Unfortunately, this is the cause of high mortality among the population of different ages, low life expectancy, and a high morbidity threshold. All this is one of the components of the quality of life of the population of the country, namely public health, which entails a threat to national security. One of the root causes of the observed problem is food protein deficiency. This is reflected not only in the economic component of our country and the whole world, but also in the social one. The results of numerous studies agree that a person should consume 1-2 g per 1 kg of body weight per day, depending on the activity. The importance of protein in the diet of modern humans cannot be overestimated. After all, the development and preservation of muscles depend on the amount of protein in the products consumed, as it serves as a building material in the process of cell development and metabolism in the body. Sufficient protein content allows you to reduce the process of recovery from diseases. A large amount of protein in foods allows you to increase the effectiveness of the diets used for weight loss. In addition, the protein is one of the main sources of essential amino acids. Protein-containing products are used not only as carriers of protein, but also as functional products that give food attractiveness and are characterized by high nutritional value and organoleptic quality indicators.


Author(s):  
Т.А. Коныратбай

На протяжении всего ХХ века в фольклористике доминировал так называемый поэтический метод, который занимался определением художественной системы героического эпоса. Вместе с тем все чаще ставился вопрос об отношении эпоса к историческим событиям прошлого. Многие фольклористы и историки, в лице С. Н. Азбелева, Л. И. Емельянова, Н. И. Кравцова, А. А. Петросяна, М. М. Плисецкого, Б. А. Рыбакова начали разрабатывать проблемы историзма в русских былинах. На этой почве в середине 1960-х гг. вспыхнули научные дебаты вокруг этой проблемы – историзма героического эпоса. Несмотря на полемический характер,суждения многих фольклористов оказались на стороне исторического изучения былин. Такая постановка вопроса, с учетом посмертно изданного труда «Экскурсы в теорию и историю славянского эпоса» (1999), оказалась не чуждой самому Б. Н. Путилову, который усердно разрабатывал типологическую теорию. В своих поздних изысканиях автор несколько отошёл от изначальной позиции. На широком фоне исторического изучения былин фольклористы пошли ещё дальше, вычленяя сведения этнического порядка в героическом эпосе. Цель настоящего исследования – определение этнического характера героического эпоса с учетом методологических достижений фольклористики конца ХХ и начала ХХI веков. Актуальность данного направления заключается в том, что несмотря на многочисленные этнонимы, топонимы, гидронимы, антропонимы и т. д., отражённые в героическом эпосе, они долгое время оставались в тени. Историки, опиравшиеся только на достоверные факты, игнорировали подобные сведения, а фольклористы, в свою очередь, считали их объектом историков. Поэтому научно-познавательный процесс подменялся суждением о личном вкладе эпических сказителей, якобы вносивших этническую номенклатуру в героический эпос. С распадом СССР были сняты многие идеологические запреты, связанные с этнической природой казахского эпоса. Это позволило отдельным учёным постсоветского пространства приступить к разработке этнических истоков героического эпоса. Были опубликованы соответствующие материалы, в том числе на страницах настоящего журнала, направленные на изучение этнических сведений в казахском эпосе. Отныне этнический характер эпоса не вызывает больших разногласий. В казахском эпосоведении эта проблема стала разрабатываться более глубже, с использованием методов исследования фольклористики, этнографии и этнологии. В статье приводятся новые сведения и суждения отдельных исследователей методологического порядка. Наряду с общеизвестными трудами вышеуказанных фольклористов в научный обиход вовлекаются герменевтические суждения А. М. Эткинда. Обращено внимание на информативную сущность героического эпоса, определены познавательные возможности синхронного и диахронного методов исследования. Подытоживая материал, автор приходит к заключению, что без этноса нет героического эпоса, а без этнического процесса – эпической традиции. Throughout the 20th century, folkloristics was dominated by the so-called poetic method, which was engaged in determining the artistic system of the heroic epic. At the same time, the question of the attitude of the epic to the historical events of the past was increasingly raised. Many folklorists and historians, represented by S. N. Azbelev, L. I. Emelyanov, N. I. Kravtsov, A. A. Petrosyan, M. M. Plisetsky, B. A. Rybakov, began to develop the problems of historicism in Russian epics. On this ground in the mid-1960s, a scholarly debate broke out around this problem: the historicism of the heroic epic. Despite the polemical nature of the judgment of many folklorists, they were on the side of the historical study of epics. Such a statement of the question, taking into account the posthumously published work “Excursions into the theory and history of the Slavic epic” (1999), turned out to be no stranger to B. N. Putilov himself, who diligently developed typological theory. In his later research, the author somewhat moved away from the original position. Against the broad background of the historical study of epics, folklorists went even further, distinguishing information of the ethnic order in the heroic epic. The purpose of this study was to determine the ethnic nature of the heroic epic, taking into account the methodological achievements of folkloristics of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The relevance of this direction is that despite the numerous ethnonyms, toponyms, hydronyms, anthroponyms, etc., reflected in the heroic epic, they remained in the shadows for a long time. Historians, relying only on reliable facts, ignored such information, and folklorists, in turn, considered the object of historians. Therefore, the scholarly and cognitive process was replaced by a judgment on the personal contribution of epic storytellers who allegedly contributed ethnic nomenclature to the heroic epic. With the collapse of the USSR, many ideological prohibitions related to the ethnic nature of the Kazakh epic were lifted. This allowed individual scientists of the post-Soviet space to begin developing the ethnic origins of the heroic epic. Relevant materials were published, including on the pages of this publication, aimed at studying ethnic information in the Kazakh epic. From now on, the ethnic nature of the epic does not cause much disagreement. In Kazakh epic studies, this problem began to be developed more deeply, using methods of studying folkloristics, ethnography and ethnology. The article provides new information and judgments of individual researchers of the methodological order. Along with the well-known works of the above folklorists, hermeneutic judgments of A. M. Etkind are involved in scholarly use. Attention was drawn to the informative essence of the heroic epic, the cognitive possibilities of synchronous and diachronic research methods were determined. Summing up the material, the author concludes that without an ethnic group there is no heroic epic, and without an ethnic process – no epic tradition.


Author(s):  
Vsevolod V. Shimov

The article examines the features of the evolution of the civilisational approach in Russia. The historical stages of the formation of the civilisational approach in Russian political thought, starting from the pre-revolutionary times and ending with the post-Soviet period, are considered. The works of N. Danilevsky, L. Gumilyov, A. Dugin, V. Tsymbursky are analysed. It is concluded that the civilisational approach in Russia was especially in demand due to the specific nature of Russia’s relations with the Western world and within the discussion about Russia’s belonging to European civilisation. In the perspective of the world-system analysis, the development of the civilisational paradigm in Russia was due to its being on the semi-periphery of the capitalist world-system. It has always complicated relations with the Western countries belonging the world-systemic core. The findings can be used within the study of the processes of formation of national and sociocultural identity in the post-Soviet space, as well as in teaching disciplines of the socio-humanitarian block (political science, history of political doctrines).


2021 ◽  
pp. 43-50
Author(s):  
A.A. Korennaya

The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) was signed on May 29, 2014 in Astana by thePresidents of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. It came into force on January 1, 2015. Currently, the fivemember States of the Eurasian Economic Union, in addition to ensuring the freedom of movement ofgoods, services, capital and labor, have set the goal of conducting a coordinated, coordinated or unified policy in economic sectors. Insolvency, being an objective economic phenomenon characterized by an acuteconflict of interests of participants, needs an effective system of protection, including criminal law. In thispaper, the author analyzes the current criminal law norms on liability for crimes in the field of insolvency(bankruptcy) in Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. On the basis of the general historicaland theoretical development of criminal legislation in the post-Soviet space, reflected in the Model CriminalCode of the CIS member states, the author highlights the features of criminal law norms formed during theperiod of independent lawmaking of all states. Based on the conducted research, the author comes to theconclusion that the possibilities of unification of criminal legislation on liability for crimes in the field of nonproperty (bankruptcy) for the Union states have not been lost. Such integration should become one of thepriority areas for improving criminal legislation.


Federalism ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 89-110
Author(s):  
G. I. Chufrin

The present article is devoted to the analysis of participation of new post-Soviet Eurasian states in international economic relations, of current goals and strategic targets of this policy in the economic development of these states. Many, in fact the majority of them appeared to be unable after achieving political sovereignty to solve complex economic problems of national development since they had neither organizational experience in carrying out an independent and effective economic policy nor the personnel, technological and financial provisions for these goals. Therefore new independent Eurasian states had to approach foreign countries searching for adequate forms and methods of cooperation with them on these issues. In this connection the article explores the nature of interrelations between post-Soviet states with their principal foreign partners on a bilateral basis as well as in multilateral international economic organizations, of the comparative role of political and economic factors in these relations. Some of the post-Soviet states have begun their participation in the Eurasian integration project headed by Russia, others aim at solving their external political and economic problems by strengthening relations with the USA and European Union on a priority basis, still others see the way out in promoting their orientation primarily on their closest regional partners (such as China, Turkey, Iran). However, neither of these directions of external economic activities has become a dominant one on the post-Soviet space. Moreover, some of their elements may get a priority significance, neighboring others or even replacing them at various stages of development of this or that post-Soviet state. Besides, three decades after their formation the new sovereign Eurasian states having endured complex processes of national state building began to differ substantially from each other by their political systems, by levels of economic development and above all – by their strategic goals, aspirations and orientations. And in its turn this has caused serious changes in their approaches to building relations with their external partners, both in bilateral and multilateral formats. Under these conditions the most important national priority of Russia is to implement such a foreign policy at the post-Soviet space that would react timely and most flexibly at social, political and economic processes going on there and emphasizing that most important goal of such a policy is neither a political expansion or an institution of a great power hegemony but development of partnership and friendly relations with the post-Soviet states on the basis of equality and mutual benefits.


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