diabetic nephropathy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Dongxue Zhang ◽  
Wenyan Liu ◽  
Li Peng ◽  
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Mei Lin ◽  

Abstract Background To investigate the difference in the structural composition of salivary flora between chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods Thirty salivary samples of 15 chronic periodontitis patients with DN (DN group) and 15 chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes but without DN (DM group) were subjected to pyrosequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16 s ribosomal RNA genes. After diversity testing, the differential flora were analyzed. The sequencing results were compared with GenBank database to determine the type of differential flora using species composition analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis, and species difference analysis. Results There were significant between-group differences with respect to Gemella, Selenomonas spp, Lactobacillales_unclassified, Bacteria-unclassified and Abiotrophia (p < 0.05). Compared with DM group, the relative abundance of Selenomonas spp. in DN group was significantly higher; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of Selenomonas spp. was 0.713 (P < 0.05). Multi-level biological identification and feature maps indicated that Selenomonas spp. might be used as a potential biomarker for DN patients. On binary logistic regression analysis, increase of Selenomonas spp. was related with DN. Conclusions We found significant between-group differences in the structural composition of oral flora. The increase in the relative abundance of Selenomonas spp. may be associated with DN in patients with chronic periodontitis.

2022 ◽  
Ying Yang ◽  
Chang Zeng ◽  
Kun Yang ◽  
Zhou Zhang ◽  
Qinyun Cai ◽  

Long-term complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are the major causes for T2D-related disability and mortality. Notably, diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in most countries. Understanding epigenetic contributors to DN can provide novel insights into this complex disorder and lay the foundation for more effective monitoring tools and preventive interventions, critical for achieving the ultimate goal of improving patient care and reducing healthcare burden. We have used a selective chemical labeling technique (5hmC-Seal) to profile genome-wide distributions of 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC), a gene activation mark, in patient-derived circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Differentially modified 5hmC genes were identified across T2D patients with DN (n = 12), T2D patients with non-DN vascular complications (non-DN) (n = 29), and T2D patients with no complications (controls) (n = 14). Specifically, differential 5hmC markers between DN and controls revealed relevant pathways such as NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and tyrosine metabolism. A ten-gene panel was shown to provide differential 5hmC patterns between controls and DN, as well as between controls and non-DN patients using a machine learning approach. The 5hmC profiles in cfDNA reflected novel DN-associated epigenetic modifications relevant to the disease pathogenesis of DN. Importantly, these findings in cfDNA, a convenient liquid biopsy, have the potential to be exploited as a clinically useful tool for predicting DN in high risk T2D patients. Keywords: diabetes, nephropathy, epigenetics, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, cfDNA

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 285-288
S L V Sankeerthi C H ◽  
Sai Ravi Kiran Biri ◽  
Sandhya Rani T ◽  
Rajkumar Gundu ◽  
Aravind Vadlakonda

Diabetes is one of the leading causes for end stage renal disease and nephropathy. Increases of blood urea and serum creatinine are due to abnormal renal function and also reduction in glomerular filtration rate. So, Urea and Creatinine are the ideal biomarkers to correlate the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Aim of the study is to evaluate the blood urea & serum creatinine with HbA1C in Diabetes mellitus patients.: A total of 50 cases and 30 controls were selected in our study. Blood samples were collected for blood urea, serum creatinine, HbA1C, Fasting plasma glucose and Post prandial blood sugar with age limit of 35-65 years. Mean ±SD was calculated for all these parameters. Blood urea and Serum creatinine are statistically significant in Diabetic patients when compared to the controls.Our study shows that blood urea and serum creatinine can be used as biomarkers in the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. These parameters help in reducing the severity of renal failure.

Changjiang Ying ◽  
Zhongyuan Zhou ◽  
Jiao Dai ◽  
Meng Wang ◽  
Jie Xiang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Sindhu Varghese ◽  
Subbaraj Gowtham Kumar

Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy is known to be a leading complication of diabetes mellitus, characterized by diverse aspects such as high urinary albumin level, elevated blood pressure, and genetic susceptibility leading to end-stage renal disease. The current study was carried out to investigate the association of eNOS and TGFβ1 gene polymorphisms in the progression of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients in the South Indian population. The eNOS and TGFβ1 genetic variants were genotyped in 280 T2DM patients, 140 with DN, 140 without DN, and 140 controls. Genotyping was performed using ARMS PCR and the genomic variants were confirmed by the Sanger sequencing method. Results A significant (p < 0.05) association was observed in the genotypic frequencies of eNOS (G > T) polymorphism in the T2DM patients with diabetic nephropathy when compared to controls. The frequency of TT (heterozygous) genotype was observed to increase in patients with type 2 diabetes and DN when compared to the diabetic patients without DN and controls. This indicates that diabetic patients with TT genotype are at an increased risk to develop DN. However, TGFβ1 (G > C) polymorphism did not show any association in the allele and genotypic frequencies with DN when compared with T2DM and controls. Conclusion The results of the study propose a strong influence of TT genotype of eNOS gene be significantly linked with diabetic nephropathy in T2DM patients. Whereas no association was examined concerning TGFβ1 gene polymorphism and DN. Nevertheless, large sample size studies are required to confirm the part of these genetic variants in the development of DN.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 275-280
Lei Ji ◽  
Xue Zhong ◽  
Xingxing Xia ◽  
Wei Yu ◽  
Yuping Qin

Purpose: To investigate the protective role of syringaresinol in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally into rats to establish the diabetic model. Streptozotocin-induced rats were orally administered syringaresinol, and pathological changes in kidneys were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine kidney injury indicators, 24-h urine proteins, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCR). Blood glucose was measured using a blood glucose meter, while levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in kidney were also measured using ELISA. Results: Pathological changes in the kidneys were observed in rats post-streptozotocin treatment. Administration of syringaresinol reduced the lesion degree, with improved pathological morphology in kidney. Syringaresinol administration significantly attenuated streptozotocin-increased levels of BUN, SCR, 24-h urine protein, and blood glucose (p < 0.01). Streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress, shown by enhanced MDA level and reduced levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX, was reversed in rat kidneys following syringaresinol administration. However, the expression levels of nuclear factor erythropoietin- 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) proteins decreased, while transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and signal transducer and transcriptional modulator (Smad) 2/3/7 proteins increased in rats post-streptozotocin treatment. Syringaresinol administration reversed the effects of streptozotocin on protein expression of Nrf2, HO-1, TGF-β1, and Smad 2/3/7. Conclusion: Syringaresinol exerted a protective effect against DN through activation of Nrf2 and inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad pathways. Thus, the compound can potentially be developed for management of diabetic nephropathy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 807
Charlotte Delrue ◽  
Reinhart Speeckaert ◽  
Joris R. Delanghe ◽  
Marijn M. Speeckaert

According to several animal and human studies, vitamin D appears to play a significant role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. However, the possible renoprotective effect of vitamin D and its influence on the reversal of already existing renal damage remains doubtful. At this moment, there are a few hypotheses concerning the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms including the link between vitamin D and inflammation, oxidative stress, and extracellular matrix accumulation. The present review aims to investigate the potential role of vitamin D in the development of diabetic kidney disease from a translational approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Shujun Wang ◽  
Kaipeng Jing ◽  
Hongluan Wu ◽  
Xiaoyu Li ◽  
Chen Yang ◽  

Disruption of lysosomal homeostasis contributes to the tubulopathy of diabetic nephropathy; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we report that decreased activity of transcription factor EB (TFEB) is responsible for the disturbed lysosome biogenesis and clearance in this pathological process. This was confirmed by the findings that insufficient lysosomal replenishment and damaged lysosomal clearance coincided with TFEB inactivation, which was mediated by mTOR hyperactivation in the renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, either TFEB overexpression or pharmacological activation of TFEB enhanced lysosomal clearance via promoting lysosomal biogenesis and protected TECs by reducing apoptosis in vitro. In addition, pharmacological activation of TFEB attenuated renal tubule injury, apoptosis, and inflammation in db/db mice. In conclusion, diabetes-induced mTOR activation represses TFEB function, thereby perturbing lysosomal homeostasis through impairing lysosomal biogenesis and clearance in TECs. Moreover, TFEB activation protects TECs from diabetic injuries via restoring lysosomal homeostasis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haru Nomura ◽  
Sanjaya Kuruppu ◽  
Niwanthi W. Rajapakse

Despite current therapies for diabetic nephropathy, many patients continue to progress to end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy. While the precise mechanisms underlying diabetic nephropathy remain to be determined, it is well established that chronic activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the enzyme responsible for activating the reno-protective arm of the RAAS converts angiotensin (Ang) II into Ang 1-7 which exerts reno-protective effects. Chronic RAAS activation leads to kidney inflammation and fibrosis, and ultimately lead to end-stage kidney disease. Currently, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and Ang II receptor blockers are approved for renal fibrosis and inflammation. Targeting the reno-protective arm of the RAAS should therefore, provide further treatment options for kidney fibrosis and inflammation. In this review, we examine how targeting the reno-protective arm of the RAAS can ameliorate kidney inflammation and fibrosis and rescue kidney function in diabetic nephropathy. We argue tissue ACE2 stimulation provides a unique and promising therapeutic approach for diabetic nephropathy.

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