biological parameters
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 881
Author(s):  
Valentina Pidlisnyuk ◽  
Tatyana Stefanovska ◽  
Olexander Zhukov ◽  
Artem Medkow ◽  
Pavlo Shapoval ◽  
...  

The impact of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) Stimpo, Regoplant, and Charkor on the production of the second-generation energy crop Miscanthus × giganteus on marginal post-military soil was investigated during two vegetation seasons. The land, previously a tank training polygon, has not been in use since 1990 and has become marginal. Biological parameters (stem, shoot, and root lengths) and dry biomass values were evaluated in relation to the applied treatments. The multivariate general linear model (M-GLM) results showed a positive influence of Charkor on M. × giganteus development; the effect was markedly higher in the second year of vegetation. The impact of Stimpo and Regoplant was less noticeable; nevertheless, certain combinations of treatments showed satisfactory results. The M-GLM approach detected the inter-influence of the main factors of the production process, i.e., PGRs, soil, and year of growing. The results showed the predominant influence of year, PGRs and combined factor PGRs × year on the biological parameters; the other studied factors and their combinations were not as effective. Further research should focus on verifying the field-scale results for the M. × giganteus plantation established in a post-military area and compare the lab and field studies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 93-115
Author(s):  
Daniel J. Ford ◽  
Gavin H. Tilstone ◽  
Jamie D. Shutler ◽  
Vassilis Kitidis

Abstract. A key step in assessing the global carbon budget is the determination of the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2 (sw)). Spatially complete observational fields of pCO2 (sw) are routinely produced for regional and global ocean carbon budget assessments by extrapolating sparse in situ measurements of pCO2 (sw) using satellite observations. As part of this process, satellite chlorophyll a (Chl a) is often used as a proxy for the biological drawdown or release of CO2. Chl a does not, however, quantify carbon fixed through photosynthesis and then respired, which is determined by net community production (NCP). In this study, pCO2 (sw) over the South Atlantic Ocean is estimated using a feed forward neural network (FNN) scheme and either satellite-derived NCP, net primary production (NPP) or Chl a to compare which biological proxy produces the most accurate fields of pCO2 (sw). Estimates of pCO2 (sw) using NCP, NPP or Chl a were similar, but NCP was more accurate for the Amazon Plume and upwelling regions, which were not fully reproduced when using Chl a or NPP. A perturbation analysis assessed the potential maximum reduction in pCO2 (sw) uncertainties that could be achieved by reducing the uncertainties in the satellite biological parameters. This illustrated further improvement using NCP compared to NPP or Chl a. Using NCP to estimate pCO2 (sw) showed that the South Atlantic Ocean is a CO2 source, whereas if no biological parameters are used in the FNN (following existing annual carbon assessments), this region appears to be a sink for CO2. These results highlight that using NCP improved the accuracy of estimating pCO2 (sw) and changes the South Atlantic Ocean from a CO2 sink to a source. Reducing the uncertainties in NCP derived from satellite parameters will ultimately improve our understanding and confidence in quantification of the global ocean as a CO2 sink.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Eun-Jin Lim ◽  
Chang-Gue Son

Abstract Background Because of the absence of biological parameters for fatigue, appropriate instruments for assessing the degree of fatigue are important in the diagnosis and management of people complaining of fatigue-like symptoms. This study statistically analyzed the fatigue scores from two typical questionnaire-based instruments: the Korean version of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-K) and the modified Chalder Fatigue Scale (mKCFQ). Methods Seventy participants (males n  = 40, females n  = 30, median age 48 years old, range of 25–67) were grouped into three groups (‘mild’  = 20, ‘moderate’  = 42, and ‘severe’  = 8) according to self-reported fatigue levels using a 7-point Likert scale. The similarities and differences between two instrument-derived scores were analyzed using correlations (r) and multidimensional scaling (MDS). Results The total scores of the two assessments were significantly correlated (r  = 75%, p  < 0.001), as were the subscores (‘Total Physical fatigue’: r  = 76%, p  < 0.001, ‘Total Mental fatigue’: r  = 56%, p  < 0.001). Relative overestimation of the MFI-K (45.8 ± 11.3) compared to the mKCFQ (36.1 ± 16.2) was observed, which was especially prominent in the ‘mild’ group. The scores of the three groups were more easily distinguished by the mKCFQ than by the MFI-K. In terms of the five dimension scores, we found a higher correlation of the two assessments for ‘general fatigue’ (r  = 79%, p  < 0.001) and ‘physical fatigue’ (r  = 66%, p  < 0.001) than for the reductions in ‘motivation’ (r  = 41%, p  < 0.01) and ‘activity’ (r  = 26%, p  > 0.05). Conclusions Our results may indicate the usefulness of the two instruments, especially for the physical symptoms of fatigue (‘general’ and ‘physical’ fatigue). Furthermore, the MFI-K may be useful for conditions of moderate-to-severe fatigue, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, but the mKCFQ may be useful for all spectra of fatigue, including in subhealthy people.


2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. F. Ribeiro ◽  
V. R. Carvalho ◽  
A. L. Favoreto ◽  
B. R. De Marchi ◽  
C. Jordan ◽  
...  

Abstract Endosymbiont bacteria can affect biological parameters and reduce the effectiveness of natural enemies in controlling the target insect. The objective of this work was to identify endosymbiont bacteria in Anaphes nitens (Girault, 1928) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), the main natural enemy used to manage Gonipterus platensis (Marelli, 1926) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Genomic DNA from six A. nitens populations was extracted and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed with the primers to detect endosymbiont bacteria in this insect. The PCR products were amplified, sequenced, and compared with sequences deposited in the GenBank for the bacteria identification. All A. nitens populations had the bacterium Yersinia massiliensis (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). This bacterium was originally described as free-living, and it is associated with and composes part of the A. nitens microbiota. This is the first report of Y. massiliensis in an insect host.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Sadik Muhammed

The current study aims to compare the relationships of some biological parameters of young grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) fed on artificial diet and alfalfa in earthen ponds. These parameters included length-weight relationship, relative length and weight of the alimentary canal, condition factor and survival rate. Results of lengthweight relationship showed that no significant differences (P>0.05) were recorded for the t-test for the ideal value of 3 for fishes fed on artificial diet or alfalfa plant. The condition factor of young grass carp fed on artificial diet ranged between 0.021 to 1.074, while for fishes fed on alfalfa plant was 0.023 to 1.270 for allometric and Fulton’s condition factor, respectively. Also, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) for fishes fed on both diets in all biological parameters, the relative length of the alimentary canal for fishes fed on artificial diet (1.65) and on alfalfa plant (1.69), while the relative weight of the alimentary canal were 0.0285 and 0.0218 for fishes fed on both diets, respectively. Results also showed that the Zihler coefficient were 7.43 and 7.62, respectively. The survival rate was 100% for both treatments.


Author(s):  
Kareem M. Mousa ◽  
Metwaly M.S. Metwaly ◽  
Mohammed Ali Alshehri ◽  
Samy M. Sayed ◽  
Osama M. Rakha

2021 ◽  
Vol 148 (12) ◽  
pp. 24-31
Author(s):  
Le Thanh Xuan ◽  
Le Thi Nhat Ngoc ◽  
Tran Quang Minh ◽  
Vu Viet Hang ◽  
Pham Thi Van Anh ◽  
...  

The present study aimed to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity of “Phong thap dan” (PTD) tablets through oral administration in experimental animal. The sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by the WHO recommendation in Wistar rats at doses of 0.72 g/kg/day (equal to recommended human dose) and 2.16 g/kg/day (3 times as high as recommended human dose). In the sub-chronic experimental group, the PTD was administered orally daily for 8 consecutive weeks. In the evaluation of sub-chronic toxicity, there were no behavioral and physiological change or sign of toxicity. The result of the hematological and biological parameters after administration of PTD tablets showed no change. The histopathology analysis of livers and kidneys indicated that no significant difference was observed between the exposed and unexposed rat groups. In conclusion, “Phong thap dan” tablets did not produce sub-chronic toxicity in Wistar rats.


2021 ◽  
Vol 148 (12) ◽  
pp. 16-23
Author(s):  
Trinh Thi Thuy Hong ◽  
Le Thanh Xuan ◽  
Tran Quang Minh ◽  
Vu Viet Hang ◽  
Pham Thi Van Anh ◽  
...  

“Kien nao dan” (KND) tablet is composed of 13 traditional medicines that may has preventive and effective treatment of cerebral ischemia. However, there are no scientific reports of its toxicological properties which guarantee of the safety its usage treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity of KND tablet on rats through oral administration. The sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by the recommendation of WHO in Wistar rats at doses of 0.72 g/kg/day (equal to recommended human dose) and 2.16 g/kg/day (3 times as high as recommended human dose) for 8 consecutive weeks. In the evaluation of sub-chronic toxicity, there were no behavioral and physiological changes or signs of toxicity. The result of the hematological and biological parameters after administration of KND tablets showed no change. The histopathologic analysis of livers and kidneys indicated that no significant differences were observed between the exposed and unexposed rat groups. In conclusion, “Kien nao dan” tablets did not produce sub-chronic toxicity in Wistar rats.


Author(s):  
Sergey Kolesnikov ◽  
Аlena Timoshenko ◽  
Tatiana Minnikova ◽  
Tatiana Minkina ◽  
Vishnu D Rajput ◽  
...  

Nanoparticles are increasingly used in many industrial fields because of their special properties. In this context, several questions arise related to possible negative consequences associated with nanoparticle (NPs) entrance into the ecosystem.  The adsorption of NPs by soil can adversely influence its biological properties. In the present article, the influence of Cu, Zn, and Ni NPs on the biological characteristics of Arenosol is considered. Research aimed to study the effect of Cu, Zn, Ni NPs on the biological characteristics of sandy loam chernozem. Copper, Zn, and Ni NPs were added to the soil in concentrations of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. The effect of NPs on the biological properties of Arenosol was evaluated after 10-day incubation. The biological indices of the ecological condition of the soil, including the germination of radish, the length of the roots, the bacteria population, <em>Azotobacter</em> sp. count, the catalase activity, and dehydrogenases were studied. As a result of this study, it was revealed that the degree of indices changes depending on the concentration of Cu, Zn, and Ni NPs in the Arenosols. Microbiological characteristics (bacteria population, and <em>Azotobacter</em> sp. count) and phytotoxic feature (length of roots and radish germination) properties were most sensitive to contamination compared to the enzyme activity of Arenosol. Based on the soil integral index of a biological state, the strongest inhibitory effect on biological parameters of Arenosols relative to the control was exerted by Cu NPs (lower than control by 48-72%), while the greatest stability in Arenosol was found for Ni NPs (lower than control by 30-55%). The studied biological parameters allow characterizing the severity of nanoparticle exposure on Arenosols. Early diagnostics of the severity of soil contamination by NPs can be successfully used to quickly assess their impact on the soil condition and prevent possible adverse consequences.


2021 ◽  
pp. 112763
Author(s):  
Cristina Fuentes ◽  
Samuel Verdú ◽  
Ana Fuentes ◽  
María José Ruiz ◽  
José Manuel Barat

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