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Fire ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 39
Author(s):  
Natalia Flores Flores Quiroz ◽  
Richard Walls ◽  
Antonio Cicione

Informal settlements (ISs) are a high-risk environment in which fires are often seen. In 2019 alone, 5544 IS fires were reported in South Africa. One of the main problems, when investigating an IS fire, is determining the fire cause. In the last 15 years, approximately 40% of the fire causes were classified as ‘undetermined’ in South Africa. Furthermore, the cases where the fire causes have been determined, do not provide the necessary information to comprehend why the fire started. This paper seeks to gain better insight with respect to fire causes by analysing the fire risk perception of IS inhabitants. To this end, a survey that was conducted in 2017, consisting of data from 2178 IS households, that were affected by a large-scale fire, was analysed. The survey consisted of questions relating to the fire risk perception with regards to the settlement in general, to the inhabitants’ own household, and about measures that could reduce fire risk. The analysis suggests that (a) the survey’s risk target had a strong influence on risk perception, (b) the inhabitants’ fire risk perception of their settlement is similar to that of firefighters in previous research, (c) the risk mitigation demands are more focused on decreasing the consequences of the fire than on the occurrence of a fire event, (d) the national fire statistics are not capturing the causes of real fire incidents, and (e) improvements to the documentation process after a fire event could provide critical information for the implementation of prevention measures.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 412
Author(s):  
Vaulin Vladimir Ivanovich ◽  
Singeev Sergey Aleksandrovich

Background: The article presents the results of a study of ensuring fire safety in medical and preventive institutions (LPI) on the example of the central city hospital.Objectives: Research is aimed at improving the fire safety of hospital complexes and hospitals in modern conditions.Materials and Methods: The study used the methods of system analysis of scientific research and statistical data on ensuring fire safety, methods of structural analysis of the practice of ensuring fire safety of hospital complexes, mathematical methods for calculating the evacuation of people from a building and the spread of a fire in a building, methods for calculating the economic efficiency of means of support fire safety.Results and Discussion: Based on the analysis of fire statistics in healthcare facilities in Russia, it is concluded that it is advisable to improve the fire safety of hospitals and hospital complexes in modern conditions. The point of view is expressed that along with the fact that fire safety in hospitals is observed, the analysis indicates the existing problems in the practice of implementation.Conclusion: In order to increase the level of fire safety, it is possible to introduce: a modern fire alarm system; video of control systems and monitoring of safety of objects on the territory of the medical facility; installation of automatic fire extinguishing systems in fire-hazardous premises; installation of additional emergency lighting and reflectors indicating the direction of evacuation in case of fire and smoke; carrying out organizational and practical measures to ensure the safety of patients in a medical institution in an emergency situation (ES), namely, it is proposed to develop a memo of actions for patients in the hospital complex on inpatient treatment in case of an emergency with a list in the instruction log; provision of medical facilities with individual rescue equipment and provision of hospitals and hospital complexes with highrise buildings with modern evacuation means.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 412-417


2021 ◽  
pp. 27-35
Author(s):  
Геннадий Васильевич Боков ◽  
Антон Александрович Назаров ◽  
Денис Геннадьевич Боков

Приведены результаты исследований монтажных проводов электрических шкафов на воспламеняемость под воздействием тока. Выделены три зоны сверхтока, имеющие отличительные особенности появления источника зажигания. Показано влияние изоляции провода на частоту появления воспламенения в местах присоединения его к элементу электрооборудования. Представлены данные о воспламеняемости поливинилхлоридной изоляции в диапазоне пожароопасных значений сверхтока. Предложено характеризовать электрический провод как потенциальный источник зажигания площадью, образованной зависимостью времени воспламенения изоляции в интервале возможных сверхтоков. Wires are widely used for internal installation of electrical cabinets. Number of fire cases caused by wires takes one of the first places in fire statistics. Application of wires in the cabinets has its own fire-prone aspects peculiarities as concerns initiation of electrical nature ignition source. It appears both at single wire laying and at laying in cords where wires touch each other also in connection points of electrical apparatuses and devices located in the cabinet. The article considers issues of ignition source appearance in wires taking into account specifics of their installation in electrical cabinets. Ignition source appearance in a single wire and in wires contacting each other has a difference. There are given experimental data on inflammation frequency of wire insulation material at single wire laying and also at higher resistance in electrical elements connection points. Zones that differ in characteristic features of wire as an ignition source are given in the range of possible overcurrents. Zone A is characterized by insulation ignition with low probability due to low current density that is not enough to heat the wire up to the critical temperature Т, at which thermal decomposition products of wire insulating polymeric cover ignite. Zone B is designated in the range of overcurrent ratio from 2,5 to 18 compared with the long term permissible current value, in which insulation inflammation is observed due to fast conductor heating taking into account the influence of connection points with devices and apparatuses where increased transient resistance is present. It is experimentally confirmed that with the increase in transient resistance at the point of conductor connection with electrical equipment elements, the inflammation frequency of wire insulation increases. At the same time, the overcurrent range where ignition source appears reduces. It is proposed to use the area limited by the dependence of the time before insulation inflammation from the minimum to the maximum current value at which ignition occurs as a characteristic of the wire as an ignition source.


2021 ◽  
pp. 103400
Author(s):  
Yi-xin Luo ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Lian-rui Jiang ◽  
Yi-hao Zhou
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-79
Author(s):  
Youngsam Lee ◽  
Sooho Baek

According to fire statistics analysis of the nation's fire department between 2015–2019, the most common cause of fire was electrical fire. As reported, 47,135 fires were caused by electricity, 22,852 were caused by mechanical causes, and 871 were caused by gas leakages. In this study, the fire adaptability of microcapsulated fire extinguishing agents was tested against small space electrical fires, such as electrical distribution boards. The tests showed that the fire extinguishing agent inside the capsule was released after initial fire contact and the fire of n-heptane was extinguished within 4.48 seconds (on average). Therefore, the KFI small space B-level fire extinguishing test by the Korea Institute of Fire and Industry met the criteria that the fire was extinguished and did not reoccur within 90 s after the end of the preliminary combustion. In addition, this fire extinguisher (agent) dramatically improved the volume of existing cylinder-type fire extinguishers for small spaces. However, there are no national fire safety codes (NFSCs) for this agent. Therefore, it is necessary to enact fire safety standards for this agent for smooth-field applications.


Author(s):  
G.I. Smelkov ◽  
◽  
V.A. Pekhotikov ◽  
A.I. Ryabikov ◽  
A.A. Nazarov ◽  
...  

The relevance of the publication is related to the high fire hazard of lighting products. Based on the analysis of fire statistics in the Russian Federation, it is shown that the lamps occupy the fifth place among all the types of electrical installations in terms of the number of fires, direct material damage from them, as well as the number of people perished. At the same time, the number of fires at storage facilities from electrical equipment for the period 2010–2019 is about 39 %, of which the lamps account for a third of all fires. One of the significant objective reasons for such unfavorable statistics is the large number of luminaires in operation at the facilities, as well as their wide assortment and many types of design on the application area. The article summarizes the experience of recent work carried out in the field of fire hazard research of various types of lamps used for the warehouse lighting in particular, the lamps with fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps, LED lamps and high-pressure gas discharge lamps. The physical and technical causes and possible mechanisms of ignition of these electrical products are shown. As a result of the conducted research on the example of the two most common types of lamps used in the storage facilities (with incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps) a method for calculating the probability of fires from these products is proposed, which is fully consistent with the requirements of the current GOST 12.1.004—91 and becomes particularly relevant in the development of standards regulating fire-fighting requirements for lamps instead of GOST 17677—82, which became invalid in the Russian Federation in 2020.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 119-126
Author(s):  
Seunghyeon Jin ◽  
Hyewon Kim ◽  
Youngjin Kwon ◽  
Donggoo Seo

In Korea, considering that the accuracy of fire scenario evaluation is reduced by performance-based design, it is assumed that the sprinkler does not operate. In other countries, the design continues to be researched considering the operation probability of the sprinkler. In particular, the operation probability that divides the effect after operation is analyzed. Therefore, the operation probability was analyzed by considering the effect of sprinkler operation using domestic fire statistics. As a result, it was found that the probability of successful operation for fire extinguishment was 44%, the success of suppression was 32%, and failure to operate was 24%. As a result of a comparison with data from other countries, the probability of operating, 76%, was lower than that of studies from other countries. When comparing the probability results for successful fire extinguishment, success of suppression, and failure to operate, it was confirmed that the probability of successful suppression was slightly different.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
pp. 117862212110281
Author(s):  
Nieves Fernandez-Anez ◽  
Andrey Krasovskiy ◽  
Mortimer Müller ◽  
Harald Vacik ◽  
Jan Baetens ◽  
...  

Changes in climate, land use, and land management impact the occurrence and severity of wildland fires in many parts of the world. This is particularly evident in Europe, where ongoing changes in land use have strongly modified fire patterns over the last decades. Although satellite data by the European Forest Fire Information System provide large-scale wildland fire statistics across European countries, there is still a crucial need to collect and summarize in-depth local analysis and understanding of the wildland fire condition and associated challenges across Europe. This article aims to provide a general overview of the current wildland fire patterns and challenges as perceived by national representatives, supplemented by national fire statistics (2009–2018) across Europe. For each of the 31 countries included, we present a perspective authored by scientists or practitioners from each respective country, representing a wide range of disciplines and cultural backgrounds. The authors were selected from members of the COST Action “Fire and the Earth System: Science & Society” funded by the European Commission with the aim to share knowledge and improve communication about wildland fire. Where relevant, a brief overview of key studies, particular wildland fire challenges a country is facing, and an overview of notable recent fire events are also presented. Key perceived challenges included (1) the lack of consistent and detailed records for wildland fire events, within and across countries, (2) an increase in wildland fires that pose a risk to properties and human life due to high population densities and sprawl into forested regions, and (3) the view that, irrespective of changes in management, climate change is likely to increase the frequency and impact of wildland fires in the coming decades. Addressing challenge (1) will not only be valuable in advancing national and pan-European wildland fire management strategies, but also in evaluating perceptions (2) and (3) against more robust quantitative evidence.


Author(s):  
Геннадий Георгиевич Гойкалов ◽  
Марина Владимировна Орлова

Рассмотрены актуальные вопросы обеспечения первичных мер пожарной безопасности органами местного самоуправления. Проведен анализ статистики пожаров, нормативных и нормативных правовых документов. Сделан вывод о необходимости их совершенствования. Представлены предложения по изменению и доработке отдельных положений указанных документов. There are considered the actual issues on implementing the basic fire safety measures by local governments. The analysis of fire statistics, as well as normative and normative-legal documents is carried out. The necessity of their improvement is concluded. The proposals to amend and update certain provisions of these documents are provided.


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